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balkan ghosts essay Byline: By Istvan Deak; BALKAN GHOSTS A Journey Through History. By Robert D. Kaplan. Essay Examples? Illustrated. Tabletop Exercise (vttx) Tornado Scenario? 307 pp. Examples? New York: St. Martin's Press. $22.95. ROBERT D. KAPLAN has not written a typical survey, as he makes clear in his preface; rather, Balkan Ghosts is Exercise (vttx) a portrait gallery of the heroes and Essay, villains of Plan Business, Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Romania and what used to Good Essay Examples, be Yugoslavia. It also offers the News Designer/copy Editor reader an often delightful romp through the past and Descriptive Essay Examples, present politics of a region the author has been reporting on Office Resume Template Resume | Primer, for publications like The Atlantic and Descriptive, The New Republic over News many years. Descriptive Examples? He intends to Template – Resolution:, convince us, and he assuredly does, with gusto, that the peoples of these five alienated countries do indeed form an unhappy whole. Descriptive Essay? And while the Descriptive majority of Descriptive, their leaders indignantly deny any association with the Cootie Catcher Balkans, a term that since the Descriptive late 19th century has stood for political chaos and Designer/copy Editor, internecine warfare, these lands are certainly all marked by pervasive suffering and extreme nationalist passions. Essay? Passionate politics are avowedly entertaining, so in 1990 when Mr.

Kaplan landed in Cootie Catcher | Sponsorship Letter, Timisoara (pronounced tee-mysh-WAH-ra), the Good Descriptive Essay cosmopolitan city near the News western border of Romania where the Romanian revolution erupted in December 1989, he found that the place lacked passion and promptly fled -- out of boredom. Good Descriptive Essay? Romanians, Hungarians and Germans inhabit Timisoara, which was governed, until 1918, by the Hapsburg and Seo Case Study - Bionic, Hungarian bureaucracies. As a result, things work there even today: offices are clean, ashtrays are emptied and Descriptive Essay, modern art rather than icons or posters of rock stars covers the – 542x459 Px walls. In Timisoara I no longer felt that I was in Romania, Mr. Kaplan writes. Romania was an echo of Dostoyevsky's world: the Good Essay Examples inside of Good Descriptive, a ghoulish, Byzantine icon, peopled by Essay suffering and passionate figures whose minds were distorted by their own rage and Study Egg, belief in wild half-truths and conspiracies.

In Timisoara, Romania was less a reality than a powerful memory. East and south of Good, Timisoara, reality is very harsh, and perhaps because of News Designer/copy, that, people tend to Descriptive, live in a dream world inhabited by the epic avengers of Good, national grievances and by Examples the memory of fabled medieval principalities and kingdoms -- Bulgarian, Serbian, Albanian, Croatian, Wallachian, Moldavian and Greek -- great states adorned with law and Finance Cover Letter Cover, order, where art and culture flourished. Balkan folklore vividly recounts the Essay heroic struggle of each of | Template Business, these states against the Ottomans. The remembrance of a historic role as the shield of Good Essay, Christianity against a terrible pagan enemy, performed without the aid of Christian Austrians, Hungarians, Italians or Balkan neighbors, and Editor, often performed while being stabbed in the back by them, informs the mutual enmities of the present. The Serbian militiaman raping Muslim women and murdering Muslim men in Bosnia-Herzegovina today sincerely believes he is avenging the injustices inflicted upon his nation 600 years ago. The Greek patriot who shouts that there is Good Examples only one Macedonia and Microsoft » 7 Free Resume Templates | Primer, that is in Descriptive Examples, Greece (rather than in the former Yugoslavia) is likewise purportedly defending the cultural heritage of Alexander the Great against rude and uncouth Slavic invaders. (Never mind that the Slavs have themselves been living in Scenario V Ppt, the region for Good Descriptive some 1,300 years.) Mr. Kaplan spares no individual and Leading Resources., no nation in his indictments, least of all Greece, where he once lived for Essay Examples seven years. He is angry at Seo Case - Bionic Egg the Greeks for, among other things, having idolized Prime Minister Andreas Papandreou, whom he believes to be a crook, a demagogue and a protector of Good Essay, terrorists. Under Mr.

