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Bibliometrics, Citation And Citation Analysis. Chapter 3: Bibliometrics, Citation and Citation Analysis. Dr. Ranganathan S. R. (1969) coined the 3, term 'Librametry' and Medical 519891659 presented his concept in ASLIB conference held at Leamington Spa. He used the term to include statistical approaches to study library and its services. However, the Love 3, practice of using quantitative method to measure information sources were made even before Dr.
Ranganathan but under different terms or without any particular term but 'Statistical Analysis' was in common use before the term Librametry. Cole and Eales (1917) graphically mapped the literature and called this method of analysis as 'Statistical analysis'. The "hiragana Mnemonics Chart," By Tofugu. Hulme (1923) studied the literature and called it 'statistical bibliography', but the terms were found to 3 be clumsy as it could easily be mistaken. Later the term was coined as bibliometrics by Pritchard (1969). 3.2 Different Terminologies in Use:- Many attempts have been made to define the Certificate Stock Photo | Istock, term bibliometrics and its analogous terms since the Letters - Page, use of the term 'statistical bibliography' by Hulme (1923), and according to him 'the purpose of statistical bibliography is to throw light on Sample Archives - Word the process of written communication and the nature and course of development of a discipline (in so far as this is displayed through written communication) by means of counting and analyzing its various facets of written communication'. Raising (1962), in Love Letters For Her - Page, his article clearly defined the term statistical bibliography as 'the assembling and Sample Archives - Word interpretation of statistics relating to Letters For Her 3 books and periodicals to demonstrate historical movements and to determine national and Letter Ojazlink universal research, use of books and journal, and to ascertain in many local situations the general use of books and journals'. This definition is Love Letters For Her, also treated as one of the Sample Agreements - Word Templates, classical definitions of bibliometrics. The term Bibliometrics was first coined by Pritchard (1969) in preference to existing terminology 'statistical bibliography' as he felt there is fair likelihood to misinterpret it as bibliometrical methods to books and other media of communication'. According to Fairthorne (1969), statistical bibliography was 'Quantitative treatment of properties of recorded discourse and behaviour appertaining to it'.
British Standard Glossary (1976) of documentation explained the term bibliometrics as 'the study of use of documents and patterns of publication in which mathematical and statistical methods have been applied' which is basically similar to Pritchard's original definition of bibliometrics. Letters For Her. Hawkins (1977), in his on-line bibliometrics study interpreted bibliometrics term as 'The quantitative analysis of the bibliographic features of a body of literature'. Sample Agreements Archives Templates. Nicholas and Ritchie (1978), in their books entitled 'Literature on Bibliometrics' opined that bibliometrics provided information about the Love For Her - Page, structure of knowledge and how it is communicated? They further added that bibliometrics studies fall mainly into two broad groups, describing characteristics or features of a literature (descriptive studies) and those examining the relationship formed between the components of literature (behavioural studies). Coupon Pdf Format. More recently Plotter (1981) had defined bibliometrics as 'the study and measurement of the publication patterns of all forms of written communication and their authorship'. Letters For Her 3. Schrader (1981), has also tried to define the term in a more simplified manner and stated that bibliometrics is Free Photo Calendar 2017 Your, 'the scientific study of recorded discourse.' Broadus (1987b) presented a historical overview of various definitions of bibliometrics and proposed an alternative definition for bibliometrics. According to him, bibliometrics is the quantitative study of physically published units or of bibliographic units or of surrogates of either. More explicitly Sengupta (1990), defines the term as 'organization, classification and Love 3 quantitative evaluations along with their authorship by mathematical and statistical calculus'. A more elaborate concept of bibliometrics has been recently explained by Egghe (2000), as 'development and application of mathematical models and Pdf Format | Free techniques to all aspects of communications.' From these definitions it is For Her 3, concluded that statistical bibliography is National Letter Of Intent Form Ojazlink, replaced by bibliometrics and it means study of measurement of the publication patterns of all forms of written communication and their authorship by means of using citation studies.
3.3 What is Bibliometrics? The term 'bibliometrics' was first used by Pritchard (1969) in his article 'Statistical Bibliography or Bibliometrics' published in the 'Journal of For Her - Page Documentation'. 'Biblio' means book and 'Metric' means a scale or measure. Bibliometric means application of statistical studies in library and information science. Calendar Templates 2017 Picture!. According to Pritchard (1969), bibliometrics is defined as 'the application of mathematics and - Page statistical methods to books and other media of Sample - Word communication.' Potter (1981) defines bibliometrics as 'the study and measurement of the publication pattern of all forms of written communication and their author'. In Bibliometrics and Librametry as an Letters For Her - Page 3, area in which studies 'information process and information handling in libraries and information canters by quantitatively analyzing the characteristics and Medical Certificate In Japanese Stock 519891659 behaviour of documents, library staff, and library users.' The study of Love For Her bibliometrics and Librametry include bibliometric distribution, citation analysis, library use studies, etc. It is also a quantitative study of literatures as reflected in bibliographies. Bibliometrics is the use of quantitative analysis and statistics to describe patterns of publication within a given field or body of literature. Bibliometrics is Homemade Coupon Pdf Format | Free, a set of methods to quantitatively analyze scientific and Love technological literature (Bellis 2009). The commonly used bibliometric methods are citation analysis and content analysis. Content analysis or textual analysis is a methodology used in the social sciences for studying the content of communication. Earl Babbie (2010) defines it as the study of recorded human communications, such as books, websites, paintings and laws.
According to Farooq Joubish (2011), content analysis is Coupon Free | Free, considered a scholarly methodology in the humanities by which texts are studied as to authorship, authenticity, or meaning. Later subject includes were philology, hermeneutics, and semiotics. Lasswell (1951, p.525 ) formulated the core questions of content analysis and stated that 'Who says what, to whom, why, to what extent and with what effect? Ole Holsti (1969) offers a broad definition of Letters - Page content analysis as any technique for making inferences by objectively and systematically identifying specified characteristics of messages. Kimberly (2002) offers a six-part definition of content analysis:Content analysis is a summarizing, quantitative analysis of messages that relies on the scientific method (including attention to objectivity, inter subjectivity, a priori design, reliability, validity, generalisability, replicability, and hypothesis testing) and is not limited as to the types of variables that may be measured or the context in which the messages are created or presented. Garfield (1983) and Richard (2010) defined citation analysis as 'the examination of the frequency, patterns, and graphs of citations in articles and books'.
Content analysis uses citations in scholarly works to establish links to other works or other researchers. Citation analysis is one of the most widely used methods of bibliometrics. Martyn (1976), defined citation analysis as, 'Analysis of the citations or references or both which forms of part of the scholarly publication.' According to Baughman (1974), 'Citation study is a systematic enquiry into the structural properties of the literature of the subject' he explains that the Chart," By Tofugu, structure of literature is Letters 3, of a good quality. Bibliometric method is most often used in the field of library and information science; as well it has an equal applicability in other areas also. In fact, in many research fields use of Sample Letter Maker: bibliometric methods is carried out to explore the impact of their field, the impact of a set of researchers, or the impact of a particular paper etc. Bibliometrics are now used in For Her - Page, quantitative research assessment exercises of academic output (Henderson et al 2009). The UK government is considering using bibliometrics as a possible auxiliary tool in its Research Excellence Framework, a process which may assess the quality of the research output of UK universities and on Template Free Download the basis of the assessment results, allocate research funding (http://www.ref.ac.uk/) Bibliometric methods have been used to trace relationships amongst academic journal citations. Citation analysis, which involves examining an item's referring documents, is Love Letters - Page 3, used in searching for materials and analyzing their merit. Citation indices, such as Institute for Scientific Information's Web of Science, allow users to search forward in time from a known article to National Of Intent Form more recent publications which cite the known item.
Today citation analysis tools are easily available to Love Letters For Her - Page 3 compute various impact measures for scholars based on data from citation indices. Sample Archives Templates. These have various applications, from the identification of expert referees to Letters review papers and In Japanese Stock Photo grant proposals, to providing transparent data in support of academic merit review, tenure, and promotion decisions. Nicholas (1978) in his article 'Literature and Bibliometrics' explained the importance of Letters For Her 3 citation analysis and its applications in LIS. He pointed out that information scientists and librarians use citation analysis to quantitatively assess the core journal titles and watershed publications(less used or border lined publications) in particular disciplines; interrelationships between authors from different institutions and schools of thought; and related data about the academia. Some more pragmatic applications of this information includes the planning of retrospective bibliographies, finding the age of material used in a discipline (Half life) , and Ojazlink comparison between use of recent publications versus older ones, comparing the coverage of secondary services which can help publishers gauge their achievements and competition, and can aid librarians in evaluating the effectiveness of their stock. There are also some limitations to the value of citation data. They are often incomplete or biased; data has been largely collected manually (which is expensive), though citation indexes can also be used; incorrect citing of sources occurs continually; thus, further investigation is required to truly understand the rationale behind citing to allow it to be confidently applied. Thus it is revealed that bibliometric method is very useful to analyze the impact of literature in any subject areas and in Love For Her - Page, LIS it is useful to decide the policies for different activities like acquisition, organization, stacking, introduction of Agreements Templates new service, ranking of Love For Her periodicals, half life of literature in any subject discipline formatting and Ojazlink collection development policies and Love related policies etc. 3.4 Laws of Bibliometrics:-
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The mathematical relationship of the number of journals core to the first zone is a constant n and to the second zone the relationship is n. Bradford expressed this relationship as 1 : n : n. Bradford formulated his law after studying a bibliography of geophysics, covering 326 journals in the field. Sample Cancel Vendor Contract Create. He discovered that 9 journals contained 429 articles, 59 contained 499 articles, and 258 contained 404 articles. So it took 9 journals to contribute one-third of the articles, 5 times of Letters 3 9, or 45, to produce the next third, and 5 times 5 times 9, or 225, to produce the Homemade Coupon Free Pdf Format Download | Free, last third. Bradford's Law serves as a general guideline to Letters For Her librarians in determining the number of core journals in any given field. Bradford's Law is not statistically accurate, but it is still commonly used as a general rule of thumb. 3.4.2 What is Citation:- Citation is a reference to – 10+ Free Pdf Format | Free a published or unpublished source (not always the original source).
More precisely, a citation is an abbreviated alphanumeric expression (e.g. Newell84) embedded in the body of an intellectual work that denotes an entry in the bibliographic references section of the - Page, work for the purpose of acknowledging the relevance of the works of others to the topic of discussion at Calendar Templates - Add Your Picture! the spot where the citation appears. Generally the combination of both the in-body citation and the bibliographic entry constitutes what is commonly thought of as a citation (whereas bibliographic entries by Letters 3 themselves are not). A prime purpose of a citation is intellectual honesty to attribute prior or unoriginal work and ideas to the correct sources and to allow the reader to Sample Agreements Archives - Word Templates determine independently whether the referenced material supports the author's argument in the claimed way. 3.4.3 What is Reference:- Reference is derived from Middle English referren, from Middle French rfrer, from Latin referre, to Love Letters For Her 3 carry back, formed from the prefix re- and ferre, to bear. A large number of words derived from this root, including referee, reference, referendum, all retaining the basic meaning of the original Latin as a point, place or source of origin.
A referee is the Free Photo Templates Your Picture!, provider of this source of origin, and a referent is the possessor of the source of origin, whether it is knowledge, matter or energy. Because of its meaning, the word reference is used in every sphere of human knowledge, adopting shades of meaning particular to the contexts in which it is used. References can take on many forms, including: a thought, a sensory perception that is Love For Her 3, audible (onomatopoeia), visual (text), olfactory, or tactile, emotional state, relationship with other, space-time coordinate, symbolic or alpha-numeric, a physical object or an energy projection; but, other concrete and abstract contexts exist as methods of defining references within the scope of the various fields that require an origin, point of The "hiragana Chart," By Tofugu departure, or an original form. This includes methods that intentionally hide the reference from some observers, as in cryptography. Citations are measured to find the different use patterns like author, chronology, geography, subject, forms etc in LIS.
An essential part of research papers, particularly in science is the list of references indicating towards prior publications. Ziman (1968) has rightly indicated 'a scientific paper does not stand alone; it is embedded in the literature of the subject'. Similarly Nann (1976) defines 'A reference is the acknowledgement that one document gives to Love another; a citation is the acknowledgement that one document receives from another'. Medical Certificate In Japanese Photo 519891659. Malin (1968) says 'A citation implies a relationship between a part or the whole of the cited document and a part or the whole of the Love For Her 3, citing document.' From these statements of stalwarts it is very clear that citation has an importance while publishing scientific or research communications. It is must to cite the author from which data is used. The research activity built on citing papers and using previous knowledge. The "hiragana Chart," By Tofugu. The use of citation and its study reveals many concepts useful for developing libraries properly. Love Letters 3. Citation analysis is the area of bibliometrics which deals with the Medical Certificate In Japanese Photo | Istock, study of their relationships which might be useful for bridging research. Weinstock (1974) identified reasons for citing and quoting references in research study as under. 1. Giving homage to pioneers. 2. Giving credit for related works (Homage to Love For Her Press.)
3. Identifying methodology, equipment etc. 4. Providing background reading. 5. Correcting one's own work. 6. Correcting the work of others. 7. Criticizing previous work and Coupon Template Free Pdf Format Download | Free adding quality and innovation.
8. Substantiating claims. 9. Alerting to Love Letters For Her - Page 3 forthcoming work. 10. Providing leads to poorly disseminated or poorly indexed or uncited work. 11.
Authenticating data and classes of Sample Agreements fact-physical constants etc. 12. Identifying original publications in which an idea or concept was discussed. 13. Identifying original publication or other work describing a concept or term (e.g.HODGKIN'S Disease Pareto's Law, Friedel-Crafts reaction etc.) 14.
Disclaiming work or ideas of others. Love Letters For Her - Page 3. (Negative Claims) 15. Disputing priority claims of others. (Negative Homage) Apart from these points references appended in the research study is valid indicator of its significance. The facts stated in the research needs to be supported by Of Intent Ojazlink earlier citations (studies) and Love For Her - Page there is always a relation between citing theses or book or an article indicating similarity of the research. 3.4.4 Importance of Citations:- Ziman (1968), Price (1968), Narin (1976), Marin (1968) had opened that citations plays an important role in research. Father they added that scientific paper or scientific research does not go alone, but it is embedded in the subject of literature, as a reference (citation) which is acknowledgement for the use of Coupon – 10+ Free Download | Free information by the another author who cites in 3, his writing. The relation of cited and citing document stating 'a citation implies relationship between a part or the whole of the cited document and a part or the whole of the citing document.' Citation analysis is the area dealing with the bibliometrics and deals with study of relationship of cited and citing document and such studies are essential to Letter Ojazlink track the Love, scholarly development in any subject field. 3.5 Citation Analysis:- When one author cites another author, a relationship is 519891659 | Istock, established.
Citation analysis uses citations in scholarly works to establish links. Many different links can be ascertained, such as links between authors, between scholarly works, between journals, between fields, or even between countries. Citations both from and to a certain document may be studied. One very common use of citation analysis is to Love For Her - Page determine the impact of a single author on a given field by counting the number of times the author has been cited by others. One possible drawback of this approach is that authors may be citing the single author in a negative context (saying that the By Tofugu, author doesn't know what s/he's talking about Love Letters For Her, (Osareh 1996). 3.5.1 Co-citation Coupling:-
Co-citation coupling is a method used to establish a subject similarity between two documents. If papers A and B are both cited by paper C, they may be said to Sample Archives - Word Templates be related to one another, even though they don't directly cite each other. If papers A and B are both cited by many other papers, they have a stronger relationship. The more papers they are cited by, the stronger their relationship is. 3.5.2 Bibliographic Coupling:-
Bibliographic coupling operates on For Her - Page 3 a similar principle, but in a way it is the mirror image of co-citation coupling. Bibliographic coupling links two papers that cite the same articles, so that if papers A and B both cite paper C, they may be said to be related, even though they don't directly cite each other. The more papers they both cite, the The "hiragana By Tofugu, stronger their relationship is. 3.6 Reasons to conduct Bibliometric Studies:- Historically bibliometric methods have been used to trace relationships amongst academic journal citations. The bibliometric research uses various methods of citation analysis in order to establish relationships between authors or their work.
The Bibliometric studies are conducted to Love Letters identify the The "hiragana Mnemonics, peers, social change and Love For Her 3 the core journal, etc. indexing and Thesaurus, research, formulating search strategies in case of automated system, comparative assessment of the secondary services, Bibliographic control, preparation of retrospective bibliographic and library Management. Collection development includes planning, implementation and evaluation of collections (Baughman, 1977): Planning is to map information needs, to Templates Picture! develop aims and make decisions about priorities. Knowledge about the structure of a subject field and about the information resources used in the field is needed for planning the collection. Bibliometric methods such as citation analysis, bibliographic coupling, co-word analysis and co-citation analysis can be used to map the knowledge structure and the use of literature. Implementation of the collection includes library routines, communication and information provision. A working indexing language, which reflects the Love Letters For Her - Page 3, modern terminology, is needed to Sample Archives organise the Love Letters For Her - Page 3, collection. Knowledge about the important themes in a field gives a base for Medical In Japanese Photo 519891659 | Istock, developing the terminology. These themes are based on the knowledge structure received by bibliometric methods. Collection Evaluation is analysis and assessment of the collection according to its aim and functions. Different bibliometric methods such as citation analysis, analysis of the scattering of articles to journals and analysis of the obsolescence of literature are used for this purpose.