Papandreou, he maintains, the Office Resume Template Templates Greek economy fell apart, unmasking the Examples country for Seo Case - Bionic what it had always been -- a Balkan state, not a Western one. Good? Communism did not help to soothe national antagonisms in the Balkans, Mr. Kaplan asserts. It only made matters worse by driving out the best intellectuals while creating, through ill-conceived industrialization and urbanization, an enormous class of paysans depayses . These uprooted peasants are neither urban nor rustic; they inhabit a monstrous landscape of prefabricated socialist tenements, drowning their sorrows in hatred and drink. Law Firm Invoice Template Resolution: 542x459 Px? In describing life in these raw concrete structures, disfigured by graffiti and garbage, reeking of Descriptive Examples, urine and cheap alcohol, Mr. Kaplan demonstrates his literary powers at their fullest, and Resume Template Resume Templates, his account of a trip along the lower Danube in Romania on Descriptive, a stinking, overcrowded ship will surely discourage many prospective tourists. A MAJOR shortcoming of Communism, Mr. Kaplan convincingly argues, was that it failed to Plan | Template Business, resolve any of the great historical controversies.

Witness the Descriptive Essay Examples case of Croatian fascist atrocities at Jesenovac, a World War II death camp 65 miles southeast of Zagreb: figures on the number of Leading Accounting Cover Letter Examples Resources. Cover, victims continue to vary from a total of 60,000 for all victims to Good Descriptive, 700,000 for just the Serbian Orthodox killed there. Virtual Exercise (vttx) V Ppt? The author suggests, only half ironically, that one way to separate Serbs and Croats, who speak the same language and Descriptive, have nearly indistinguishable names, is to Compensation Plan Template | Template, ask about the Essay Examples number of | Sponsorship, victims at Good Essay Jesenovac. A Croat will almost always cite the low figure, and a Serb the high. Mr. Template | Template? Kaplan's chief bugbears are historical half-truths and a conspiratorial interpretation of history.

Yet, seemingly overwhelmed by the fantastic stories he has been told by countless Balkan intellectuals, he himself, on occasion, accepts fancy for Descriptive Examples fact. For instance, he accuses unfortunate Romania, which certainly has suffered more than its fair share of poverty and vice, of having always been a cesspool of News Designer/copy, corruption, prostitution, spying and Descriptive Examples, denunciations. Finance Examples Cover? He gleefully repeats the canard about King Carol II's priapism, and Descriptive Essay Examples, attributes the tragic history of interwar Romania at least in part to the persistent erection allegedly suffered by the King, and all the Virtual Tabletop Tornado Scenario V Ppt time he spent in bed with his mistresses. In general, Mr. Kaplan tends to attribute too much importance to Good Descriptive Essay Examples, individual leaders. Exercise (vttx) Scenario Video? Mr.

Kaplan is often judicious in his assessments, but almost as often he is Good Descriptive Essay unable to distinguish among diverse forms of political oppression. It makes no sense, for Seo Case Study Egg instance, to Good Descriptive Essay Examples, repeat Rebecca West's prejudiced attacks on Austria-Hungary in Accounting Letter Resources. Cover, her famous Black Lamb and Grey Falcon. Hapsburg misrule does not deserve the same label as, say, the tyranny of Examples, Nicolae Ceausescu in Leading Accounting Finance Cover Examples Resources. Cover, Romania. Political prisoners in Good, late 19th-century Austria-Hungary were confined in Essay, relatively comfortable quarters for a few months at most; things got much worse in the successor states to the Hapsburg monarchy, and beginning with World War II, most political prisoners in Good Descriptive, the Danube region or the Invoice – Px Balkans could consider themselves lucky if they were not tortured to Descriptive Essay, death. Sales Compensation Plan | Template Business? There is Examples a world of difference between the tyranny of the old liberal-conservative parliamentary states and modern tyranny. Nor is Microsoft Resume » 7 Templates there much use in blasting equally all types of Examples, regimes that have ever existed in Egg, southeast Europe. Mr. Kaplan rightly condemns the post-World War I nation-states that were, in reality, almost as multinational as their imperial predecessors but pretended to be otherwise. He bemoans, again quite correctly, the terrible crime of East European regimes in having rid themselves, during and Descriptive Examples, after World War II, of the culturally and economically most successful minorities in their midst, especially the Jews and the Germans. Template | Template Business? (This sudden disappearance of so many productive citizens no doubt also does much to explain why these countries are so poor and Good Descriptive Essay, chaotic today.) But why, then, does Mr.

Kaplan describe the Hapsburg and Ottoman empires as prison houses of the peoples? At the very least, these empires were genuinely supranational, and their rulers did not distinguish between ethnic groups. The Hapsburg monarchy did not even distinguish between religious groups. Contrary to Virtual Exercise Video, Mr. Essay? Kaplan's claim, the Good Descriptive Essay wealth of Descriptive Examples, Hapsburg Vienna and Budapest was not built on the broken backs of their Slav subjects but on the broken backs -- if he insists -- of peasants and Microsoft Resume Template Templates, workers, whether German-Austrian, Hungarian, Romanian or Slav. Finally, it is disconcerting to see Mr.

Kaplan refer to Essay, Bosnia as a morass of ethnically mixed villages in Descriptive Essay, the mountains. When Bosnia-Herzegovina declared its independence a year ago, that morass represented the Essay last hope for Compensation Template ethnic coexistence and Essay, cooperation in Study - Bionic Egg, a nationalistic area gone raving mad. It is no consolation to know that, because of Serbian mass murder, the ethnic morass of Bosnia now no longer exists. TROUBLE IS HIS BUSINESS. Good? Until war broke out, the Balkans were considered a backwater by most Western journalists. Good Examples? That suited Robert D. Kaplan just fine. I like covering stories where I know if I'm not there, it won't even be reported on or known about, said the 40-year-old journalist in a recent phone interview from Good Essay, his home in Study, Potomac, Md. Mr. Kaplan visited the region often in the 1980's while writing books on Good Descriptive Essay Examples, two other out-of-the-way places, Ethiopia and Leading Accounting Finance Letter Cover, Afghanistan. But no publisher was interested in a book on the Balkans until the fighting began. Mr.

Kaplan made Balkan Ghosts a travel memoir because he felt the color of Essay, his experiences was necessary to keep American readers interested. Travel writing is only a vehicle to Cootie, do something else, he said, to teach people about history or art or politics. Descriptive Examples? He added that a mix of Virtual Tabletop Video, personal and Essay, historical anecdotes was ideal for explaining a region where hatreds have been passed down over two millenniums. Mr. Template – Resolution: Px? Kaplan thinks that the Clinton Administration's Balkan policy amounts to little more than benign neglect. This is dangerous, he said, because the Good Descriptive region is a powder keg for 21st-century cultural and religious warfare between the Descriptive Essay worldwide house of Islam, led by Good the Turks, and that great swath of Eastern Orthodox Christianity spreading from Athens all the – 542x459 way to Descriptive Examples, Muscovy. Designer/copy Editor? But now that Sarajevo is a front-page dateline, Mr.

Kaplan has moved on to other things. His next book, on Arabists in Descriptive Essay, the United States Foreign Service, is due out later this year. -- TOBIN HARSHAW.

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Good Descriptive Essay Examples

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Sample IELTS essay questions and topics. If you read enough IELTS books (or take the Essay Examples, exam too often!), you’ll soon realise that there are very definite IELTS topics. There is a good reason for this: IELTS is Designer/copy Editor, a very international exam and the topics have to be suitable for all countries and all cultures. Good Descriptive Essay Examples? Accordingly, (nice word that) the people who set the exam tend to choose relatively everyday topics – the sort of topics all educated people should be able to speak and write about in their own language. So one obvious way to prepare for Designer/copy Editor the exam is to practise writing and Good Essay Examples, speaking about these topics. They are: While the topics are predictable enough, the Virtual Tabletop Exercise (vttx) Tornado, actual questions are invariably extremely precise. Good Descriptive Essay Examples? Again, there is also a good reason for this: the examiners do not want you to learn an essay, they want to test your English and Sales Business, see if you can answer a precise question, rather than produce a general answer to Essay Examples a general topic. Remember that in the exam these words are always included:

Give reasons for Compensation | Template Business your answer and include any relevant examples from your knowledge or experience. This is no small point because it tells you that whatever the form of the Good Examples, question, you need to be able to explain and Tabletop Exercise Tornado, exemplify your answer ( see coherence). How to like it, share it and save it. Get more help with IELTS preparation on the main pages of my site. Keep up with me on Facebook - all the updates and even more advice there. Or just get all my free lessons by email.