Application of bibliometric research identified by Wallace (1989), indicated that the use is for developing libraries. - Improving the bibliographic control of literature. - Identifying a core literature especially journals. - Classifying a literature. - Tracing the spread of ideas and growth of Letters For Her 3 a literature. - Improving the efficiency of information handling services.
- Predicting publishing trends and needs. - Describing patterns of book use by patrons. - Developing and evaluating library collections. 3.7 Strengths of Bibliometrics as a Research Approach:- Bibliometric studies are useful and have a quantitative base. The method helps analysis status and strength is in: ' Methods are objective and repeatable. ' Results have a wide range of potential practical value.
' Does not require human subject interaction. ' High reliability in data that are collected unobtrusively, from the Agreements - Word, published record, and can be easily replicated by others. 3.7.1 Limitations of bibliometrics as a research approach:- Following few limitations of the study are observed by. Results are only valid to Love - Page 3 extent that citations are assumed to represent significant link between citing and cited documents. ' Technical issues related to data obtained from Sample Letter Cancel Maker: Create, citation indexes and Love bibliographies. ' Variations and misspelling of author names, authors with same name, incomplete coverage of Agreements - Word Templates non-English publications. 3.8 Application of Bradford's Law in Library and Information Science Research:- Bradford's law is used to solve problems in journal collection management as well as resource development in any libraries.
The basic concept is to Letters 3 conduct Bradford analyses of Letter Of Intent Form | Docoments journals i.e. to sort the journals in Bradford zones and thus identify which belong to the core and which does not. Any Bradford analysis involves three steps. 1. Identify many or all items (usually articles) published in this field; 2. List the Love - Page 3, sources (usually journals) that publish the articles (or items) in rank order beginning with the source that produces the most items; 3. While retaining the order of the sources, divide this list into National Letter Of Intent | Docoments, groups (or zones) so that the number of items produced by each group of Love Letters sources is about the same. The 'most obvious potentials' of Bradford analyses are: ' Defining the core. ' The law of diminishing returns. ' Calculation of cost based on various coverage. ' Setting priorities among journals. Bradford's law is used to Letter Of Intent Ojazlink solve practical problems related to information seeking and retrieval. An automatic option for sorting the output from online searches of Love journal literature, which he argued would help online users. 'Computerized sorting of hits by the journals in which they appear, and Agreements Archives Templates then of journals, high to low, by the number of hits appearing in Love Letters For Her 3, each'.
Special libraries and information officers make good use of Medical Certificate In Japanese Stock 519891659 data generated using bibliometric techniques in selecting and maintaining collections of the most needed serials. Bradford's law, Lotka's law, Zipf's law, and citation analysis have contributed to the effective operation of special libraries' From the various studies it is Letters For Her - Page, analysed major thrust areas of research in Library and Homemade Coupon Template | Free Information Science are using application of Love 3 bibliometrics and Mnemonics By Tofugu the reasons are: 1. Identify the quantum and - Page structure literature on a specific subject during a particular period. 2. Examine the growth literature output in a subject during a period of time. 3. Homemade Coupon Template Download | Free. Identify the source and country-wise distribution of research literature in Love - Page, a particular subject. 4. Sample Letter Cancel Contract | Resume Create. Compare and measure the growth rate of literature on Love For Her 3 a particular subject in various countries. 5. Analyze the authorship pattern of literature on a particular subject published from various countries.
6. Analyze the degree of single versus multiple author publication and Medical In Japanese 519891659 | Istock study the trend in Love For Her - Page 3, authorship pattern. 7. Apply Lotka's authorship productivity concepts on Photo Calendar - Add Picture! the frequency distribution of Love For Her authorship productivity. 8. Track the development of research literature on a particular subject and its language of publication during the Medical Certificate Stock Photo 519891659, period of coverage and analyze the trend in - Page, the language of Stock | Istock publication. 9. Study the language of the publication in the context of quantum of pages. 10. Love Letters For Her - Page. Study the Letter Of Intent Form | Docoments, frequency distribution of applications in the context of Love For Her country-wise breakdown. 11. Analyze quantitatively the annual literature output on a specific subject. 12. Identify the variety of research publication on a particular subject.
13. Analyze the Agreements Templates, trend among the Love, various types of publication. The recent developments and methods used and developed the techniques: 3.8.1 The impact factor:- The impact factor, often abbreviated as IF, is a measure reflecting the average number of citations to articles published in science and social science journals. It is frequently used as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal within its field. In case of Template Pdf Format | Free journals with higher impact factors deemed to be more important than those of lower ones.
The impact factor was devised by Eugene Garfield, the founder of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), now part of Thomson Reuters. Impact factors are calculated yearly for those journals that are indexed in Thomson Reuters Journal Citation Reports and listed in . In a given year, the impact factor of a journal is the average number of citations received per paper published in that journal during the two preceding years.[ For example, if a journal has an impact factor of 3 in 2008, then its papers published in 2006 and 2007 received 3 citations each on average in 2008. The 2008 impact factor of a journal would be calculated as follows, 2008 impact factors are actually published in 2009; they cannot be calculated until all of the Love Letters - Page 3, 2008 publications have been processed by the indexing agency. A = the number of Template – 10+ Free Download | Free times articles published in 2006 and 2007 were cited by indexed journals during 2008. B = the total number of citable items published by that journal in 2006 and Love 3 2007. (Citable items are usually articles, reviews, proceedings, or notes; not editorials or Letters-to-the-Editor.) 2008 impact factor = A/B. If is used by many libraries as a tool for selecting Journals for subscription, similarly researcher try to contribute in Medical Certificate In Japanese Stock, using it journals for credits. For Her - Page 3. New journals, which are indexed from their first published issue, will receive an impact factor after two years of indexing; in this case, the citations to the year prior to Volume 1, and the number of articles published in the year prior to Volume 1 are known zero values.
Journals that are indexed starting with a volume other than the Sample Letter Cancel Vendor Contract, first volume will not get an impact factor until they have been indexed for three years. - Page 3. Annuals and other irregular publications sometimes publish no items in a particular year, affecting the count. The impact factor relates to a specific time period; it is possible to calculate it for any desired period, and the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) also includes a 5-year impact factor. The JCR shows rankings of journals by impact factor, by discipline such as organic chemistry or psychiatry. The terminology used later and becomes popular is Infometrics which covers: The h-index is an Sample Archives Templates, index that attempts to measure both the productivity and impact of the published work of a scientist or scholar.
The index is based on the set of the scientist's most cited papers and the number of citations that they have received in other publications. The index can also be applied to the productivity and Love 3 impact of a group of scientists, such as a department or university or country. National Letter Of Intent. The index was suggested by Jorge E. Hirsch, a physicist, as a tool for determining theoretical physicists' relative quality and is sometimes called the Hirsch index or Hirsch number. The h-index can be manually determined using citation databases or using automatic tools. Subscription-based databases such as Scopus and the Web of Knowledge provide automated calculators. Harzing's (2011) Publish or Perish program calculates the h-index based on Google Scholar entries. In July 2011 Google trialed a tool which allows a limited number of scholars to keep track of Letters For Her - Page their own citations and also produces a h-index and an i10-index (Google Scholar Blog, 2011), the Medical 519891659 | Istock, I10 index indicates the number of academic papers an author has written that have at least ten citations from others.
It was introduced in July 2011 by Google as part of their work on Google scholar. Love. A search engine dedicated to academic and related papers. Each database is likely to Pdf Format | Free produce a study different h for the same scholar, because of different coverage: Google Scholar has more citations than Scopus and Web of Science but the smaller citation collections tend to be more accurate. In addition, specific databases, such as the Stanford Physics Information Retrieval System (SPIRES) can automatically calculate h-index for Letters 3, researchers working in High Energy Physics. Infometrics is the study of quantitative aspects of Sample Letter Cancel Vendor Contract Create information. This includes the production, dissemination and use of all forms of information, regardless of its form or origin. As such, infometrics encompasses the Letters, fields of. ' Scientometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of science; ' Webometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of the Homemade – 10+ Download, World Wide Web; ' Cybermetrics, which is similar to Letters - Page 3 webometrics, but broadens its definition to Free Calendar Templates Picture! include electronic resources; ' Bibliometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of recorded information.
Scientometrics and webometrics are the latest methods. Scientometrics covers quantitative fashion of the development of science and of the mechanism of scientific research. ' Emphasizes investigations in which the development of science and of the mechanism of Letters For Her scientific research is studied by means of (statistical) mathematical methods. ' Publishes original studies, short communications, preliminary reports, review papers, letters to the editor and book reviews on scientometrics. ' Includes the Journal of Research Communication Studies.
Scientometrics is concerned with the quantitative features and characteristics of science and scientific research. Emphasis is placed on investigations in which the development and mechanism of science are studied by statistical mathematical methods. The journal publishes original studies, short communications, and Mnemonics By Tofugu preliminary reports, and review papers, letters to the editor and Love - Page book reviews on scientometrics. Due to its fully interdisciplinary character, the journal is indispensable to research workers and Medical | Istock research administrators. It provides valuable assistance to librarians and documentalists in central scientific agencies, ministries, research institutes and laboratories. Scientometrics includes the Journal of Research Communication Studies. Consequently its aims and scope cover that of the latter, namely, to bring the results of such investigations together in one place. Bibliometrics and scientometrics are two closely related approaches to Love - Page 3 measuring scientific publications and science in general, respectively. In practice, much of the work that falls under this header involves various types of citation analysis, which looks at how scholars cite one another in publications. This data can show quite a bit about networks of scholars and scholarly communication, links between scholars, and the development of areas of knowledge over Free Calendar Templates - Add Your Picture!, time. Bibliometrics are also one of the Love Letters For Her 3, key ways of measuring the impact of scholarly publications.
If an article is published in a journal with a high impact factor, which is National Letter, determined in part by the number of citations to articles within a particular journal, this raises the publishing profile of the author. For Her 3. The number of citations to that article over time is also a key measure of the productivity and the impact of that scholar. These techniques are very well developed for traditional citations among journal articles, but are much less clear for new types of outputs, including data sets, websites, and digitized collections. For items such as these, when researchers have used the materials to support their publications, they often don't have clear methods available to them to cite the material. Many of the style guides do not have clear guidance for how to cite a database, for instance, or whether to cite a digitized resource in a way to identify its digital location, or that cites the original item, whether or not the researcher actually consulted it. 3.9.2 Webometrics (Cyber metrics):- The concept of webometrics is based on bibliometrics, because like the bibliometrics study, one can measure the different quantitative aspect of the Sample Cancel Vendor Contract, web in webometrics study. Secondly it is based on Infometrics. The Infometrics study is such type of study, which measures the quantitative aspect of any type of information and through webometrics study one can get the Love For Her, information about web (web site). That's why the above phrase is Certificate Photo 519891659 | Istock, used. The science of webometrics (also Cyber metrics) tries to measure the World Wide Web to get knowledge about the number and types of hyperlinks, structure of the World Wide Web and usage patterns.
According to Love Letters For Her - Page 3 Bjrneborn and Ingwersen (2004), the definition of Chart," By Tofugu webometrics is the study of the Letters 3, quantitative aspects of the construction and use of information resources, structures and technologies on the Web drawing on bibliometric and Infometrics approaches. The term webometrics was first coined by Agreements Templates Almind and Ingwersen (1997). A second definition of webometrics has also been introduced as the study of Love web-based content with primarily quantitative methods for social science research goals using techniques that are not specific to one field of Template – 10+ Download study (Thelwall, 2009), which emphasizes the development of Letters - Page 3 applied methods for use in the wider social sciences. The purpose of this alternative definition was to help and publicize appropriate methods outside the – 10+ Download | Free, information science discipline rather than to replace the original definition within information science. Similar scientific fields are bibliometrics, infometrics, scientometrics, virtual ethnography, and web mining. Letters 3. One relatively straightforward measure is the Web Impact Factor (WIF) introduced by Ingwersen (1998). The WIF measure may be defined as the number of web pages in a web site receiving links from other web sites, divided by the number of In Japanese Photo 519891659 web pages published in the site that are accessible to the crawler. Love Letters For Her. However the use of WIF has been disregarded due to the mathematical artifacts derived from power law distributions of these variables. Other similar indicators using size of the institution instead of number of web pages have been proved more useful. – 10+ Pdf Format Download | Free. There is one electronic journal, Cyber metrics published since 1997 by Letters For Her - Page 3 the Spanish National Research Council that is devoted entirely to this discipline.
Cyber metrics is a branch of knowledge which employs mathematical and statistical techniques of quantity web sites or their components and Homemade Coupon Template Free concepts, measure their growth, stability, propagation, and use examines the Love Letters - Page, authenticity of content, establish laws governing these factors, studies the efficiency of Of Intent Form | Docoments cyber information services and systems, services and products and assesses the Love 3, impact of cyber age on Photo 519891659 | Istock society. Citations in scholarly works are used to establish links to other works. It is one of the most widely used methods of bibliometrics and Love Letters - Page 3 studies reference to and from documents Gooden (2001). The benefit of bibliometrics and citation analysis is expressed by Van Raan (2003), which is reinforced by the studies (Lal and Panda, 1996, Aksnes 2006) that have used this method of research enquiry to evaluate a library collection. Citation analysis reveals interesting information about Certificate In Japanese Stock Photo 519891659 | Istock, knowledge producers in terms their information seeking behaviour and usage of various information sources. It can highlight the familiarity, awareness and usage of knowledge producers regarding the online and Letters For Her 3 print information sources.
Citation analysis examines the Cancel Maker:, frequency, patterns and graphs of citations in articles and books (Garfield, 1983). This chapter satisfy the objective set for the study i.e. Love Letters For Her 3. 'To study the Photo Calendar Templates 2017 Your Picture!, significance of citations as well as citation study and bibliometrics'. This chapter elaborates the detailed study of citations, reference, need of citation study and laws etc. ' Aksnes, D.W. (2006), Citation rates and perceptions of scientific contribution. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 57(2), p.169-185. ' Bellis, De Nicola (2009).
Bibliometrics and Letters For Her - Page 3 citation analysis: from the Science citation index to Cybermetrics. Scarecrow Press, p.417. Stock Photo 519891659. ISBN 0-8108-6713-3. Located at http://books.google.com/books/about/Bibliometrics_and_citation_analysis.html?id=ma4YjaKyM9cC accessed on 23.08.2011. ' Bhughman J C (1974), A structural analysis of the Love Letters - Page 3, literature of sociology, Library Quarterly, Vol. 44 (Oct), p.293-308. ' Birger Hjrland and Jeppe Nicolaisen 'Bradford's Law of Scattering: Ambiguities in the Concept of Subject Royal School of Library and Medical Certificate Photo 519891659 Information Science, Birketinget 6, DK-2300 Copenhagen S., Denmark @db.dk.
' Bradford, S.C. Sources of information on specific subjects. Engineering, 1934, 137 (3550), p.85-86. ' British Standards Institution. British standards of documentation terms. BSI; London; 1976, p.7.
' Broadus R N (1987a), early approaches to bibliometrics, journal of the For Her - Page 3, American society for information science, 38, p.127-129. ' Cole, F J and Calendar Templates Your Eales Nellie B (1917), the history of comparative anatomy: a statistical analysis of the For Her - Page, literature, Science Progress (11), p.578-596. ' Earl Babbie (2010), the Form | Docoments, practice of Love For Her - Page 3 social research, 10th edition, Wadsworth, Thomson Learning Inc., ISBN 0-534-62029-9. ' Egghe L (2000), Lectures Potter, W G (1981) Introduction to Bibliometrics. Library Trends Vol 30, p.5. ' Egghe L (2000).
A heuristic study of the first-citation distribution. Scientometrics 48(3), p.345-359. ' Fairthorne, R. A. (1969), Empirical hyperbolic distributions (Bradford-Zipf-Mandelbrot) for bibliometric description and prediction, Journal of Documentation, 25, p.319'343. ' Fairthrone R A (1969), Empirical hyperbolic distributions for bibliometric description and prediction, Journal of Documentation, 25, p.319. ' Farooq Joubish and Ashraf Khurram (2011), outlook on some concepts in the curriculum of social studies, World Applied Science Journal 12(9), p.1374-1377. ISSN 1818-4952. ' Garfield, E (1974), Citation Indexing: Its theory and application in science, Technology and Coupon Template Download | Free Humanities, New York, Wiley, ' Garfield, E. (1983). Citation Indexing - Its Theory and Application in Science, Technology and Humanities. Philadelphia: ISI Press. Retrieved November 4, 2011 from Located at http://garfield.library.upenn.edu/ci/contents.pdf. accessed on 12.04.2011. ' Garfield, E.(1983) Citation Indexing - Its Theory and Application in Science, Technology and 3 Humanities Philadelphia's Press.
' Gooden, A.M. (2001). Citation analysis of chemistry doctoral dissertations: An Ohio State University case study. Retrieved October 13, 2008 Located at http://www.istl.org/01-fall/refereed.html accessed on 27.12.2011. ' Google scholar blog (2011), Google scholar citations open to all, Google. Located at http//en.wikipedia.ogr/wiki/I10-index accessed on 03.09.2011. ' Hawkins D T (1977), Unconventional uses of on-line information retrieval system on line British metric studies. Journal of American society for information science, 28(1), p.13-18. ' Henderson, M., Shurville, S. and Fernstrom, K. (2009). The quantitative crunch: the impact of bibliometric research quality assessment exercises on academic development at small conferences, Campus-Wide Information Systems, Vol 26, No. 3, p.149'167. ' Henderson, M., Shurville, S. and Fernstrom, K. (2009).
The quantitative crunch: the impact of Template – 10+ Free Pdf Format Download | Free bibliometric research quality assessment exercises on academic development at small conferences, Campus-Wide Information Systems, Vol 26, No. 3, p.149'167. ' Higher Education Funding Council for England, Located at Love For Her 3 http://www.hefce.ac.uk/Research/ref/. and http://www.ref.ac.uk/ accessed on 12th May 2012. ' Hjreppe, P (1982), Supplement to bibliography bibliometrics and citation indexing, 4, p.241-273. ' Hjreppe, R (1980), a bibliography of bibliometrics an dictation indexing and analysis, Royal institute of Cancel Vendor Contract | Resume Create Technology library, Stockholm, Sweden. Located at http://www.gslis.utexas.edu/ palmquis/courses/biblio.html#Laws and http://www.netugc.com/librametric-bibliometric-scientometrics-informetrics accessed on 25.08.2012. ' Hulme, E.W. (1923), Statistical Bibliography in Letters For Her 3, Relation to the Growth of Modern Civilization, Grafton, London. p9. ' Kannappanavar, B U (1991), Citation analysis of the doctoral dissertation in library and information science accepted by the universities in Karnataka, Karnataka University, Dharwad, p. 88. (Ph. D Thesis) ' Lal, A., Panda, S (1996). Research in plant pathology: A bibliometric analysis.
Library Science with a Slant to Documentation and Information Studies, 33(3), p.135-147. ' Lasswell Harold (1951), the analysis of political behavior: An empirical approach, Rautledge, London, p.525. ' Lotka A J (1926), the frequency distribution of scientific productivity, Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, Vol. The "hiragana Mnemonics Chart,". 16 (12), p.317-323. ' Malin M V (1968), the science citation index: A new concept in Indexing, Library trends, Vol.
16, p. 376. ' Martin, M U (1968), Science citation index: A new concept in Love For Her 3, indexing, Library Trends, Vol. 16, p.376. ' Martyn L A (1976), Use studies in library planning, Library Trends 24(30). ' Nann F et al (1976), Evaluative bibliometrics: The use of publications and National Letter Of Intent Ojazlink citation analysis in Love 3, the evaluation of scientific activity, cherry Hill, N J, Computer Horizon Inc, p.334-337. ' Narin, Francis and et. Al. (1976), evaluative bibliometrics: the use of publication and citation analysis in the evaluation of scientific activity, Cherry Hill, New Jercy, Computer Horizon Inc. p.334-337. ' Neuendorf, Kimberly A. (2002), the Content Analysis Guidebook Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. ' Nicholas, David and Maureen Ritchie (1978), Literature and Bibliometrics London: Clive Bingley, p.28-29.
' Nicholas, David and Maureen Ritchie (1978). Literature and Bibliometrics London: Clive Bingley, p.12-28. ' Ole R. Holsti (1969(, Content Analysis for the Social Sciences and Humanities. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. ' Potter W G (1981), Introduction to bibliometrics, Library Trends, Vol. 30, p.5. ' Pritchard A (1969), Statistical bibliography an interim bibliography, New Western Polytechnic school of Librarianship, London. ' Pritchard A (1969), statistical bibliography; an interim bibliography, North-western polytechnic, school of Librarianship, p.60. ' Pritchard, A and Witting, G R (1960), Bibliometrics: A bibliography and index (1874-1959), Aaih Books, Westford, ' Raising L (1962), Statistical bibliography in the health sciences, Bulletin the medical library Association, 50, p.450-461.
' Ranganathan S. R. (1969) Librametry and its scope. Templates 2017 Your. DRTC Seminar (7) paper DA Bangalore: DRTC, ISI and Sarada Ranganathan Endowment of Library Science. Letters - Page 3. Reprinted in : JISSI : The International Journal of Scientometrics and Infometrics; Vol.1, No.1 (1995), p.15-21. (ISSN-0971-6696) ' Rubin, Richard (2010). Foundations of By Tofugu library and information science (3rd ed.). New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers. ISBN 978-1-55570-690-6. Accessed at http://books.google.com/books?id=Pk1TSAAACAAJ accessed on 09.02.2012. ' Von Sara Ungern-Sternberg Applications in teaching bibliometrics, PhD, Senior lecturer, Abo Akademi University, Department of Library and Information Science, FINLAND.
' Schrader, Alvin M. (1981) Teaching Bibliometrics, Library Trends 30, p.151-172. ' Sengupta I N (1990), Bibliometrics and Love Letters - Page 3 its application in information science and libraries, Atlantic, New Delhi, p.256. ' Swapna Kumar Patra and Prakash Chand (2006), 'Library and Information science Research in India: a Bibliometric Study' Annals of Library and Information Studies, Vol 53, December, p.219-223. ' Van Raan, A.F.J. Medical Certificate In Japanese 519891659. (2003). - Page. The use of bibliometric analysis in Sample Agreements Archives, research performance assessment and monitoring of interdisciplinary scientific developments. Technikfolgenabschatzung, Theories und Praxis/ Technology Assessment- Theory and Practice, 12(1), p.20-29. ' Weinstock M (1974), Citation Index, Encyclopedia of library and information science, Vol.5, New York, Dekker, p.19. ' Ziman John M (1968), Public knowledge: An essay concerning the social dimension of science, Cambridge, Cambridge university press, p.58. ' Zipf, G. Love Letters For Her. K. (1949) 'Human Behavior and the Principle of Least Effort' Reading, MA: Addison- Wesley Publishing co, p.34. Chapter 4: Progress of Education and Research in Medical Certificate In Japanese Stock Photo 519891659 | Istock, LIS. Chapter/ Section Description Pages.
4.1 Introduction 104. 4.2 LIS Education : Global Overview 104. 4.3 Library and Information Science Education in India 105. 4.4 Historical Development 107. 4.5 Present Scenario of LIS Education in Love Letters - Page, India 108. 4.6 Objectives of Library and Free Photo Calendar 2017 Your Picture! Information Science Education 109. 4.7 Levels of Education 110. 4.8 First Course of Library Science in India (Certificate, Diploma and Training Courses) 112. 4.9 Post Graduate Diploma Courses 113.
4.10 Degree Courses 114. 4.11 Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC) 114. 4.12 Five Year Integrated Course in LIS 115. 4.13 Present Status of Letters - Page LIS Education in India 115. 4.14 Specialization 116. 4.15 Syllabus 116. 4.16 ICT as an Integral Part 116. 4,17 Practical Exposure 117.
4.18 Problems with Present LIS Education and Research 117. 4.19 LIS Research in India 117. 4.20 LIS Research: Global Overview 119. 4.21 Research Trend in Indian Universities 128. Chapter 4: Progress of Education and Research in LIS.
Higher education in each country has its own unique form of system and varies from streams or branches of knowledge. Higher education is imparted by universities and in colleges having equal facilities. Academics in higher education plays an important role in Mnemonics, making the society strong as stated different policies are adopted in different countries similarly LIS is a specific subject discipline which support in all educational branches through library systems. Schools of For Her 3 library science provide useful professional education universally and develop library and information professionals to manage the libraries efficiently. Sample - Word Templates. The LIS schools have more emphasis towards developing technical and managerial skills through the LIS education. Following paragraphs briefly narrated the status of LIS education. 4.2 LIS Education: Global Overview: Tsuji et al (2006), pointed out it in his study that the Love 3, main theme in Sample - Word, LIS education Japan was developed qualified librarians (Shisho) and assistant librarians (Shisho-ho) for public libraries and as well as qualified teacher librarian (shisho-kyouyu) for school libraries. There is no formal education system for 3, academic and special libraries. In education field life line learning, library management, information reference service, information retrieval, library organization, copy right, information literacy etc. were more focused. Wilson (2012), in Sample Agreements - Word Templates, his article 'Fifty years of - Page LIS education' in USA and conducted a survey of research productivity and LIS educators during the National Form | Docoments Ojazlink, period 1959-2008.
Author narrated the progress of LIS education in USA and stated that prior to 1960s practicing librarians were teaching LIS education according to syllabus and Letters For Her - Page examination conducted by Free Templates 2017 - Add Your Picture! library associations and similar status was also in Australia and Library Association Australia (now Australia library and information association (ALIA) was taking care of the education system.. Latter LIS education moved to higher education institute since 1980. Chu (2006) in his paper 'Curricula of LIS programs in the USA: A content analysis' in Love For Her 3, which the Sample Agreements, syllabi was reviewed by author from 45 ALA accredited LIS master programs in USA. This study brought to the notice that more elective courses offered in LIS education in USA, while number of core requirement is reduced to few. Author has also pointed that 10% of the Letters For Her - Page 3, LIS courses in USA are designed in such a way to deal will emerging subject and latest development in The "hiragana Chart,", the field of LIS. Thus subjects covered in the syllabus deals with knowledge organization, reference and information sources services, management, research in LIS, ICT, collection development, information use etc. As indicated by author in USA education system is giving more emphasis on elective subject like ICT, librarianship, resources and services, technical services etc. to manage latest situation. Now LIS courses clusters were introduced, which covers: - Information seeking behaviour. - Digital publishing etc. 4.3 Library and Letters 3 Information Science Education in India:- LIS education in India is completing a century of its existence during the period progress have been achieved in developing LIS education to tune with current practices.
Radhakrishanan Commission, Kothari Commission, National Knowledge Commission, UGC, NAAC put more efforts in Medical Stock Photo | Istock, education sector including LIS by establishing advisory commission for libraries, national policy for library etc. Curriculum Development Commission (CDC) continues grading and upgraded of LIS education in India. The progress from certificate courses to research level through regular and distance mode took leading developing education in India (Joshi, 2010). There has been enormous growth in education and Love For Her 3 higher education around the globe. Every country worth its name and has developed a system of education and infrastructure to educate its people, and Template Free Pdf Format Download | Free India is no exception. There has been a fast growth in institution of higher education since the dawn of twentieth century and more particularly, after India attained independence in 1947. The new India started its development program to achieve the new educational, cultural and economic objectives at the national level. Such developments at these institutions contributed to Love - Page 3 the development of more libraries, which in turn had to Sample Archives Templates accept new responsibilities to meet society's changing needs and demands. Libraries are recognized to play an important role in education, scientific research and social-economic development of a country. This envisages the Love For Her, need for Free 2017 Your, professionally qualified personnel to Letters - Page manage and Sample Cancel Vendor | Resume run the libraries and information centres effectively and efficiently.
In order to feed the growing number of libraries, more trained library professionals were needed. Love Letters. For this purpose, library science departments started springing up, and library science developed into a distinct field of specialization with its own normative principles, theories, techniques, and practices that were deemed sufficient to meet the growing dimensions of library services. Handling of recorded knowledge in modern libraries has given birth to the functional aspects of collecting, organizing and promoting the use of reading materials relevant to the users through information transfer activities. These activities, no doubt, assist in defining the spectrum of studies for librarianship. The basic tenet of LIS education is to Letter Of Intent Form | Docoments provide balanced training, integrating theory with practical exercises, and to cover all aspects of professional work with equal emphasis embracing new frontier of librarianship. LIS education aims at providing trained manpower to manage different types of libraries, information and documentation centres which, over Love Letters - Page, a period of Sample Letter Vendor Maker: time have undergone changes in terms of needs, functions, types and range of services offered as well as tools and techniques being used when offering the services. Research in library and Love - Page 3 information science in India is not deep rooted. Medical In Japanese Photo | Istock. In the beginning it was in For Her - Page, the form of a trial and error method. It was Padamashree S R Ranganathan (1889-1972) father of library science who lifted trail librarianship to the level of a science with the formulation of laws of library science, and establishment library schools and research centres. He even graded them as normative principles, fundamental laws, canons, principles and postulates. Ranganathan cut new grounds and blazed new practices in library and information science initially by solo research.
This is Homemade Coupon Template – 10+ Free Pdf Format Download, evidence from the published literature that Ranganathan era's is characterized by a period of intellectual contribution to the library and information science, particularly library classification. The root of the library and information science research in India were off shoots from the country first LIS intellectual workshop (i.e., Department of Library and Information Science, University of Delhi) instituted by Dr S R Ranganathan a day of library science profession in India in 1946. The first research degree in the library and information science in the country and Love Letters For Her - Page 3 even in the commonwealth countries was awarded by the University of Delhi in 1957 to D B Krishna Rao for his thesis 'Facet Analysis and Agreements Archives Templates Depth Classification of - Page Agriculture' under the supervision of Photo Templates 2017 - Add Your Dr. S R Ranganathan. 4.4 Historical Development:- The modern period in the history of education for librarianship began in the mid-1800s as librarians around the For Her, world recognized that systematic education and training were required so that proper order could be brought to the collections that had been growing in all libraries.
The need for professionally qualified personnel to manage these libraries effectively and efficiently was duly recognized during the first half of the Agreements Archives Templates, present and consequently, the library education programme had been started at several places much before Independence. The history of the education of library science in India may be traced far back as the year of Letters For Her 3 1911 with the starting of a short term training programme in library science in Photo Calendar Templates, the Baroda State, under the patronage of Maharaja Sayajirao Gaikwad of Letters For Her 3 Baroda, who, impressed by the splendid work done by public libraries in Agreements - Word, the West, secured the services of an American librarian Mr. W. A. Borden as Director of the Love For Her - Page, State Library Department. Mr. Bordon had been a pupil of Agreements Archives - Word Templates Mr. Melvil Dewey, who established the first library school in For Her - Page, the Columbia College, New York in 1887. Chart,". In 1915, another student of Dewey, Mr. Letters - Page 3. A Dickenson, the then librarian of Punjab University, Lahore started a three months apprentice training programme for working librarians. Photo Calendar 2017 Your Picture!. Before Independence, only five universities namely the Andhra University, Banaras Hindu University, Calcutta University and Madras University were offering diploma course in library science. Library education was given a new status and design by Professor S. Love Letters - Page. R. Ranganathan in 1920, when the first systematic programme in library education was started under the auspices of the Homemade Coupon Free | Free, Madras Library Association in collaboration with the Madras University. This library school was subsequently taken over by the Madras University in Love Letters For Her 3, 1931 and in 1937 the course was converted into Postgraduate (PG) Diploma in Library Science.
This was the first diploma programme in Library Science in India. University of Delhi was the first university to establish a full-fledged Department of Library Science just before independence in 1946, and started admitting students to the PG Diploma in 1947. In 1951, the diploma was changed to Master in Library Science (M.Lib.Sc). Homemade Coupon Template – 10+ Pdf Format. Later, between 1956 to 1959, six new LIS departments were established at Aligarh Muslim University, M.S.University of Baroda, Nagpur University, Osmania University, Pune University and Vikram University. Love For Her. Since 1960s, the number of LIS departments has continued to Certificate In Japanese Stock 519891659 increase. After Independence the stimulus for the growth and development of libraries and library science education has come from the progress in and extension of education, scientific research and For Her programmes of socio-economic development which started in 1951 with the commencement of the First Five-Year Plan. As a result of these developments, Library and Information Science today is a well-recognized discipline of study and research at the post-graduate level in more than hundred universities in the country. Medical Certificate In Japanese Stock Photo 519891659 | Istock. The Baroda and Nagpur universities started training course in library science in For Her 3, 1956 and the Vikram University in 1957. 4.5 Present scenario of LIS Education in India:- Since its inception decades ago, LIS education has grown and developed into National Letter Of Intent | Docoments, a full-fledged multi-disciplinary subject.
LIS courses at bachelors, masters and research level are being impacted by different institutions ' university departments, colleges, library associations and Love For Her specialized institutions. There are now 96 universities in India imparting Library and Information Science education as independent departments in Free Photo Calendar 2017 - Add Picture!, different levels. The list is shown in appendix. Apart from these departments, there are also specialized RD organizations imparting library and information science education. Worth mentioning is the two years Associateship in Documentation and Information Science (ADIS) imparted by Documentation Research and Training Institute (DRTC), Indian Statistical Institute, Bangalore (Karnataka) and National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR) formerly INSDOC, New Delhi which is equivalent to Mater degree of Letters For Her - Page Library and Information Science (LIS). In addition to, these universities/departments there are several other open universities imparting library education as distance education. The professional associations such as Delhi Library Association (DLA) and the polytechnic institutions throughout the country are also imparting LIS education as lower level such as Certificate/Diploma in Library and Information Science. With the realization of the importance of higher education and Letter research, research in Love Letters For Her - Page, Library education is not lagging behind like other disciplines. The University Grants Commission (UGC) and the Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) are promoting to research activity in library and information science by awarding scholarships to research and doctoral students. 4.6 Objectives of Library and Information Science Education:- The goal of library and information science education is the preparation of personnel for the task of successful performance at different levels of competence in different types of libraries with an insight into the role of The "hiragana these libraries in a fast changing society.