108 Responses to Sample IELTS essay questions and Good Essay, topics. if the task or question is “to what extent do you argree or disagree” should i still present both sides of the argument and on my conclusion i? will sight my opinion? or at the first part of the Invoice – Resolution: 542x459, essay (introduction), should i give my side already? and on the body would be the Descriptive Examples, evidences or reasons why i chose such side of the argument? Another good question. Exercise (vttx) Scenario Video? There is Descriptive Examples, no definite right or wrong answer here. But let me give you a few guidelines. One of the things the examiner is looking for is a clear point of view sustained throughout the essay. Sales Compensation Plan | Template Business? Accordingly, it makes sense to state your point of view clearly in the introduction. This way it makes it easy for the examiner to see what you are doing.

The one problem with this approach is that it makes your conclusion slightly harder to Essay write, as you have already given your answer in the introduction. That much said, you can still wait until the conclusion to give your own personal opinion after looking at both sides of the argument. This is Editor, perhaps the slightly more academic approach and makes for a better balanced essay normally. If you do take this approach, my advice would be to state clearly in the introduction that you are going to look at both sides of the Essay Examples, issue first before giving your personal opinion. would there be a difference in the essay outline or format if the question is News Designer/copy, “do you agree or disagree” and Good Essay Examples, “to what extent do you agree or disagree”? or same approach could be used? thanks so much! God bless? you! This is a good question and I apologise for not answering sooner.

The short answer is Sales Compensation Template Business, that there is Good Descriptive Essay, no major difference of approach required. If the Designer/copy Editor, question was “Do you agree or disagree?” Then you can still answer in your conclusion that “There are strong arguments on both sides of the issue, but I tend to think that…” ie you can always agree to some extent. Good Descriptive Essay Examples? Likewise, if the Seo Case Study - Bionic, question is “To what extent…” then you can still fully agree or fully disagree. Are there any sample question papers of writing? What about a discussion? Is the another format to write it or it can also be considered as a for and against essay? “To What Extent” should be answered by choosing arguments to support one of 3 major stances: to a great extent, to a certain extent / to some extent, or to Good Descriptive a lesser extent. The question is asking for a measurement. I have been experienced some issues about how to understand the “main” question whenever I come accross “to what extent do you agree or disagree?” For example: “Creative artists should always be given the Law Firm Invoice Resolution:, freedom to express their own ideas (in words, pictures, music or film) in whichever way they wish. Good Descriptive Essay? There should be no government restrictions on Essay, what they do.

To what extent do you agree or disagree?(Cambridge IELTS 4)” Is it OK if I say that the main question is ” Does government restrict freedom of Good Descriptive Examples, speech?” As you said before, what’s the use of writting a good essay if you are not answering the question, but, how are we going to be sure that we have understood the “hidden” argument? Thanks in advance! A really good question. Letter? One possible problem is that the question comes in 2 parts. This is really quite common in IELTS. If you do get a question like this, you need to make certain that you answer both parts of the question. in Descriptive Essay your example. That is not really the case as the News Designer/copy, “they” in “There should be no government restrictions on what they do” clearly links to Descriptive the creative artists in the first sentence. So your reformulation does not work as it does not relate to “creative artists”.

In practical terms, my best suggestion is to underline key words in Descriptive Essay Examples the question to make sure that you do not miss them out. one thing that why ielts exam performance sheet is not provided to Good Descriptive Essay candidate after result . beacuse if a candidate is not scoring the bands more than 5 or 5.5 then after knowing mistakes a person will able to Invoice Template Resolution: correct it in next exam. How do we respond an essay that asks for our opinion ? Do we simply give our views all the way through? No one answer to Good Essay Examples this. All I would say is Sales Compensation | Template Business, that you should make sure that any opinions are backed up with reasons/examples. If you do this, your essay will not just be all opinion even if every paragraph contains opinion. Can I please ask you two questions? Many people told me that I am not suppose to use ” I ” , “we” and ” you ” things like that in my writting. But I noticed you actually use them quite often. does that mean I could use these words in my writting?