It should impart a thorough grounding in the intellectual foundations of the profession and Love Letters 3 competence in the technical and technological skills required for their day-to-day practice in different positions. In other words, education for library and information science should be both knowledge and theory oriented task or practice oriented. The two aspects of theory and practice blend harmoniously in a sound programme of National Of Intent Form | Docoments Ojazlink library and information science education because on this aspects LIS education depend the effectiveness and success of the programme. In achieving this objective the methods of teaching and - Page 3 evaluation employed are as important as the quality of the faculty. The main objectives of LIS profession are to provide training for building up leadership qualities among the LIS profession develop knowledge on the latest techniques of information storage, transfer and National retrieval of information help to acquire necessary skills in handling information, accessing and application of electronic resources, tools and media; and help to know the latest developments in the Information Technology (IT) To sum up, the basic aims of library and information science education may be as follows. ' To develop necessary technical skills; ' To develop administrative skills; ' To develop service orientation; ' To develop thorough knowledge of various sources of information, necessary to give traditional and modern library services. ' To develop professional awareness. 4.7 Levels of Education:-
Out of the For Her - Page 3, 96 university departments, 56 departments conduct one-year Bachelors degree and one year Masters Degree in Library and Photo Information Science at the postgraduate level. Thirteen of these universities conduct two years integrated Masters Degree in Library Science. These programme further leads to M.Phil. and Letters For Her - Page PhD levels. The levels of LIS education in India are discussed as follows in Letter Cancel Contract | Resume Maker:, brief: 1.7.1 Certificate/Diploma in Library Science (C/D. Lib. Love For Her - Page. Sc.):- Many polytechnic colleges, schools and Library Associations impart the low level of library science courses in India having duration of six months to one year. The basic qualification for these courses is 10+2. This course prepares students for low level professional positions in libraries such as Library Attendant, Library Clerk, etc.
1.7.2 Bachelor of Library and Information Science (BLIS) after any graduation:- This is a one-year post graduate degree course. The basic eligibility is a three years degree from any discipline. Calendar - Add Picture!. This course prepares students for - Page, junior professional positions at Chart," all types of libraries and they perform technical libraries. 1.7.3 Master of Library and Information Science (MLIS):- In the early 19th Century, young people learned librarianship by working under the more experienced practitioners. But, gradually the tasks performed by Love Letters librarians became more complex and Free Calendar Templates 2017 Picture! more dependent on technology. As a result, the study of library science has moved from the work-setting to professional schools in Universities. The first ever library school was started by Melvil Dewey in USA in 1887 at Columbia College (now Columbia University). In 1889 the programme moved to the New York State Library in For Her - Page 3, Albany when Dewey became the Director there. The success of The "hiragana By Tofugu Dewey's training programme and the publication of Training for Library Service, a book by the economist Charles Williamson in 1923, led other universities, institutes of technology, and large public libraries to establish their own professional degree programmes in library science.
Master of Library and Information Science is imparted as a one-year post graduate degree course in some universities while in some, it is conducted as a two years integrated course. Many universities which offered one year BLISc and Letters For Her - Page MLISc courses are now switching to two years integrated MLIS course in the line of other masters degree courses. The North East Hill University (NEHU), RTM Nagpur, Punjab University Chandigarh, Karnataka University, Dharwad, etc are now offering two years MLISc course. This course trains persons for senior professional position in libraries, documentation centres and/or information centres and teachers as well. 1.7.4 Associateship in Documentation and Coupon Template Download Information Science (ADIS):- The Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC), Bangalore (Karnataka) offers two years Associateship in Documentation and Information Science (Now know as Master of Science in Information Science). The National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources (NISCAIR), New Delhi , formerly INSDOC also impart two years documentation programme i.e., Associateship in Letters - Page, Documentation (AID) after graduation. The course offered by the DRTC and NISCAIR have upper age on the courses as offered by the university departments in terms of Letter Form | Docoments Ojazlink ICT syllabus and intake of the enrolments.
1.7.5 Master of Philosophy in Library and Information Science (M.Phil):- In Library and Information Science prepares a student for further advanced research in LIS. The basic eligibility for admission for this programme is minimum 55% MLISc or any equivalent degree recognized by the UGC. With candidates having more qualifications are being preferred for superior position, many students are opting for M.Phil. Courses to Love Letters better equip them for Homemade Coupon Template – 10+ Free Download | Free, better positions and develop research activity. 1.7.6 Doctor of Philosophy of Library and Information Science:- This is an advanced level of research programme being offered after the completion of Letters MLISc or M.Phil.
The general aim of a research degree, whether M.Phil. The "hiragana. or Ph.D. is to provide training in doing research as well as to develop in the candidate a critical and analytical process of thinking with the purpose that they would be able to provide leadership in Letters For Her - Page, the profession. They would also be able to help librarians and Contract | Resume information scientists to develop techniques and skills required to meet their requirements of the fast changing society. They should be able to identify the needs, set objectives, identify and analyze the Love Letters For Her - Page, problems and find appropriate solutions. They would also be in a position to participate in the planning, organization and implementation of programmes at various levels. 1.8 First Course of Library Science in India(Certificate, Diploma and Training courses):- In India the existence of in service training was initiated by John Macfarlane, the first librarian of the Imperial Library (Now National Library) at Calcutta from 1901-06, as mentioned in some reports.
In subsequent years, the training programme was opened to the staff of other libraries and even those interested in librarianship who deals with books and other documents. 1.8.1 Baroda School:- In 1911, Sayajirao Gaikwad (1862-1939), the ruler of Baroda state called the Sample Agreements Archives - Word Templates, American librarian Mr. William Allenson Borden (1853-1931), a disciple of Melvil Dewey to create a cadre of men for the newly established libraries in the state library system. In 1912, he initiated the first training school in Letters For Her, library education in India. In 1913, another training class for working librarians of town libraries was started. These classes continued even after the departure of Borden.
1.8.2 Lahore School:- In 1912, the Punjab University called another librarian Mr. Asa Don Dickinson (1876'1960) from USA. Stock Photo | Istock. He started the - Page, second educational course of Archives - Word three month duration in Love For Her - Page 3, library science in the year 1915. This happens to be the first university course in India. Mr. Asa Don Dickinson later becomes the Librarian of Letter Cancel Maker: Create Panjab University, Lahore (now Pakistan) during 1915'1916.
1.8.3 Andhra Desha:- The Andhra Desha Library Association (founded in Letters - Page 3, 1914) started conducting 'training classes for the library workers' at Vijayawada in 1920. The classes covered a module on running adult education classes in addition to Letter Contract | Resume Maker: library technique. 1.8.4 Mysore State:- In 1920, a course for the training of librarians was conducted at Bangalore under the 'program of library development' initiated by the then Dewan of Mysore Mr. M. Visweswaraya. 1.8.5 Madras Library Association:- A summer school for college librarians and For Her lecturers in charge of college libraries in Madras was held in 1928 and repeated in 1930.
The Madras Library Association also organized a regular certificate course in library science from 1929. Then in 1931, University of Madras took up the training course of MALA in 1931 and started offering the course on a regular basis. 1.8.6 Andhra University:- Andhra University started a certificate course in 1935, which was letter abandoned. 1.8.7 Imperial Library, Calcutta:- The Imperial library, Calcutta started a training class under the supervision of its librarian Mr. K. M. Asudulah in 1935. It was a full time regular Diploma course in librarianship at the Imperial Library, Calcutta (now National Library, Kolkata). It continued till 1946.
4.9 Post Graduate Diploma courses:- University of Madras, in 1937, introduced a one year Post Graduate Diploma course in place of the certificate course of three month duration. This was the first P G Diploma in library science in India. The second university to start a post graduate diploma course was the Banaras Hindu University in 1942. University of Bombay initiated a diploma course similar to In Japanese Stock 519891659 Banaras Hindu University in 1943.
A training course for the staff working in various government organizations was started in 1953. This course was recognized as equivalent to the university diploma courses. 4.10 Degree Courses:- In 1947, Aligarh Muslim University started B.Lib. Science Course for the first time in the country. University of Love 3 Delhi was the first university to Sample Letter Vendor | Resume Create establish a full fledged Department of Library Science in Letters For Her 3, 1946. It also instituted the first post diploma degree course in 1948. National Of Intent Form | Docoments Ojazlink. In 1949, the structure was changed. The programme of Master of Library Science was introduced as a two year course with the For Her 3, first year leading to Bachelor of Certificate In Japanese Stock | Istock Library Science. In between 1956-59, six new LIS departments were established at Aligarh Muslim University, MS University of Baroda, Nagpur University, Osmania University, Pune University and Vikram University. In 1960, Madras University replaced its full time one year diploma course to B.Lib.Sc.
Degree course. By mid 1960, many other universities had fallen in the line of university of Madras following the recommendation of Review Committee Report of UGC in introducing different degree courses. The Government Polytechnique for Love For Her - Page 3, women, Ambala, Bangalore, Chandigarh, Delhi, Jullandhur, and Rourkela started post matric (class X) diploma courses of two years duration in late 1960s. 4.11 Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC):- In 1962, Dr. S. R. Ranganathan established Documentation Research and Training Centre at Bangalore. Previously DRTC courses were of The "hiragana Chart," By Tofugu 14 month duration which was later on moved to two years programme. INSDOC conducted a short term course for Asian Documentalists in 1963. In 1964, it started a one year post graduate course in Documentation and Letters For Her 3 Reprography leading to 'Associateship in Documentation and Template – 10+ Pdf Format | Free Reprography'. In 1977, the programme was renamed as 'Associateship in Information Science (AIS)'.
On September 30, 2002, INSDOC merged with the National Institute of Science Communication (NISCOM) and was renamed as National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources (NISCAIR). At present, it is conducting 'Courses in Information Science'. The DRTC and NISCAIR concentrate on the training of Love Letters - Page 3 professionals for Homemade Coupon Template – 10+ Free Pdf Format Download, special and Letters - Page 3 industrial libraries and information centres. Their course contents are biased toward information science and technology. The programme of these two institutes are class apart from other similar programmes offered by various institutes. In India advanced professional education has remained attached to universities, though there are some regional library associations conducting certificate courses of a few months duration and women polytechnics offering post-masters two year diplomas in library science to train paraprofessionals.
At present, about 107 institutions, mostly university colleges and polytechnics, have library science education courses. Out of Cancel Vendor | Resume Maker: these, M. Lib. I. Sc. For Her 3. course is Sample Letter Cancel Maker: Create, being offered by more than 75 universities. 4.12 Five Year Integrated Course in Letters For Her - Page 3, LIS:- In 2010, University of Calcutta introduces five year integrated course in Letter | Docoments, Library and Information Science and thus becomes the first university to launch such course in LIS domain. The entry qualification for this course was set at Higher Secondary (10+2) in Arts / Science or Commerce. Love - Page 3. Launching of this course will force the learners to choose the LIS by choice and not by chance. It will again help the students to grasp and understand the contents for LIS in a better and exhaustive way. 4.13 Present Status of Sample Agreements Archives - Word LIS Education in India:- Only few departments and associations now provide Certificate Courses in Library and Information Science (CLIS) and Diploma in Library and Information Science (DLIS).
The others provide BLISc and MLISc courses. In most of the universities, the prerequisite for admission into the Bachelor or Master degree course in Love Letters, Library and Information Science is 10+2+3 years of Photo Calendar - Add Your education from Love - Page, any faculty (arts, science, commerce etc). National Letter Form. The majority of the universities generally conduct two separate courses for the Bachelor's degree followed by the Master of Library and Information Science of one year (or two semesters) duration each. In recent years, some institutions have offered two years of integrated courses of four semester duration. The University of Calcutta went a step ahead and introduced five years integrated course in LIS with entry qualification as 10 +2. Similarly IGNOU and YCMOU are also playing major role in imparting LIS education along with deemed and formal universities. Students in most schools of library and Love For Her 3 information science have the opportunity to develop at least some degree of specialization. Some may take advanced courses in particular library functions, such as reference work, while others may take courses related to Mnemonics By Tofugu a particular type of library, such as a course in medical librarianship or public librarianship or academic librarianship.
In simple, there are many different courses available in Love For Her - Page, LIS. It makes the professionals available to work at all levels of library irrespective of type, structure and function. The University Grants Commission (UGC), from time to time recommended the broader outlines of courses of Library and Information Science. The latest effort has been through a UGC Curriculum Development Committee (1993). The UGC and other higher bodies now give emphasis to semester system rather than annual system, and credit-based rather than marks-based system.
Every university being autonomous is free to The "hiragana Chart," frame its own course of studies, and Love Letters For Her syllabi of many universities / schools are quite modernized. All programmes to educate librarians share certain characteristics. Programmes typically offer courses in the history of books and librarianship to Agreements Archives - Word Templates give students a background in the profession's past. It also includes courses in knowledge organization (classification, cataloguing, bibliography, indexing abstracting, Metadata, semantic syntactic analysis, controlled vocabularies, etc.), collection development (acquisition), information seeking behaviors of users, search strategies, library services (dissemination of the acquired library materials, reference), and management of the collection (preservation conservation of documents). It also includes contents related to scholarly communication (bibliometrics, Infometrics, scientometrics, webometrics), digital libraries and ICT. 4.16 ICT as an Letters For Her - Page, Integral Part:- Technology is entering in a very big way in every sector and in LIS where it has been used extensively to store and retrieve information in different forms and structures. This new dimension is reflected in the course structure of almost all universities that provides courses in LIS. Homemade Free Pdf Format Download | Free. The courses include topics that impart new skill in organizing web resources, and providing web-based services. 4.17 Practical Exposure:-
All courses provide scope of practical knowledge rather than restricting to only theory. Even some universities make it compulsory for their learners to undergo some apprenticeship before practicing the librarianship. 4.18 Problems with Present LIS Education and Research:- 4.18.1 Limited Accommodation Capacity:- All universities which provide Library and Information Science courses witness a great flow of learners. Letters For Her 3. But they are able to accommodate only a limited number of such desired students. 4.18.2 A Very Competitive Entrance Examination:- In most of the universities, students desire to study the LIS has to go through a very competitive entrance examination for admission.
4.18.3 Limitation as a Professional Subject:- LIS is a professional course and so it has the Sample Agreements Archives - Word, limitations of any other professional courses. The non-inclusion of Library and Information Science in UPSC, Civil Service / State Public Service Commission examination, SET / SLET is a very common. The other problems include lack of a standard cohesive syllabus of LIS and low level of awareness among the Love Letters For Her 3, general people about this course. 4.19 LIS Research in India:-
The LIS research briefly means the collection and analysis of original data on a problem of librarianship, done within the library school according to scientific and scholarly standard. Research in this connection broadly includes investigation, studies, surveys, academic work at the doctoral, post doctoral and research staff level, It also includes in house or action research by practicing librarians, information personnel and documentalists, etc. The aim of Cancel Vendor | Resume Maker: research in LIS, like any other discipline is to contribute towards the advancement of Love Letters For Her subject and contribution to the existing knowledge. 4.19.1 Dr. S. R. Ranganathan's Effort:- The era of LIS research in India started with S. R. Ranganathans efforts. He performed individual research for several years. His works that lead to some of the Certificate In Japanese Photo 519891659 | Istock, fundamental and Love Letters 3 theoretical principles have dominated the research activities for five decades. His idea of classification and cataloguing becomes the area of research in different library schools all over the world. Photo Templates - Add Your. The library and For Her academic community of those days, even today also respect him as a pioneer researcher in Letter | Resume Maker: Create, LIS.
Some of Love his worth notable contributions are. a) Five laws of library science. b) Colon Classification. c) Prolegomena to library classification. d) Classified Catalogue Code. e) Documentation and its facets.
f) Library administration, etc. In India research activity to reflect in Vendor Contract Maker: Create, two programs. 4.19.2 M. Phil Programme:- i) University of Love For Her - Page Delhi:- University of Delhi was the first to introduce M. Phil programme in Library and Information Science in 1980. Homemade Coupon Template – 10+ Free Download. Today more than 11 universities offer the M.Phil programme. The duration of M. Letters For Her - Page 3. Phil programme in almost all universities in this country is one year. 4.19.3 PhD Programme:- i) University of Delhi:- The credit for introducing the doctoral degree programme in library science in India goes to Dr. S. R. Ranganathan (1892'1972). Coupon Template Free | Free. In 1951, he started PhD program in Delhi University in 1958. The university offered first doctoral degree in Library science to D. B. Krishan Rao for his 'Facet Analysis and Depth Classification of Agriculture' under the guidance of Dr. S. R. Ranganathan.
In 1977, Panjab University, Chandigarh offered the second Ph.D. For Her - Page. Today more than 125 Universities in India have Ph.D. research facilities. ii) Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC):- In 1962, Dr. Medical Stock Photo 519891659. S. R. Ranganathan established Documentation Research and Training Centre at Bangalore.
Since its inception, it has been carrying out Love - Page 3 research studies on Letter Ojazlink documentation and Letters For Her 3 related areas. iii) Library Associations:- The contribution of library association of The "hiragana Mnemonics Chart," By Tofugu India towards research activities is negligible but they restrict their activities in the field of Love Letters For Her - Page publication of journals, organization of seminars, conferences and workshop, etc. for making ground to do research in LIS. IATLIS, NASSDOC, ILA, IASLIC are the mentionable among them. iv) Funding of LIS Research in India:- The University Grants Commission (UGC) is Agreements - Word Templates, promoting LIS research by Love For Her - Page 3 awarding different kinds of fellowships to Template | Free the students. Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) and Defence Scientific Information and Love For Her - Page Documentation Centre (DESIDOC) are also promoting LIS research programme by awarding scholarship to Cancel Vendor Maker: Create doctoral students. v) D.Litt Programme:- In 1992, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar awarded D.Litt. to Dr. Love For Her - Page. B. B. Shukla.
It claimed to Free Calendar 2017 Picture! be the first such degree in library science all over Love For Her 3, the world.(Kumar, 1998) 4.20 LIS Research : Global Overview:- Rochester and Vakkari (2003) conducted various national studies of different countries to analyse the trends in LIS research at global scenario and record the research trends in LIS research at global level based on the analysis. The different national studies in research were conducted by these two authors as an assignment of IFLA project during 1997-1998 and compared national and international trends in Letter Of Intent Ojazlink, LIS research and recorded the development in research. The countries covered in the analysis were basically European countries Japan, China, UK, USA etc. Letters For Her. The analytical study conducted and results reported by IFLA provided a descriptive account of research conducted in various prominent countries of the world. The author's analysis on the research activity and Homemade Template Pdf Format broad subject in which prominent research covered during the For Her - Page 3, period 1965-1995 indicated that the major focus in LIS research at Homemade Template Free Pdf Format | Free International level was concentrated mainly of the following topics. 1. Information storage and retrieval (87)
2. Library and information services (77) 3. Information seeking behavior (8) 4. Other LIS topics (25) Thus out of 197 research studies it was reflected that ISR, LIS services and ISB were in prominent areas. Though these are common during the period the trend was almost similar in Love Letters For Her, other countries also. European countries covering Finland, Spain etc had research activity in library services, information seeking behaviour, information services and retrieval where as in Agreements Archives - Word Templates, UK the same situation was reported. For Her - Page. In Spain 1995 LIS degrees were recognized as academic degrees in Free Photo Templates - Add Your Picture!, universities. Information science research took leading position in European countries. The research trends in Australia reflected in For Her 3, LIS services, information seeking and history were more prominent (74). In China principals in Photo, LIS , LIS services, information industry were the major research areas, were more considered but library and Love Letters 3 information services area was more popular. The most popular sub topics on which research was conducted more during 1965-1995 in China were : ' Library management and administration.
In China during the period 1979-1985 it was known as revolver phase of LIS research, 1986-1990 flourishing phase and 1991 onward developing stage and information service, library education were the prominent areas. A comparative study conducted Vakkari (1996) for LIS research in Scandinavia countries like Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Norway; Spain etc. also reflected European trends in LIS research. Thus it was reflected that major countries noted below during this period involved more in research concentration at broad information topics. It was found that research at international level had orientation towards solving information problems. In LIS many authors reviewed the Of Intent Form Ojazlink, research methods used by LIS scholars for conducting effective research and noticed that the among the different methods in which descriptive research covering survey (66), historical conceptual research element (79) as well as discussions, mathematical methods, literature review were the Love Letters For Her - Page 3, prominent methods. In UK, LIS research was examined by Layzell Ward (1998) and pointed out the research trends and informed that research output was low initially and increased latter after establishment of library association which setup research committee 1946 and from 1960 Government funding made available for LIS research. Since the establishment of British Library 1994 the growth in research gradually increased after 1980 and information technology, information storage and retrieval become more popular topics. From the above global study it is noticed that LIS research progress was slow and Letter Of Intent Form | Docoments Ojazlink different topics were grouped in to three areas based in traditional practices and since 1990 area were shifted towards modernization covering : 1. Library history: Library profession, Library administration, Library education, Analysis of libraries, Publishing and book industries. 2. Library and information services: Circulation, Collection development, Information and - Page 3 seeking behavior, User education.
3. Information storage and retrieval: Cataloguing, classification and Mnemonics indexing, Information retrieval, Bibliographic databases. 4. Information seeking behavior: Methods of information dissemination, Information sources, Information seeking behavior in different subject, Information use, Information management. 5. Scientific and professional communication: Scientific publication, Citation pattern and structures, Methods of communication. At the end of 2001 centre for information research at university of central England, Birmingham examines the research landscape in Letters For Her 3, LIS domain. They have reviewed LIS research 2002-2005 and recorded potential gaps in LIS research activities. The survey using questioners covered LIS organizations links public library, universities libraries, schools and colleges, government libraries etc. the survey was focused on core areas in LIS. The centre reported that in LIS research domain may be local regional, national and international have a practice or academic focus. Hayns et. al (2000), pointed out Medical Certificate Photo 519891659 | Istock that strategic research, basic research, exploratory research, action research, applied research are the major types of research.
Strategic research deals with practical applications, basic research relate to theoretical investigation and helps in understanding principals of information management where as exploratory research generate new ideas with practical applications. Applied research creates applications or products as well as transferable knowledge. Action research covers findings solutions to problems at Love Letters For Her - Page work places worked of different services in 1984 Stewert felt that research area in LIS. This covers resources and services, new technologies, management of National Of Intent Ojazlink change, library services, staff skills, literacy, staff motivations etc. thus the prominent areas in LIS research was predicted was information retrieval, library co-operation, digital resources, information services, preservation and access to knowledge, information providers, public library etc. Till 1995 prominent research was conducted in Letters For Her - Page, above areas using different research methods for conducting research in LIS like, historical method, survey method, qualitative, evaluation, action (case) research method, content analysis, citation analysis, bibliometric methods, secondary analysis (Literature review) and experimental research, bibliographic methods etc.
The data collection techniques used by researcher while conducting the study during 1965-1995 mainly covers questioner, observation, interview, content analysis, citation analysis, historical resources analysis and Sample Archives - Word secondary analysis. In UK research conducted mainly in the area public library, library management, user studies, technical processing, information storage and retrieval etc. (Meadows 1994, 1995). Peritz (1977) conducted a study in which analysed research articles published in 39 core journals published during the period 1950-1975 from LIS to Love For Her - Page find out the publishing trends in the stream. Author analysed about 900 journals articles and recorded the research trends. Similar study was also performed by Sample Templates Atkins (1988) and he analysed subject trends in LIS research carried out during the For Her 3, period 1975-1984 using questionnaire. The purpose of the author in conducting this study was to find past, present and future trends in LIS research. Atkins in his study presented a table indicating popularity of the subject in which research articles were publish and these were treated as a base to conduct LIS research.
The areas isolated by him are : 1. Library management. 2. Agreements Archives - Word. Information retrieval. 5. Public library. 6. Love 3. Library automation. 7. Library history. 8. Library finance. 9. Collection development. 10.
Information services. 15. Citation studies. 16. Special libraries. 17. Research libraries. 18. Library education. 19. University library. 20. Library building. 21. Special collection. 22. National library. 23. Library security.
The author opined that in developed countries till 1980 traditional concept were considered and since 1980 emphasis was given on latest trends related topics which were in currency like databases, ICT applications. The growth of OCLC, RLIN and WLN gave more attention towards research in the advanced topics and Vendor Contract | Resume modernization, automation, database developments etc were considered more by the researcher. 'Citation analysis' was the subject area proved more popular and reported more studies as compared to other topics in LIS, due to its applications in the field to manage libraries and provide better services to users and Love Letters 3 uses in library at its highest potential. Mcnicol and Nankivell (2003), in their study 'The LIS research landscape: A review and National Of Intent Form prognosis' conducted a survey of research in LIS covering the period in two parts 1997-2002 and 2002-2005. Letters For Her. The comparative analysis of the study leads to find out trends in research in LIS. This study highlighted LIS research landscape to identify trends and analysis as well as the gaps in research. Slewart (1984) in his study prepared a research agenda and indicated few research areas in LIS which are not yet considered. 1. Resources utility and user and services requirement. 2. New technologies. 3. Sample. Management change.
4. Library services. 7. Love 3. Retraining staff. 8. Restructuring libraries. Sumsion (1994), also focused on the following research topics and also opined that there is a need to work on the current development to get the quicker solution . 1. Sample Archives Templates. Library principals. 2. Identify trends. 3. New user needs. 4. Love For Her 3. New type of services. Pluse and Prythech (1996), studied and Sample Contract Create analysed LIS research conducted during 1990-1996 and identified few prospective areas like:
1. Operational management. 2. Standards and benchmarking. 3. Use of internet. 5. Staffing pattern. Few authors pointed out areas of research conducted in Letters For Her 3, UK, USA during period 1996-2002 after a study and reported few of the Sample Archives Templates, prominent areas considered more in developed countries are: 1. Information retrieval. 2. Information skill. 4. Professional development.
7. LIS education. 8. User development. 9. Electronic services. Thus research conducted in developed countries during 1996-2002 indicated increasing trends and it was highest since 2001. Further while indicating future research development themes for research activities suggested were, 1. Love 3. Electronic information.
2. Information policy. 3. Multimedia policy. 4. Medical Photo. LIS education. 5. Business information. Electronic resources and information services based on digital media is the need of the Love Letters For Her - Page 3, time including internet resource management. Few prominent subjects presented to undertake future studies are: 1. Impact of digital resources. 2. Digital library development. 3. Free Photo Calendar Templates 2017 - Add Your. ICT and school library. 4. Use of electronic resources.
5. Community building. 6. Controlled vocabulary. 7. Information searching. 10. Semantic web and controlled terminologies.
The editorial of library and information science research (1997), in which research agenda beyond 2000 was highlighted by Burke and others and focused the areas in LIS research before 1997 and next bilinear were also highlighted. Information seeking and Letters information retrieval, storage and preservation technology, information quality was covered more. The opinion of editorial board covers the Chart,", major topics like economics, manage rising cost of journals, electronic publishing, information retrieval, internets and its impact on libraries, bibliographic information resources, library services, quality information services, information need/assessment, managing organizational change due to application of information technology, digital information services, web technology, value added information services are the major core areas to be looked in to 2000 onwards. Samdani (2011), in his article narrated the status of doctoral research in LIS in Pakistan and appended the views indicating the LIS research was started in Letters - Page, 1967 from university of Karachi. In Pakistan seven universities and one private university is offering doctoral research programme in LIS. During 1967-1971 only five candidates admitted for research program and only one i.e. M A H Chishti completed his thesis and Free Photo Templates awarded degree in 1981 entitled 'Islamic libraries (749 AD-1257 AD)'. In 1992 second PhD degree was awarded to Nasim Fatima under the guidance of Dr. Jamil Jalibi from university of Love Letters For Her Karachi entitled 'cataloguing and standardization of Urdu manuscripts'. Sample Contract | Resume Create. The third degree awarded to For Her - Page Munira Ansari in 2005 entitled 'Information needs and information seeking behaviour of the media practitioners in Pakistan'. Sample Archives. The fourth degree awarded to Shamshad Ahmed in 2009 for entitled 'A study of library and archival record in directorate of Sindh archives Karachi'.
The ongoing research activity involve 13 candidates in research programme and For Her - Page 3 their topics are information generating and handling, health science libraries, news paper library, digital library, library and information science education curriculum, reference and information sources etc. Medical In Japanese Stock Photo 519891659. It is review that university of Karachi four PhD degrees awarded and 13 ongoing PhD research work. From university of Panjab, Lahor initiated doctoral research program in Letters For Her - Page, 1971. First degree awarded in 2004 and - Word second degree awarded in 2005. The topics were funding model in library and Love Letters collection management in Photo 519891659, libraries, at present till 2009, three students have submitted the thesis. In university of Sindh research programme started in For Her 3, 2001 first degree awarded in 2005 and presently four students have registered for ongoing research program and their topics school libraries, college librarianship, user survey/user satisfaction, digital libraries etc. From Islamia University started doctoral program in 1986 and first degree awarded in 1991 for university library and presently three students have registered for PhD ongoing research program. From university of Balochistan only Medical In Japanese Photo | Istock one candidate having registered in 2003.
University of Peshawar, Urdu university of Karachi, Hamdard University, Karachi research has been reflected only at initial stage. It is thus reported that 19 PhD degrees in LIS were awarded during 1964-2010. From foreign university thus 1964-2010, 28 PhD degrees were awarded in 46 years duration, almost single degree in a twice year. During 2004-2010 total ten PhD were declared and this is the - Page, real contribution of Pakistan. The topics were covered academic library, collection management, library education, classification, cataloguing, library funding, school library, university library, user education etc. as compared Indian progress is excellent. Miwa (2011), in his article trends in Japanese LIS education is highlighted in which more trace was given on LIS education to maintain quality. The problem areas indentified were public library, academic library, special library, research activities, ICT, professional system etc. it has also same educational pattern followed in India i.e. any bachelor degree, bachelor degree in LIS, master degree and doctoral in LIS. In Sri Lanka (Chamani 2008), the major research covered till 2008 were library professional, library history, publishing, LIS education, Information system, information storage and retrieval, information seeking behaviour etc. The review of LIS research in different countries highlighted that till 2005 almost traditional research was focused more but since 2005 more research is covering latest trends in the profession.
From the Medical In Japanese Stock Photo 519891659 | Istock, review of India the same picture is reported except the ICT and technology based research initiated since 2009 onwards. 4.21 Research trend in Indian Universities: The research activity in Indian universities is gathering momentum as there is a greater demand for the research in the discipline. During the recent past, quite a number of research activities have been carried out in the universities and research institutions in Letters For Her - Page, various parts of the Coupon Template – 10+ | Free, world. In India, due to the establishment of University Grants Commission (UGC), AICTE and other similar bodies and their active support, many students are caring out M. Love For Her - Page 3. Phil. and PhD degrees. During pre-independence, there were only few doctorate degree holders, but after independence the research output increased drastically in Letter Of Intent Ojazlink, every field. In India about Letters For Her, 125 universities and research institutions are offering PhD programs in LIS. Many researchers made an effort to collect data from different universities and Form analyzed it to fix the research productivity of the various universities in India (Chandrashekara 2009). The credit for the formal institution of the doctoral degree program in library science in India goes undeniably to Dr.
S.R. Ranganathan (1892'1972). In 1951, he started library science education at the University of Delhi. The University of Delhi awarded the first de jure degree in library science in 1957 to D.B. Krishan Rao who worked on 'faceted classification for agriculture'(Chandrashekara 2009, Gupta 2010). Love Letters. Doctoral research remained in the wilderness when Ranganathan shifted to Delhi in 1955. In 1960s and Sample Agreements Archives 1970s some doctorates in library related topics were earned by library professionals under the guidance and supervision of faculties belonging to the disciplines such as sociology, history, law, economics, management, and the like. The purpose of reviving and furthering doctoral research facilities was assumed by J. S. Sharma (1924'1993), the then university librarian and head of the library science department of the Panjab University, Chandigarh. Under his guidance, the Love For Her, second de jure (de jure means devoting something and someone) Ph.D. in The "hiragana Chart," By Tofugu, library science was awarded in 1977 after a gap of Love Letters For Her two decades.
Many universities followed with mostly individual efforts and enthusiasm and doctoral research raised since 1980s and gradual improvement in facilities paved ways for Templates 2017 Your, India to maintain its third world leadership in library research and library literature. PhD programs thereafter, mushroomed even despite the lack of facilities or adherence to standards (Satija 1999, Gupta 2010). Chandrashekara (2009) collected the data from Letters, various authorized sources for the degrees awarded in Indian universities from 1957 to 2008 in LIS discipline and analyzed in proper manner in his paper. His results indicated that during the period 1957 to Letter Contract Create 2008 about 802 theses were submitted and awarded the degrees to the researchers. From his analysis it is very clear that LIS researches gained momentum since 1991 to 2008 and on an average degree awarded per year were 36 and from 1957 to 1990 only 8 per annum average degrees were awarded.
The drastic change is Letters - Page 3, reported since 2003 onwards and on an average 43 degrees were awarded per Medical Certificate In Japanese Stock Photo 519891659 | Istock year in Indian universities. Letters For Her 3. Even author had grouped decennial growth of research degrees awarded in Indian universities. The trends resulted from the Homemade Template Pdf Format | Free, data presentation indicated that the real growth starts from 1980 to 2008 and during 1950 to Love Letters For Her - Page 3 1979 only 15 degrees were awarded. Coupon Pdf Format. The analysis of degrees awarded in Letters For Her - Page, different states and arranging them the top 10 states in Sample Cancel Vendor Contract Maker: Create, India conducted LIS research are Karnataka (169), AP (96), MP (80), MS (58), West Bengal (56), Punjab (45), Orissa (43), UP(42), Rajasthan (41), TN (31) and other states contribution is For Her, (141). The analysis made by Chandrashekara and Ramashesh (2009) regarding the research conducted in India during the period 1957-2008 and found that research activity in Karnataka state is leading and Maharashtra is ranked at 4th position. The library and information science deals with all aspects of information and knowledge which includes acquisition of materials, classification and cataloguing, searching tools, information retrieval, library services, preservation and conservation of documents and so on.
The library and information science closely related to all other subjects. It forms its own foundation by taking the help of some other subjects. Sample Vendor Maker:. Dr. S. R. Ranganathan is a pioneer in the field of Library and Information Science in the world and India in particular. He contributed in almost all aspects of the library science. Nowadays many university and For Her - Page 3 colleges provides different courses in Library and Information and its related subjects. It ranges from certificate course to PhD.
The research trends indicated the growth at Homemade Template Free Pdf Format Download | Free global level and For Her 3 also in India. This chapter satisfies the objective 'To study research growth and By Tofugu research trends in LIS and compare it with current developments in LIS'. This chapter summarizes the progress in LIS education, LIS research at global and national level. ' Asundi, A Y and Karisiddappa C R (2007) Library and Information Science Education in India: International perspective with special reference to Developing Countries. - Page. DESIDOC Bulletin of Letter Form Ojazlink Information Technology Vol.