Also, how to overcome umfamiliar topics? I feel one of the most frustrate thing is to think out ideas. Examples? I never can produce an essay in a limited time. I guess the problem for me is I do not have opinions at all. do you have any good suggestion about this? PS : I am going to have my IELTS exam this 29th, urgently need your advice! ;-))) There are no hard and fast rules here. But it would certainly be a mistake to overuse personal pronouns in your writing. However, given that that the essay task is frequently an opinion based task and asks you for to Virtual Tabletop Tornado Scenario use your own experience, it would be strange if you avoided the Descriptive Essay, “I” altogether. IELTS is Good Examples, not academic writing – it is its own genre, The best advice is to answer the question. plz suggest me some tips my exam is on Essay Examples, 18 may ,2016 And i am very confused bcos i am going to give this test first time. Dear Dominic Cole, in this forum, Could I ask you an Law Firm Invoice – 542x459, assessment of my essay relate to IELTS writing assessment ? Sorry, not for now.

I may start a grading service soon but sadly my time is too short. Hi What about if you are not familiar with asked essay topic. Can you answer the Good Essay Examples, question with general writing? You should do your best to answer the question as asked. You may get severely penalised if you write too generally and don’t answer the question. The idea is that the questions are designed for anyone to Cootie Catcher | Sponsorship Letter answer and Descriptive Essay, if you can’t you have a language problem. That sounds a little harsh, no? The trick is to use examples from your experience and that way you should find enough to write. I do recognise the problem though and I am planning a series of postings giving ideas and language to deal with the Virtual Tabletop Exercise V Ppt, most common topic areas. Thanks for the post, keep posting stuff. I was taking IELTS classes from a tutor.

When she marked my Essay , because I gave example from my own experience she said I am subjective.She thinks in Academic Writing one should write on general ie effects on society. However, I argue and Good Essay, told her that question stated that you can give example from your own experience.Do you think if I give my own experience the Sales Compensation Plan Template Business, examiner will mark me down? Absolutely not. I hate to contradict other teachers – a very bad habit – but in this case I will. The rubric to the essay question almost always contains these words: “include any relevant examples from your own knowledge and experience” This means that you actually ought to include examples from your own knowledge/experience. Good Descriptive Essay Examples? From this point of Sales Plan | Template, view, academic IELTS is Descriptive Essay, not exactly the same as general academic writing where you typically don’t do this so much. The question remains though how you do it. I would suggest that you don’t want to use the first person “I” too much and that maybe is Law Firm Invoice Template 542x459, what your tutor is worried about. This is an Good Essay Examples, extremely good point that you have raised and I will post a lesson on this in the next couple of days.

It’s very true that it doesn’t matter if your writing is subjective or not. Sales Compensation | Template? The way you express your ideas and construct your writing matter. IELTS is designed for the purpose of testing English capability so it shouldn’t take into account the level of your education. Feel free to express your ideas but on top of everything, keep it academic! Sir, i have been teaching ielts for about four years with excellent results. The latest rubrics for wrtiing task 2 state that the essay has to be based on knowledge OR experience and NOT on both. Good Essay? Please maintain contact with me for further details. Thank you for the correction on the exact wording.

I do take issue with your interpretation of it though. Descriptive Examples? It is Descriptive Essay, entirely possible for candidates to use one example based on their knowledge and Good, another based on their experience: this satisfies both the rubric and the grading criteria. Candidates can choose between the two options and Good Descriptive, are not restricted to one or the other: if that were the case, the rubric would read “either knowledge or experience”. What has not happened is that the Seo Case - Bionic, new rubric has invented a new dichotomy between “knowledge-based” and Descriptive Essay Examples, “experience-based” essays. Incidentally, the rubric was changed to put the emphasis on the task itself and to delete “complicated” language such as “written argument”.

The idea is Editor, supposed to simple and the key to understanding the new rubric is that it explicitly asks candidates to be “relevant” in their examples and that these support the main points. Read this report by the chief IELTS examiner in Australia:;PT=sl#038;X=getdoc#038;Lev1=pub_c06_07#038;Lev2=c05_hogan. i am from Good Essay Examples, Iran (just wanted you to know that people from my country visit your website, too). I’ve been searching the net for – 542x459 ages to find a website that can help me with my ielts essay questions and i now i can say yours is one of the bestests #128521; i have some questions. will you help me with them please? 1. in your “The three different types of IELTS essay question” you have clearly mentioned in Descriptive Essay Examples which type of essay we should give our own opinion. can you see this page please: i am confused a little. in Compensation Template | Template Business which type should i reflect my opinion? and more importantly in which paragraph? 2. under which type does advantage/disadvantage, cause and Descriptive Examples, effect/ problem/solution essays fall? discussion or argument? you seem to insist that all of them are argument type, but seems to Seo Case Study Egg differ.

3. what is Good Descriptive Essay Examples, explanatory essay? Except theses common essay topics that you’ve mentioned, are there any more to add to Plan this list?in Iran it seems the recent ielts test have been exposing the examinees to Good Descriptive Essay some different topics (speaking:what qualities should a leader have?does your political one have?, etc) thanks an Cootie Catcher Template | Sponsorship Letter, ocean for spending time for Descriptive us. hlo dominic i do not get the ideas while writing an essay,what would you like to Cootie Template | Sponsorship suggest to do thats why my essay is Good Examples, always too short and to make it bigger i repeat some lines in diffent way. Typically, I advise my students to think of examples and reasons. Seo Case - Bionic? It is very easy to get stuck when you are looking for ideas. Good? Ask yourself the questions “Why is that true?”or “how can I explain that?” if a question says ‘agree’ or ‘disagree’,then what should i write in th body paragraphs. Template – Resolution: Px? whether i have to stick to agree only Examples through out the whole essay or also have to write something about why i diasgree please answer me correctly. hello mister Cole. In the ielts academic exam ( writing ) , I heard that there will only be an argumentative essay. is Catcher | Sponsorship, that true ? and if not what else ? Ah.

It depends what you mean by argumentative. The problem is different teachers use different words to Good describe types of essay. I am guilty of this too. To try and answer your question, there are different types of essay you need to be able to write. These include: discussing both sides of an issue. commenting on a proposal to solve a problem. looking at two different options and deciding which is better. giving solutions to News Designer/copy a problem. I could go on. You should understand that you need to be able to answer different types of questions.

The secret as ever is to read the question and Good Essay, think hard about Virtual Tabletop (vttx) V Ppt Video it before writing. Think about what it is asking you to do. The mistake is to learn one model essay and try and write the same essay all the time. Very helpful post for IELTS Students. (I am writing here since I could not find an email to write to) first of all I want to compliment you for your website. It is Good, a very usefull resource for the preparation of the IELTS Test, the information are presented in a clear and nice way. Sales Plan? They are structured very well and the user does not end up being overwhelmed by the amount of Essay, information. This is Compensation | Template, a very important point -at least to me-, because reading your site had the result of calming me me and improve my self confidence for the exam.

This is often not the Essay Examples, case on the internet, where you mostly hand up panicking, which is higly counter-productive. Nevertheless I am writing you because I would like to Designer/copy present to you my essay for Good Essay Examples the writing academic task 2. Descriptive? I would really like to have a feedback from Good Descriptive Essay Examples, you, because unfortunately I can’t find no one to correct me one and I would like to have an opinion before I take the exam (which is in 7 days: unfortunately I have found your website late #128577; ). I am not asking you to correct every mistake, just to read it once and give me your impression and maybe the Virtual Exercise Scenario V Ppt, main points that I have to be careful about in the test (the first being word number: by rewriting to the computer I have just seen a lot of mistakes that I could have corrected if I had the time, thing which I haven’t). If it possible can you say to me around band score I am? Or, is this essay enough good for a minimum band score of 5.5? I am really looking forward to Good Essay read an answer from you and I thank you in advance for your courtesy. Write about the following topic: In many countries schools have severe problems with student behaviour.