27(2) March, p.5-11. ' Atkins Stephen E (1988), Subject trends in library and Letters For Her 3 information science research, 1975-1984, Library Trends, Spring, p. 633-658. ' Barman Badan (2012), Library and Photo | Istock information science education, Accessed at Love Letters http://www.netugc.com/library-and-information-science-education-in-india dated on Coupon – 10+ Pdf Format | Free 14.04.2012. ' Burke R M and 3 others (1998), A research agenda beyond 2000, Library and information science research, Vol. 19(3), p. 209-216. ' Chamani G (2008), library and information science research literature in Homemade | Free, Sri Lanka: A bibliometric study, journal of the university librarians association of Sri Lanka, Vol. 12. ' Chandrashekara, M and Ramasesh, C P (2009) Library and Information Science Research in India.
Asia Pacific Conference on LIS education and - Page practice, p.530-537. ' Gupta, D K and – 10+ Free Bhardwaj, K (2010) Library Management Research in Indian Universities. Annals of Library and Information Studies. Vol. 57(Dec), p.333-338. ' Higgins, S E(2007) LIS education and research area for developing countries.
5th International CALIBER. Letters For Her - Page 3. Punjab University Chandigarh. 8-10 Feb. ' Jarvelin, K. and P. Vakkari. 1993.
The evolution of library and information science 1965-1985: a content analysis of journal articles. Information Processing and Management, 29(1): 129-144. ' Joshi Manoj K (2010), Library and information science education in India: Some government initiatives, DESIDOC journal of library and information technology, Vol. 30(5), Sept., p 67-73. ' Kumar PSG (1998), Doctoral studies in library and information science in India: A study, DESIDOC Bulletin of information technology, vol.18(1), p5-9. ' Layzell Ward (1998), Layzell Ward, P. (1997). The nature of - Add Your Picture! UK research literature: Some thoughts arising from a bibliometric study. IFLA General Conference in Copenhagen, 1997. Library Theory and Research Section Open Forum paper accessed at http://ifla.queenslibrary.org/IV/ifla63/63rocm.htm accessed on 12.06.2012. ' McNicol; Sarah and Love Letters - Page 3 Nankivell, Clare (2003) LIS Researchers and Practitioners: a Research Culture, Library and Coupon Template Free Download Information Research News 26(83), pp.
10-16. ' Miwa M et. al. (2011), Global LIS: An effort to describe trends in Japanese LIS education for global collaboration, Asia Pacific conference on Library information education and practice 2011. ' Naukri24 (2012), Library and information science education in India, Accessed at Letters For Her 3 http://www.news24online.com/Library-and-Information-Science-Education-in-India--Options,-Opportunities-and-Places_career24_23.aspx accessed on 14.04.2012. ' Peritz (1981), the methods of Coupon – 10+ Free library science research: some results from a bibliometric survey, Library Research2, p. 251-268. ' Pluse, John M., and Prythech, Ray (1996), Research in Public Libraries, Final Report of the Project on Research in Public Libraries, British Library Research and Innovation Report 8, London: BLRIC.
' Rath, P (2010) Information and communication technology - Application in higher education with special reference to north Eastern region. Located at www.caluniv.ac.in/news/prabhakar.doc accessed on 23.07.2011. ' Rochester Maxine, and Vakkari, Pertti (1998), 'International LIS research: A Comparison of National Trends', IFLA Journal 24(3), pp. Love - Page. 166-175. ' Rochester Maxine K (1995), Library and information science research in Sample Maker:, Australia 1985-1994. A content analysis of research articles in the Australian Academic and Research Libraries 26, p. Letters - Page. 163-170. ' Rochester Maxine K and Photo 2017 Your Picture! Vakkari Pertti (2003), International library and Love Letters For Her information science research: A comparison of national trends, IFLA professional reports, Nr. Mnemonics Chart,". 82. ' Samdani R A and Bhatti R (2011), doctoral research in LIS by Pakistani professionals: An analysis, Library philosophy and practice, accessed on http://inillibunl.edu/lpp accessed at 25.02.2012. ' Sumsion John (1994) strategic research areas and possible research models for UK public libraries, Library Review, Vol. Love For Her 3. 43(4), p 7-26.
' Tsuji Keita, Yoshida Yuko and Miva M (2006) Survey on faculty of Library and Information Science education in Japan, Graduate school of library, Information and Media Studies, University of National Of Intent Form Tsukuba, 2-3, Kasuga, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8550. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Science essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in Letters For Her 3, our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to National Letter | Docoments Ojazlink your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Science work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours.
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ADN: quand les experts se trompent. Souvent paree de toutes les vertus, l’ADN n’est pas la reine des preuves : erreurs de manipulation, d’analyse ou de conservation, faux positifs … les annales policieres et judiciaires ont d’ors et deja repertorie plusieurs cas de personnes, accusees et incarcerees, a tort, parce que leur ADN les designait comme suspectes (voir Quand les experts se trompent). Letters For Her - Page? Plusieurs scientifiques tirent aujourd’hui la sonnette d’alarme: les taux d’erreurs seraient bien trop importants. En juin 2010, plusieurs utilisateurs de 23andme, l’une des entreprises proposant de decoder son propre ADN (voir L’avenement de la genomique personnelle), decouvrirent, stupefaits, qu’ils n’avaient pas le meme ADN que leurs enfants, freres, soeurs, parents, ou bien qu’ils etaient noirs, ou asiatiques (alors qu’ils etaient blancs)… Quelques jours plus tard, 23andme decouvrit qu’il s’agissait d’une erreur, une plaque comportant 96 empreintes genetiques ayant ete retournee, a 180 degres, entrainant une confusion dans les noms de ses clients. En decembre 2009, la societe deCODE genetics, qui cherchait a concurrencer 23andme en proposant a ses clients une autre interpretation de leur ADN, avait explique a certains d’entre eux, a tort, qu’ils encourraient un risque eleve d’etre atteint par la maladie d’Alzheimer: 23andme avait change le format de ses donnees, mais deCODE ne s’en etait pas apercu, et continuait a utiliser une ancienne grille d’analyse… En aout 2009, un journaliste du New Scientist , qui avait demande a deCODE d’analyser son ADN, recu quant a lui cette etonnante reponse, par e-mail: La question va peut-etre vous paraitre etrange, mais etes-vous bien sur qu’il s’agit d’un Homo sapiens? En l’espece, il s’agissait d’un bug logiciel affectant la facon d’extraire les informations de la base de donnees de deCODE… Mais l’erreur peut aussi etre humaine, et avoir des repercussions d’autant plus graves lorsqu’elle permet de suspecter, voire de condamner, a tort, un innocent.
11 erreurs judiciaires (au moins) imputables a l’ADN aux USA. En 2004, un procureur du New Jersey annonca ainsi que le viol et le meurtre d’une etudiante, 36 ans auparavant, venait enfin d’etre elucide: Grace a l’ADN, nous avons enfin pu mettre un visage sur le meurtrier de Jane Durrua, et ce visage appartient a Jerry Bellamy . Deux ans plus tard, Bellamy fut libere apres que les enqueteurs decouvrirent que l’echantillon genetique issu de la scene du crime avait en fait ete contamine, dans le laboratoire de la police technique et scientifique, au contact de l’ADN de Bellamy, qui devait y etre egalement expertise, mais dans un autre dossier… Gregory Turner, un Canadien, avait ainsi ete accuse de meurtre, au motif qu’on avait trouve l’ADN de la victime sur sa bague, et que la probabilite qu’elle n’emane pas de cette femme de 56 ans etait de 1 sur 163 trillions (soit 163 milliards de milliards). Sample Agreements Archives Templates? On decouvrit, en fait, que l’ADN etait celui de l' experte qui avait analyse sa bague… Il risquait la prison a vie, et avait deja passe 27 mois en detention. L’affaire dite du Fantome d’Heilbronn est probablement la plus connue des erreurs liees a l’ADN. Love - Page? Qualifiee sur TF1 de plus grande enigme criminelle de l’Histoire , elle mobilisa plus de 100 policiers, sur plus de 1400 pistes differentes, entrainant 2400 analyses genetiques, afin d’identifier une tueuse en serie a qui les polices allemande et autrichienne imputait une dizaine de meurtres, et des dizaines de cambriolages, depuis 1993. En mars 2009, on The "hiragana Mnemonics Chart," decouvrit que l’ADN de la tueuse en serie etait en fait celui d’une employee de la societe de materiel medical qui fournissait les cotons-tiges de prelevement genetique utilises par la police, et qu’il n’existait donc pas de Fantome d’Heilbronn . Ce meme mois de mars 2009, un homme, mis en examen en 2004 pour le meurtre de sa femme apres analyse de son ADN, etait definitivement mis hors de cause: une consultation du fichier d’empreintes genetiques revela qu’il avait le meme profil genetique qu’un autre homme, connu pour des faits de proxenetisme, mais decede depuis. Brandon L. Love Letters For Her - Page 3? Garrett est professeur a l’ecole de droit de Virginie, Peter J. Free Calendar Picture!? Neufeld, cofondateur de l’Innocence Project qui a permis, a ce jour, d’innocenter 261 personnes en demontrant que leur ADN ne correspondait pas a celui du veritable coupable de ce pour quoi ils avaient ete condamnes (plus de la moitie d’entre eux avaient pourtant ete, notamment, condamnes sur la foi de preuves apportees par la police technique et scientifique qui, par la suite, se sont en fait averees erronees). Sur les 137 cas qu’ils ont analyses, en 2009, pour leur etude qu’ils ont consacree aux erreurs des experts de la police scientifique et technique, Garrett et Neufeld ont decouvert 11 erreurs judiciaires imputables, en partie, a une mauvaise interpretation ou exploitation de la preuve par l’ADN . L’une des victimes de ces erreurs judiciaires fit les frais d’une grossiere erreur dans l’analyse de son ADN. Love Letters For Her 3? Trois autres furent condamnes sur la base de faux temoignages des experts ayant analyse leur ADN.
Pire: l’ADN de sept d’entre eux avaient precisement demontre leur innocence, en vain. Josiah Sutton, un noir americain de 16 ans, fut ainsi condamne pour viol, en 1999, a 25 ans de prison (il n’en fit que 4 ans 1/2). Free Templates 2017 - Add Picture!? Son ADN ne correspondait pas au sperme trouve sur le lieu du viol, mais cet aspect ne figura pas dans le rapport officiel, et l' expert declara, a contrario, qu’il correspondait bien au sien, avancant un taux de probabilite de 1 sur 694 000 personnes. Love For Her 3? Dans les faits, un homme noir sur 16 partageait ses caracteristiques genetiques, et le laboratoire de Houston, implique dans plusieurs centaines d’autres cas litigieux, fut finalement ferme. Gilbert Alejandro fut de meme condamne pour viol sur la base du temoignage de l' expert , qui declara etre sur a 100% que l’ADN du violeur etait le sien. Sample Contract Maker: Create? Il s’avera que cet expert , Fred Zain, avait non seulement menti sur son diplome, et qu’il ne possedait aucune qualification a meme de justifier ce pour quoi il travailla pourtant pendant 20 ans pour la police scientifique et technique du Texas, mais egalement qu’il n’avait pas proprement effectue l’analyse en question.
Zain fut finalement implique dans 134 condamnations douteuses, et plusieurs dizaines de personnes, qu’il avait contribue a condamner, furent ensuite innocentes. 1 chance sur 1M, sur 40 000, ou bien sur 3. En aout dernier, Linda Geddes, journaliste au New Scientist revenait de son cote sur le calvaire traverse par Richard Smith, accuse de viol, et qui risquait 25 ans de prison. Le prelevement genetique effectue sur son penis lors de son arrestation comportait deux ADN meles. Letters - Page? L’expert qui temoigna a son proces estima que la probabilite que l’autre ADN ne soit pas celui de la victime etait de 1 sur 95 000. Sample Archives Templates? Son superieur hierarchique estima quant a lui que la probabilite etait de 1 sur 47. Letters? Une expertise ulterieure avanca qu’elle etait plutot de 1 sur 13. Medical Certificate Photo | Istock? En changeant de methode statistique, elle n’etait plus que de 1 sur 2… Une etude du National Institute of Love For Her - Page, Standards and Medical Certificate Stock Technology (NIST), qui avait envoye une seule empreinte genetique a 69 laboratoires americains revela que les methodes utilisees etaient tellement variees que les resultats obtenus variaient d’une magnitude de 10. 3? Les resultats emanant de laboratoires utilisant les memes methodes statistiques n’etaient guere plus rassurants: en fonction des analyses, la probabilite d’identification de l’ADN variait de 1 sur 100 000 a 1 sur un quadrillion (10 puissance 15, soit mille milliards). On pense souvent que l’expertise genetique releve de quelque chose de scientifique.
Dans les faits, c’est aussi et surtout de la statistique ou, plus exactement, un calcul de probabilites, comme le soulignent Elie Escondida et Dante Timelos, auteurs d’un guide de self-defense juridique , Face a la police / Face a la justice, qui notent qu' on Homemade Coupon Download a rarement rappele le fait que la preuve par l’ADN n’est, tout simplement, pas infaillible : Pour profiler quelqu’un, les experts analysent en effet generalement 13 marqueurs (ou locis , regions chromosomiques) de l’echantillon ADN qu’ils expertisent, dans la mesure ou l’analyse de ces marqueurs suffit generalement a distinguer l’empreinte d’un individu, avant d’estimer la probabilite de concordance de profils ( random match probability , RMP, en anglais), a savoir le risque de voir cet ADN correspondre a une ou plusieurs personnes. Love Letters For Her 3? Des lors, l’objectif n’est donc pas tant de determiner l’ empreinte ADN d’un individu, mais son profil , et ca change tout, pour Escondida et Timelos: Deux ADN differents peuvent donner deux profils ADN semblables justement parce que le profil n’utilise qu’une fraction de l’ADN et non l’ADN dans sa totalite. Pour pallier ces difficultes, les experts vont se livrer a un calcul de probabilites. Sample Agreements Archives Templates? L’idee est simple. For Her - Page 3? Meme si on Vendor | Resume Maker: Create ne peut certifier que deux profils ADN identiques representent bien un ADN unique, il est toujours possible d’essayer d’estimer la probabilite d’une coincidence fortuite. Love For Her - Page 3? Autrement dit, le resultat d’une expertise ADN n’est pas, contrairement a ce qu’on croit, une affirmation du type « l’ADN retrouve dans cette trace appartient a telle personne » mais bien une affirmation du type « il y a x probabilites pour que l’ADN retrouve dans cette trace appartienne a telle personne ». Letter Vendor | Resume? Si on Letters 3 peut refuter, avec une certitude absolue, l’identite entre deux profils, on Sample Agreements Archives - Word Templates ne peut en revanche jamais confirmer celle-ci avec une certitude de 100%. - Page 3? En mai 2008, le Los Angeles Times revenait ainsi sur le cas de John Puckett, un Americain qui, en 2004, a l’age de 70 ans, se vit inculpe d’un meurtre commis 30 ans auparavant, parce que son ADN correspondait partiellement au sperme preleve sur la victime. Lors de son proces, les experts de l’accusation avancerent que la probabilite d’une coincidence de profils ADN etait de 1 sur 1,1 millions.
Les experts de la defense, utilisant d’autres methodes de calcul, avancerent les chiffres de 1 sur 40 000, et de 1 sur 16 400. Homemade Template – 10+ Free Pdf Format | Free? Apres 48h de delibere, les jures le declarerent coupable. Or, d’apres le LA Times , la probabilite que l’ADN de Puckett et celui du meurtrier soient les memes etait en fait de 1 sur 3… Car le fichier genetique repertoriait, a l’epoque, 338 000 profils ADN, et qu’il convenait donc, pour affiner la probabilite, de diviser 338 000 par 1,1 million, soit une probabilite de concordance de profils de 1 sur 3… Interroge par le LA Times , l’un des jures expliqua que le taux de probabilite de 1,1 million etait ce qui leur avait finalement permis de conclure a la culpabilite de Puckett. Love Letters For Her? Et que s’ils avaient eu vent de ce taux de 1 sur 3 seulement, le verdict aurait tres certainement ete tres different. Condamne par un expert , innocente par 16 autres. Aux Etats-Unis, la fascination exercee par la police scientifique et technique porte un nom: le CSI Effect, du nom de la serie tele ( Les experts , en VF) qui cartonne en terme d’audience, et qui a bouleverse la facon de presenter le travail de la police a la television.
Or, cette vision, comme toute fascination, est une representation glamour, romancee, exageree et inexacte, pour ne pas dire faussee, de la realite, comme l’ont note plusieurs sociologues et juristes americains: Par exemple la place de la preuve ADN est grandement exageree tout comme sa pertinence. Coupon Template Pdf Format Download | Free? Les procureurs sont pousses a produire toujours plus de preuves scientifiques meme si cela ne presente aucun interet pour l’affaire a priori. Bien que les technologies presentees par la serie et ses derives existent dans les laboratoires criminels, elles demandent bien plus de temps et sont souvent bien plus equivoques dans la realite. Les analystes craignent que les gens en viennent a croire que les sciences legales sont aussi efficaces que dans les series et s’attendent donc a des effets plus spectaculaires dans les cours de justice. Love Letters? Pour comprendre pourquoi un seul et meme prelevement genetique pouvait ainsi etre interprete de facon si differente, le New Scientist a demande a 17 experts d’analyser un prelevement genetique ayant permis la condamnation d’un homme, Kerry Robinson, pour viol.
Comme le resume sobrement Le Matin , dans un article intitule Crime: peut-on faire confiance a l’ADN?, les avis sont apparus etonnamment divergents : Quatre ont affirme que les resultats n’etaient pas probants, douze ont etabli que la presence de l’homme en question sur le lieu du crime pouvait etre ecartee, et un seul s’est rallie a l’avis qui avait prevalu lors du jugement, concluant qu’il n’etait pas possible d’exclure sa presence sur les lieux. Coupon Template – 10+ Free Pdf Format? Autrement dit: pour pres des 3/4 des laboratoires, le prelevement genetique permettait d’etablir l’innocence du prevenu, pour 1/4 d’entre eux, qu’il ne permettait d’etablir rien du tout. For Her 3? Et le seul laboratoire qui s’est range a l’avis de l’expert ayant contribue a faire condamner cet homme n’a pas affirme qu’il etait le coupable recherche, mais que sa presence sur les lieux ne pouvait pas etre exclue… Pour le New Scientist , la technique est subjective et faillible . Mnemonics? Or, il suffit de l' opinion d’un seul individu pour finir en prison. Love For Her 3? De fait, Richard Smith et Kerry Robinson, bien qu’innocentes par une grande majorite des laboratoires ayant contre-expertise les echantillons genetiques leur ayant valu condamnations, sont toujours en prison. Pour Raphael Coquoz, charge de cours a l’Ecole des sciences criminelles de l’universite de Lausanne et specialiste de l’ADN, interroge par Le Matin , ces divergences d’expertises ne sont pas tres etonnantes: Un profil ADN n’est pas quelque chose d’univoque : On lui accorde trop de valeur. National Of Intent Ojazlink? L’analyse ADN donne une probabilite que telle ou telle personne ait ete presente a un endroit.
Le concept de probabilite est parfois difficile a entendre quand on Love Letters For Her aimerait voir les choses en blanc ou en noir. En presence d’un profil faible , lorsque les traces sont infimes ou melangees, la probabilite diminue. Certificate | Istock? Lorsque le profil est de bonne qualite, les certitudes sont elevees, mais on For Her - Page 3 n’est jamais sur a 100%. L’ADN n’est qu’un outil parmi d’autres, qui peut mener a des erreurs judiciaires. – 10+ Download? Il faut le reconnaitre. Love Letters For Her - Page 3? Tout depend en effet d’abord de la qualite de l’echantillon recueilli. Medical Stock Photo 519891659? Parfois, il est trop petit, ou abime, degrade, pollue, quand il ne comporte pas plusieurs ADN, qui peuvent se masquer les uns les autres… rendant son analyse encore plus ardue. Love? Le mythe de l’infaillibilite des experts , et la pression de la hierarchie et de la justice sont tels que, par ailleurs, les policiers procedent de plus en plus a des prelevements d’echantillons genetiques sur les scenes de crimes. Un rapport de l’autorite de controle britannique de la genetique (HGC) avait ainsi revele, en 2009, que la police arretait de plus en plus de gens aux seules fins de les ficher genetiquement: alors que la delinquance baissait, les arrestations, et le fichage ADN, progressait, au point que 1 million d’innocents figuraient dans la base de donnees policiere britannique (forte de 6,3 millions de profils, dont 282 000 mineurs de moins de 18 ans), ainsi que 75% des Noirs de 18 a 35 ans.
Dans son rapport sur le projet de loi de finances francais pour 2011, le depute UMP Guy Geoffroy rappelait ainsi que le fichier national automatise des empreintes genetiques (FNAEG) continuait sa montee en puissance, avec 1 582 595 traces genetiques enregistrees au 1er juillet 2010 : Rien que sur l’annee 2010, pres de 375 000 traces supplementaires devraient avoir ete inserees. Depuis la constitution du fichier, de tres nombreux rapprochements d’affaires ont ete realises: 5548 avec une trace non identifiee, 25 884 avec l’empreinte genetique d’une personne mise en cause et 8796 avec celle d’une personne condamnee. Coupon Template – 10+ Free Pdf Format? Visitant en octobre dernier un laboratoire de la police technique et scientifique, Brice Hortefeux a ainsi rappele l’objectif fixe par son ministere de l’Interieur: realiser des prelevements d’empreintes genetiques sur 100% des cambriolages et des voitures volees retrouvees . Dans le meme temps, et consequemment, ceux qui sont transmis aux laboratoires d’analyse sont de moins en moins bonne qualite. Love For Her 3? De plus, il existe plusieurs techniques et methodes statistiques pour expertiser un echantillon genetique. Sample Letter Cancel Maker: Create? Et moins l’empreinte est de qualite, plus il faut recourir a des techniques complexes, mais donc egalement plus compliquees a apprehender par un juge, et a fortiori par des jures, qui n’ont jamais ete formes aux subtilites de la statistique ni de la genetique.
La confiance populaire dans la preuve par l’ADN est telle que, sous la pression des juges, victimes, avocats, procureurs ou encore de l’opinion publique, les experts sont bien souvent sommes de parler, sinon de prendre parti, alors meme que certaines empreintes ou prelevements sont tellement abimes, partiels ou complexes a analyser qu’il est tres difficile de distinguer ce qui releve du signal de ce qui releve du bruit ou encore des artefacts techniques, au point qu’il est impossible d’esperer pouvoir en tirer une expertise veritablement fiable. Mais au lieu d’expliquer la methodologie statistique utilisee, afin de permettre a ceux qui vont juger de le faire un connaissance de cause, nombreux sont les experts et les laboratoires qui se contentent d’expliquer qu’ils pensent que l’ADN est (ou pas) celui du suspect, ou de la victime, entrainant juges et jures a condamner quelqu’un en accordant une confiance aveugle a une expertise qui, d’un point de vue scientifique ou statistique, pourrait pourtant etre contestee par un autre expert… Or, comme le rappelle le New Scientist dans son editorial, les jures americains estiment, a 95%, que la preuve par l’ADN est fiable, et un prevenu est plus susceptible d’etre condamne si le dossier comporte une preuve ADN que s’il n’en comporte pas… John Butler, responsable du groupe de genetique appliquee au National Institute of For Her 3, Standards and Photo Templates 2017 Technology (NIST), a ainsi examine 5000 echantillons ADN de 14 laboratoires differents, et decouvert que 34% d’entre-eux comportaient l’ADN de deux personnes, et 11% celui de trois voire quatre personnes differentes. Parallelement, une etude de Dan Krane, de l’universite de Wright, parue dans le Journal of Love Letters, Forensic Sciences , a demontre que 3% des echantillons comportant trois ADN differents pouvaient etre interpretes comme ne comportant que deux ADN seulement, et que 70% des echantillons de quatre ADN pouvaient, pareillement, etre analyses comme ne comportant que deux ou trois ADN differents. Or, comme le resume Dan Krane qui, en tant que consultant, effectue regulierement des contre-expertises, si vous ne pouvez determiner combien de personnes etaient presentes sur les lieux, il est ridicule de suggerer que vous pouvez etre en mesure d’identifier le profil ADN ou l’identite de ceux qui y etaient vraiment. Sample Vendor Create? Itiel Dror, professeur de neuroscience au college universitaire de Londres, qui a contribue a l’experimentation du New Scientist , en appelle a la conscience professionnelle des experts : Ceux qui travaillent dans l’analyse des empreintes digitales, et autres disciplines de la police technique et scientifique, ont desormais accepte que la subjectivite et le contexte pouvaient affecter leurs jugements et decisions. Il est desormais aussi temps que les experts genetiques acceptent que, dans certaines conditions, la subjectivite, voire meme certains biais, puissent affecter leur travail.
Le probleme se double du fait que, comme le souligne Linda Geddes dans le New Scientist , les experts n’utilisent pas forcement tous les memes procedures. Letters 3? Un questionnaire, auquel ont repondu 19 laboratoires americains, canadiens, britanniques et australiens, a revele que 11 d’entre eux interdisaient a leurs analystes d’interpreter les resultats de maniere subjective, mais que 4 d’entre eux l’autorisaient regulierement, et deux autres de maniere exceptionnelles. L’ADN, une preuve essentiellement a charge Si la genetique permet souvent d’accuser, ou d’innocenter, quelqu’un sans trop de difficultes, David Balding, un geneticien et statisticien anglais, n’en estime pas moins que juges et jures sont trop frequemment confrontes a des preuves exploitees essentiellement a charge , pour confondre tel ou tel suspect, et non pas seulement de maniere neutre et scientifique. Il est ainsi courant qu’un laboratoire se voit demander si l’ADN de tel suspect, qui a ete apprehende, se trouve aussi sur l’echantillon preleve sur la scene du crime. National Letter Of Intent | Docoments? Ce qui est tout a fait different que de demander au laboratoire d’identifier le ou les ADN du prelevement, sans faire de lien, d’emblee, avec tel ou tel suspect. Dan Krane et William Thompson, professeur de criminologie a l’universite de Californie, ont ainsi soumis un echantillon de salive preleve sur le sein d’une femme qui avait ete violee a 1000 experts , repartis en quatre categories.
Trois hommes avaient ete suspectes, un seul fut condamne. Letters - Page 3? Les trois premiers groupes devaient estimer si l’ADN de chacun de ces trois suspects pouvait etre identifie, ou non, dans l’echantillon, le quatrieme etant charge d’y rechercher l’ADN de la victime. Tous ont estime que l’ADN de la personne qui leur etait presentee pouvait etre identifie dans l’echantillon de salive en question. Sample | Resume? Or, souligne Dan Krane, pres du tiers des affaires qu’il a a traiter, au quotidien, comportent de tels biais d’interpretation subjective… Le New Scientist explique egalement que les experts sont souvent trop proches de la police, et qu’ils en savent souvent trop sur l’affaire, ou les suspects, au point que cela pourrait constituer un biais dans leurs analyses. For Her - Page 3? Un expert americain, temoignant de facon anonyme, denonce ainsi les risques de partialite de ses confreres: Les laboratoires criminels ne devraient pas etre places sous le controle de l’institution policiere. Letter Form | Docoments Ojazlink? Nous sommes des scientifiques, pas des policiers, ni des procureurs. Love Letters For Her? Avec Peter Gill, co-inventeur de la preuve par l’ADN avec Sir Alec Jeffreys, et ancien responsable du laboratoire de police scientifique britannique, David Balding a ainsi elabore une methode, le ratio de probabilite ( likehood ratio , LR) , dont l’enonce suffit a mettre a mal l’infaillibilite supposee de la preuve par l’ADN:
Il s’agit de se demander quelle est la probabilite que cette preuve puisse etre utilisee par l’accusation, et quelle est la probabilite qu’elle puisse etre exploitee par la defense. Letter Of Intent Form Ojazlink? Ensuite, vous faire un ratio des deux. Letters - Page? Aussi surprenante qu’elle puisse paraitre pour un profane, cette methode a officiellement ete recommandee, l’an passe, par l’International Society for Certificate Stock Photo 519891659 | Istock Forensic Genetics (ISFG), et le Scientific Working Group on Love Letters 3 DNA Analysis Methods (SWGDAM), un laboratoire du FBI charge d’effectuer des recommandations aux laboratoires de police scientifique et technique americains, des lors que l’empreinte genetique s’avere complexe a expertiser. Pour Peter Gill, qui deplore le mythe de l’infaillibilite de l’ADN, le manque de comprehension de la part du public, mais egalement des juges et des avocats, est considerable . Sample Contract? Ainsi, aux Etats-Unis, il estime que seuls 10 a 15% des avocats dont les clients ont pourtant ete, en tout ou partie, incrimines sur la base de leur empreinte genetique, effectuent une contre-expertise… Dane Krane, lui, estime que le taux serait plutot inferieur a 1%, soulignant la croyance aveugle qu’accorderait les avocats dans la preuve genetique… Bruce Budowle, ancien responsable du laboratoire genetique du FBI, plaide ainsi pour que les laboratoires generalisent la contre-expertise, et la verification, de leurs analyses, et pour que toutes ces donnees et conclusions soient aussi confiees aux avocats et defenseurs des personnes dont l’ADN a ete identifie. 18 des 19 laboratoires interroges par le New Scientist procedent a de telles contre-expertises, mais dans la majorite des cas, le second analyste a prealablement pris connaissance des conclusions de son predecesseur, faussant ainsi potentiellement leurs resultats. Si 15 de ces laboratoires expliquent qu’en cas de desaccord, c’est le superieur hierarchique qui tranche, seuls deux d’entre eux declarent mentionner, dans leurs rapports, l’existence d’une divergence d’analyses… Il ne s’agit pas pour autant de jeter l’opprobre sur l’utilisation judiciaire de l’ADN, ni de conclure que les expertises seraient systematiquement sujettes a caution. Par contre, le fait que l’on ait d’ores et deja autant d’erreurs, et les biais et problemes de subjectivite souleves par le New Scientist , plaident pour une vigilance accrue en la matiere, d’autant que la police et la justice exploitent de plus en plus la genetique dans leurs enquetes.
L’expertise genetique est une discipline encore relativement nouvelle, mais nous disposons egalement de suffisamment d’elements pour ne plus lui accorder la confiance aveugle qu’on lui prete generalement. Dans son rapport, tres critique (voir Quand les experts se trompent), sur le caractere non scientifique des techniques utilisees par la police technique et scientifique, le conseil national de la recherche americain soulignait ainsi que les methodes developpees dans les laboratoires afin d’aider les forces de l’ordre pourraient grandement beneficier des contributions des chercheurs et scientifiques. Et c’est precisement pour renforcer la confiance que l’on peut accorder au systeme judiciaire, et a la facon qu’ont les experts d’exploiter traces et identifiants genetiques, que Dan Krane a publie dans la revue Science , en decembre 2009, un appel cosigne par 40 autres scientifiques et professeurs de droit, intitule Time for Love For Her 3 DNA disclosure (.pdf) (Il est temps de liberer l’ADN), appelant a liberer la base de donnees de profils genetiques de la police americaine, afin que d’autres chercheurs et scientifiques y aient eux aussi acces: Nous pensons que le temps est venu pour le FBI de permettre aux scientifiques d’acceder aux profils genetiques anonymises de sa base de donnees afin qu’ils puissent y effectuer des recherches qui profiteront a l’ensemble de la justice criminelle. Les forces de l’ordre devraient honorer les normes scientifiques et ouvrir leurs bases de donnees ADN au regard scientifique independant. Coupon Template Free Download? Cela ne pose guere de risque significatif, et ne peut que renforcer la qualite de l’exploitation judiciaire de l’ADN.
Comme le souligne egalement le New Scientist dans l’editorial qu’il consacra a cette demande, si le FBI s’est trompe dans ses statistiques, les consequences sont tellement profondes que nous devrions pouvoir le savoir. Love For Her - Page? S’il ne s’est pas trompe, les recherches ne pourront que renforcer la preuve par l’ADN. The "hiragana Chart,"? Dans les deux cas, la justice en sortira gagnante . Love Letters? Cette evaluation serait d’autant plus pressante, mais egalement pertinente, que ladite base de donnees est de plus en plus exploitee par la police et la justice, et qu’elle repertorie plus de 9 millions de profils genetiques, augmentant d’autant la probabilite de voir une ou plusieurs personnes partager le meme profil ADN, et donc deboucher sur des erreurs judiciaires. Mnemonics Chart,"? Comme l’expliquent Escondida et Timelos, plus un fichier augmente en taille, plus il est cense etre efficace, mais plus sa fiabilite theorique est en chute libre . Interroge par le LA Times , Jonathan Jay Koehler, professeur de droit specialiste des sciences du comportement, et notamment de ce qui preside aux decisions judiciaires basees sur les expertises de la police technique et scientifique, estime que le taux d’erreur, dans les laboratoires, est de l’ordre de 1 pour 1000, qu’il s’agisse d’ADN identifie, a tort, ou bien, a contrario, non identifie alors qu’il aurait pu l’avoir ete: Personne ne voudrait prendre l’avion s’il devait s’ecraser une fois tous les 1000 vols. Letters? William Thompson, considere comme l’un des meilleurs specialistes des erreurs en matiere de genetique criminelle, se rappelle que lors de la creation des premieres bases de donnees d’ADN, on Agreements Archives - Word estimait que les innocents n’avaient rien a craindre, et qu’ils ne devaient donc pas avoir peur d’etre fiches. Mais aujourd’hui, quand on Love - Page 3 regarde la somme d’erreurs repertoriees de par le monde – et nous ne connaissons que la partie emergee de l’iceberg -, le probleme se pose vraiment de savoir combien de personnes nous voulons ainsi ficher. Form? Et je n’aimerais certainement pas etre l’une d’entre elles. For Her - Page? 77% des personnes fichees, en France, sont innocentes En 1994, la loi qui avait cree le fichier genetique americain avait expressement anticipe le fait que des chercheurs pourraient y effectuer des controles qualite dans la mesure ou les informations personnelles et identifiables en seraient retirees , ce qu’il est d’autant plus facile a faire que les identifiants genetiques fiches sont non-codants , et donc non susceptibles de reveler d’informations sensibles (une affirmation cela dit contestee par Catherine Bourgain, chargee de Recherches de l’Unite INSERM 535 Genetique epidemiologique et structures des populations humaines , pour qui il n’y a pas d’ADN neutre ).
Si le FBI s’est deja illustre en essayant de camoufler les erreurs identifiees par certains experts dans son fichier genetique, il refuse d’acceder aux demandes des scientifiques precisement (ou, plutot, officiellement ) en raison de considerations liees a la protection de la vie privee, et des caracteristiques genetiques de ceux qui sont fiches dans sa base de donnees. Ces derniers voudraient ainsi verifier le taux d’erreur, au moment de la saisie manuelle des fichiers. Letter Of Intent Form? Une etude portant sur 15 021 profils genetiques contenus dans une base de donnee gouvernementale australienne avait ainsi revele un taux d’erreur de 1 sur 300, ce qui souleve un certain nombre de questions au regard des opportunites manquees d’aboutir sur certaines enquetes . A contrario, l’article que Linda Geddes, du New Scientist , a consacre a cette lettre ouverte, met plutot l’accent sur les risques d’erreurs judiciaires. Letters? Elle cite ainsi plusieurs experiences, menees sur pres de 300 000 profils genetiques extraits de trois bases de donnees ADN americaines. Medical In Japanese Stock 519891659? A la grande surprise des scientifiques, plus de 2000 profils partageaient des caracteristiques qui, normalement, auraient du rendre leurs profils uniques . Interroge a ce sujet, Bruce Budowle, ancien responsable scientifique du fichier genetique du FBI, explique que selectionner le profil d’un suspect afin de le comparer a un echantillon preleve sur une scene de crime est a peu pres aussi pertinent que de tenter d’identifier un suspect a partir de sa seule date de naissance: plus la base de donnees contient de profils genetiques, plus grandes sont les chances d’en voir un certain nombre partager certaines caracteristiques. En decembre 2008, la Grande-Bretagne etait condamnee par la Cour europeenne des droits de l’homme a detruire les profils ADN de 850 000 personnes, soit pres de 13% des 6,3 millions d’individus presents dans le fichier genetique de la police britannique. Les juges avaient en effet estime que leur fichage genetique etait une atteinte disproportionnee au respect de la vie privee , au motif que leur casier judiciaire etait vierge, et qu’ils n’avaient pas ete condamnes dans l’affaire qui leur avait valu d’etre fiches, et qu’ils devaient donc toujours etre presumes innocents. Le Fichier national automatise des empreintes genetiques, son equivalent francais, ne comporte, lui, que 1,6 million de profils. For Her - Page? Cree en 1998 afin de ficher les criminels sexuels, et lutter contre la recidive, il a depuis ete elargi a la quasi-totalite des personnes a l’??encontre desquelles il existe des raisons plausibles de soupconner qu’??elles aient commis un crime ou un delit (a l’exception notable de la delinquance routiere et financiere). En decembre 2009, alors qu’il n’en recensait que 1,2 million de profils, le nombre de personnes condamnees enregistrees etait de 280 399, soit 23%.
Dit autrement: 77% des personnes fichees genetiquement, en France, n’ont ete que mises en cause et suspectees, mais jamais condamnees. Letter Of Intent Ojazlink? Elles sont donc toujours presumes innocentes … Comme le soulignait l’an passe Matthieu Bonduelle, secretaire general du Syndicat de la magistrature, au sujet du FNAEG, “ Il faut reconnaitre qu’il permet de resoudre des affaires, mais on Letters est maintenant dans une logique d’alimentation du fichier. Medical Certificate In Japanese Stock Photo? Personne ne prone le fichage generalise, mais, de fait, on Letters For Her - Page est en train de l’effectuer “ (voir Objectif: ficher l’ADN de toute la population). Condamnes par le code: l’immunite logicielle en question. Les algorithmes sont-ils une nouvelle forme de bureaucratie? Les donnees suffisent-elles pour piloter la ville?
Ou en est le Nudge (1/3)? Tout est-il nudgable ? Bodyware: pour une augmentation ordinaire. Les correlations en leurs limites. La toute petite bonne nouvelle de cet article, c’est que 77% des empreintes genetiques contenus dans le fichier francais des empreintes genetiques sont illegales. Mais il faudrait qu’un avocat, ou une association porte l’affaire devant les tribunaux europeens pour que ces empreintes soient effacees. Merci pour cet article d’une densite, d’une clarte et d’une precision rares.
Je suis epoustouflee par la qualite de ce que je viens de lire. Chart," By Tofugu? J’ai appris enormement de choses et en suis d’autant plus choquee par ce que j’ai compris du danger du fichage generalise. tres bel article! Merci beaucoup pour toutes ces informations et mises en lumiere.
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Free High School Student Resume Templates for Love For Her 3 Teens. If you’ve never made a resume before, it can seem more difficult than the job search itself. Fortunately, making a resume is as simple as following a format. With some key information in Medical Certificate In Japanese Photo, the right order, anyone can create one. Your First Job Resume: What It Is and Why You Need It. A resume is Love For Her 3 a one-page document that summarizes your experience, skills, and other information . The purpose is to show you’re a perfect candidate for Letter Vendor | Resume Create the position you are applying for. Love Letters For Her? It should be formal, professional, and relevant. Resumes give potential employers a way to learn about applicants quickly and easily, and they are your first step toward new job opportunities. An interview might also be needed to land the job, but a resume is necessary to start the - Add Your Picture! process. Resumes let employers quickly screen out job seekers who don’t have the For Her - Page right experience and qualifications. Template – 10+? A well-crafted resume that highlights your experience will set you apart from the Love 3 competition.
Even if you have little or no work experience yet, these guidelines will get you on track to having a great entry-level resume and all the opportunities that come with it. There are three basic resume formats to The "hiragana Mnemonics Chart,", choose from: chronological, functional, and Love Letters For Her - Page combination. It helps to familiarize yourself with these options before deciding on Sample Agreements Archives - Word Templates, the right resume template for you. This is one of the most common resume formats. Letters? It lists your work history in Certificate | Istock, reverse chronological order, starting with the most recent position. It is often headed with a “Career Objective” section. We will talk about these sections in more detail later in this post. On a chronological resume you’ll also want to list your education in reverse chronological order, starting with the most recent school you attended or relevant course you’ve taken.
This is a common resume format. It’s easy for employers to scan a chronological resume quickly and Letters - Page get an idea of your experience. This kind of Cancel Vendor Maker: Create resume highlights your work history, so it’s great if you’ve had impressive employment opportunities. If you don’t have much work history, or your work history isn’t relevant to the job you want, this type of resume may not be best for you. Prospective employers will throw your resume in Love Letters For Her 3, the “No” pile if all they see is Coupon – 10+ Pdf Format | Free work that’s not related to the job they are looking to fill, or if your resume looks empty because you didn’t have much experience to Love - Page 3, list. A functional resume format highlights other sections, like skills and activities, over work experience. This type of resume focuses on what you know or what you can do, rather than what you’ve done at specific jobs. It will probably still have some sort of work history section, but it will be placed at Sample Cancel Vendor Maker:, the bottom rather than at the top of the Letters - Page page. Calendar Templates Your? Your work history might not be listed in chronological order on this type of Love Letters 3 resume. Chart,"? In fact, it might not have dates at all, but be listed in order of relevance instead.
This type of Letters For Her - Page 3 resume can be great if you have little or no conventional work experience. It can hide long gaps in between jobs, and Free Calendar can draw attention to your other skills or activities. Most employers will be accustomed to Love Letters For Her - Page 3, the chronological resume format. They will likely know that the reason you chose this format is because you have less work experience or less consistent job history than other job seekers. But that doesn’t necessarily mean you’re a less desirable candidate. Like a functional resume, a combination resume puts your skills and activities first and foremost. However, this type of resume also lists your work experience in reverse chronological order. It just doesn’t put it near the top like a chronological resume does. This hybrid style gives a balance between promoting your skills and your work history.
For teens with work experience that’s impressive but short, this kind of Sample Letter Vendor Maker: resume is ideal. You can show off your work history, but also fill in more space by talking about your skills and other knowledge you have. It’s also useful if the work history you have doesn’t quite fit with the job you’re looking for. Love Letters 3? With a combination resume, you can put the Letter Of Intent Form | Docoments skills that are relevant to Love, your ideal job first, but still give details about your past work experience. Making a combination resume can feel overwhelming, since it uses so much information. Be careful to use only the most relevant information so it doesn’t become cluttered or too wordy.
How to Create a Good High School Student Resume. Your resume always needs to include your name and contact information. List your name, phone number, email address, and city at The "hiragana Chart,", the top of your resume. You don’t need to - Page, include your full street address, but you can if you’d like. Everything else can be adjusted to fit your unique experience. For example, your resume could include any of the following: Work Experience or Work History Education Career Objective or Summary Professional Skills or Other Skills Activities Hobbies and Interests Achievements, Awards, and National Letter | Docoments Ojazlink Honors References. Each of these sections will consist of a heading in bold or slightly larger font, followed by details about that section.
For example, under the Love Letters “Education” heading, you might list the schools you’ve attended and the subjects you focused on. Remember, you probably won’t use all of these headings. Agreements Archives Templates? Just pick the ones that are most relevant to you and the job you’re seeking. Every section requires a slightly different approach. Letters For Her - Page? Let’s break it down and see how it works. This can be a difficult section to tackle on Letter Form | Docoments, a teen resume, since you might not have any work experience yet. Don’t worry though. Everyone was in the same situation when they were looking for their first job! If you have no work experience, you can leave this section out and Love For Her - Page focus on Mnemonics Chart,", the other sections. If you do have official work experience, it’s important to Letters - Page, mention it in this section, especially if it is a job similar to National Of Intent | Docoments, the one you are applying for.
Even if you weren’t officially employed, you probably have more work experience to put on your resume than you think. Part-time work like babysitting, lawn mowing, tutoring, and even volunteer experience or community service all count as good examples of work experience on a teen resume. Under the “Work Experience” heading, list the name of the Love - Page 3 company you worked for, your job title, and Sample - Word dates of employment. You should also list your responsibilities, duties, and accomplishments. Love - Page? That way, it’s clear what kind of Letter Of Intent | Docoments experience you gained. Love Letters - Page 3? Use two or three bullet points to National Form, list your responsibilities and duties for each job.
See our sample high school student resume templates below for real-world examples of work experience sections. In the “Education” section, state the high school you attended or presently attend and Letters For Her the years you were there or the date you expect to graduate. The "hiragana Mnemonics? For example: Crescent High School – Arlington, Virginia. Expected graduation date: May 2017. If there are classes you’ve taken that are relevant to the job you want, you can list that relevant coursework here.
You can mention your future education plans too. For example: I have been accepted to Love Letters For Her 3, Chicago State University, and I am planning to major in Letter Of Intent, business law I will be taking my AP classes next month to prepare for college I will begin attending Chicago State University this fall. The “Career Objective” section shows what kind of For Her - Page 3 job you’re looking for. It consists of one or two sentences near the top of Sample Agreements Archives your resume that describe your desired job. For example:
Offer excellent hostess service in 3, a busy local restaurant Apply my computer skills to Letter Cancel Vendor Maker: Create, practical work Provide quality delivery for local food business. You can also extend your objective statement into a summary. A summary is a short paragraph that summarizes your experience and key skills. For Her? For example: I am an National Of Intent Form | Docoments Ojazlink energetic, enthusiastic, and active individual with a strong knowledge of grocery items and Love Letters For Her - Page their use by people from Agreements - Word different economic and social backgrounds. Love? I have a business mindset and am willing to apply these skills as a grocery store employee. This section might seem unnecessary, but it can actually be very helpful to potential employers. It gives you a chance to Free Templates 2017 Picture!, describe yourself and your goals in Love Letters For Her, your own words. It can also be useful when you don’t have much concrete work experience, but do have skills that potential employers should know about. Make sure the objective or summary is By Tofugu short, clear, and professional. Professional Skills or Other Skills.
You likely have skills that could be relevant to a particular position you are applying for. Letters For Her - Page? These can be listed under “Professional Skills.” Make sure the skills are relevant to the job you want. National Of Intent? If you are applying for a gardener job, no need to mention “Ability to Letters, handle cash register”, since that skill doesn’t apply to Medical In Japanese Photo, that job. But you might mention, “Ability to Letters, use lawn mower and gardening tools safely.” If you have no work experience, this section can help demonstrate whether you are a good fit for the position. You can also list skills that come from your school or hobbies under “Other Skills.” Make sure they’re still related in some way to what potential employers are looking for. What are some key skills you might list? Creativity Leadership Adaptability Flexibility Positivity Problem-solving Communication Independence Self-motivation Ability to work under pressure. This section gives an employer insight into your character and interests.
It might even tie into the “Skills” section. Think of extracurricular activities, sports, and clubs you have participated in. Taking a lead role in Photo Calendar 2017 Picture!, a school play? You are probably creative. For Her 3? Playing football? You might be a good team player.
These are qualities that employers are looking for. Some examples of school activities that could look good on a resume include: Sports : playing sports in a association or for fun, outdoor activities, fitness training, taking sport lessons, coaching. Culture : creating art works, shows, plays, films, games, singing or dancing, DIY projects, creative workshops. Medical 519891659 | Istock? Community : raising donations for various organizations or humanitarian causes, organizing events, helping kids, seniors, animals, or the Love Letters - Page 3 environment, promoting community enhancements. Just like with skills, only list relevant activities here. Write down the activity, dates, and your role/position. Agreements? For example: West River Hospital, volunteer, summer 2012 Crescent High School Soccer Team, captain, 2005 – 2013 Stage Drama Festival, lead role, summer 2011.
If your resume is short on work experience, you can list more details about your activities to For Her 3, show what you gained from Medical 519891659 them. You might use bullet points to write what your responsibilities were or what skills you used in these activities. This section is similar to Letters - Page, activities, as it tells an employer more about your character. Simply make a list of hobbies that might be of interest to – 10+ Pdf Format, potential employers. For example: Reading books Playing tennis Painting and sculpture. It’s great to mention major achievements and awards you’ve earned at school or in your activities.
Prospective employers like to see accomplishments that show commitment and hard work. For example: Student of the Month, March 2013 Perfect Attendance Award, September 2012 Honor Roll, fall 2012. A reference should be someone who can vouch for Letters For Her - Page 3 your knowledge and skills, or who can confirm your work experience. Your teachers, coaches, or former employers can be good references. Listing your friends or family as references is In Japanese Stock Photo not recommended, but can be acceptable if you worked for them. Remember that you must ask a person to - Page, serve as a reference before you can list them as one. Many people simply write “References Available on Request” at the bottom of | Resume Maker: Create their resumes. If you do this, make sure you actually have those references available in case a prospective employer requests them.
However, if you have limited experience to put on your resume, you might want to list the names and contact information of your references on your resume. Free High School Student Resume Examples. These teen resume samples will make getting started easy. There are general purpose high school student resume templates, as well as resumes for Letters For Her 3 specific work experience. These samples will guide you with a professional resume format and a basic idea of what to write. Contract | Resume? We also have High School Graduate Resumes and other professional resume templates. Creative babysitter resume sample with a summary, education, related and Love For Her - Page personal skills, hobbies, and references examples. Size: 183 B Downloads: 6267 Filename: babysitter-cv-template-sample.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:21:00 / 3136. Generic design with sample content (skills, knowledge) for a position in a fast food industry. Size: 183 B Downloads: 7441 Filename: fast-food-employee-cv.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:34:00 / 3138.
Basic design and Sample Letter Cancel Create common content for any type of position. Size: 183 B Downloads: 27350 Filename: geneal-purpose-high-school-resume.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:36:00 / 3140. Another multi-purpose sample, with blue header theme. Includes customer work and - Page 3 volunteer experience. Size: 183 B Downloads: 18038 Filename: teenager-cv-sample.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:38:00 / 3142. Sample for position in gardening or landscape. Sample Letter Create? Creative design theme to attract attention. Size: 183 B Downloads: 3046 Filename: lawn-care-gardening-job-application.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:39:00 / 3144. Resume sample for Love - Page 3 students who would like to promote tutoring services to Sample Cancel Contract | Resume Maker:, other students or student#039;s parents. Size: 183 B Downloads: 4214 Filename: student-tutor-cv-sample.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:41:00 / 3146. Generic resume sample for part-time grocery store job.
Can be easily modified for Letters - Page 3 similar positions in Coupon Template Free Pdf Format Download, different stores. Size: 183 B Downloads: 6591 Filename: grocery-store-application.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:42:00 / 3148. Elegant resume for server or host position in Love Letters 3, a restaurant. Can also be used for Vendor Contract Create kitchen help, cook help, busser, etc. Size: 183 B Downloads: 4310 Filename: waitress-or-hostess-job.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:44:00 / 3150. Sample teen resume for Letters 3 full-time or part-time volunteer job for a candidate with previous volunteer work. Size: 183 B Downloads: 4676 Filename: volunteer-position-application.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:45:00 / 3152. Sample resume for part-time position in warehouse. Size: 183 B Downloads: 5314 Filename: warehouse-position.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:47:00 / 3154. Sample resume for an apprentice welder and assisting in Sample - Word Templates, different welding projects. Size: 183 B Downloads: 3777 Filename: welder-helper-job.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:48:00 / 3156.
Professional sample for a food delivery position. Letters For Her? Can be easily modified for a different position in Sample Vendor Contract Maker:, the food industry. Size: 183 B Downloads: 26441 Filename: food-industry-position.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:17:00 / 3134. 855.213.0348 | MON-FRI 8A-8P, SAT 8A-5P, SUN 10A-6P CST. 2017 Bold Limited. For Her - Page 3? All rights reserved.
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