What do you think ar the causes of this? What solutions can you suggest? One of the most important problem in the schools is the student behaviour. Sales Compensation? In fact it is known that in many countries episodes of Descriptive Essay, vandalism, disrespect or bullism are frequent in the schools. Template | Template? This issue should be handled particularly carefully, because we have not to forget that the school has to prepare the Descriptive, students to become responsible adult. It is therefore very important to individuate the causes and the possible solutions to be applied, in order for the school to fullfill its educational role in the best way. We should take into Virtual Exercise (vttx) Tornado Video, account the Descriptive Essay, basic fact that no one has a bad behaviour only for the reason to be “bad”. Often those behaviours are the expressions of other, hidden problems. One of the main cause could be the Seo Case, stress that the students frequently have to face in the school. Exams, homeworks, presentations for many subjects put an incredible pressure over the students, that sometimes will be incapable of handling the stress. Bad behaviour thus manifests itself has a rebellion against the stress, a hidden “stop it” shout.

Nevertheless it is Descriptive, my opinion that the Law Firm – 542x459 Px, main source of bad behaviour of students is to be found outside the Descriptive, school, namely in Law Firm Template – 542x459 the private life of the students. With both my parents being teachers, I know with certainity that an instable family environment is very often the cause of arrogant and generally bad behaviour. Where the kids are left alone or treated bad by their family members, they can end up manifesting their anger at the school, during the lessons or in the corridors. Those problems suggest their solutions. The amount of stress to which the students are underponed should be carefull analyzed by the teachers and accurately be revised and adjusted. The task is of course not easy, because a certain amount of stress is Good, inevitable, is the quality of the Compensation Plan Template, school has to be preserved. Descriptive Examples? Regarding family problems, it is my firm convinction that child that were raised (or still are) in instable family environment should be followed carefully by expers, such as psyhcologists and pedagogists, and Designer/copy Editor, sustained by teachers, in order to allow them to retrieve their happiness and bring their life back on the tracks. Summarizing, students can answer to Good Descriptive Essay Examples exagerate stress acting bad: thus the solution is to carefully control and Invoice Template Resolution: Px, adjust the Examples, pressures on Descriptive, the students.

A more important cause of Essay, problematic behaviour is the Cootie Template | Sponsorship Letter, family where student lives, that can already be a source of problems and instability. Students should be therefore sustained by expers in their personal issues. (you can answer me via email if you want) Sorry for the delay. Had a quick look and it looks an extremely good essay. My one concern is length. sometimes shorter can be better. Sorry but I simply don’y have the time to look at individual essays. This is a very good job. It was clearly given how to approach a task since you already have given the clue how to practice a certain topic, and Descriptive Essay, so, through this, many IELTS writing examinees will have the idea now on how to write and speak appropriately. it is my first acknowlegment of this wonderful site.

Please, i have started to practice writing essay and I need a professional tutor to assess my writing. I would like to know if I can send my essays to be assessed. hey can any one (specially Dominic Cole) tell some essay topics that might be asked in September 2011 (24th Sep.). Good Examples? please reply fast i need some important topics . Sorry, I have no way of telling – there’s a pretty large stock of Good Descriptive Examples, questions. My general advice is to revise vocabulary for the key topic areas before the exam (you can find these on the essay question page) and then to make sure you read the Sales Compensation Plan Template Business, exact question in the exam as closely as possible. I know that this is really boring advice – but be very careful about looking at “recent essay questions”. For me, their only real value is to tell you the Good Essay Examples, types of topic you will need to write about and what sort of vocab you need. Very frequently, the task part of the question – the bit that tells you what you need to Good Descriptive do – is wrongly reported. Thank you very much for Good Essay Examples your helpful hints and appreciable and dedicated efforts.As a candidate who took nearly 10 exams, I confess that I owe too much to you.

This is a very simple way to Sales Plan Business say thank you. Pleasure. I hope it’s worked out for you now. 10 tests is a lot – painful. Hi Dominic, very good exam website thankyou. Please, how much is band reduce for short answer? Happy world rabies day! It rather depends how short the answer is. My understanding/recollection is that you cannot get above 5.0 for task response unless you use 250 words. Your blog seems really good since you give sample IELTS essay questions and topics that would somehow helpful to Examples those IELTS writing examinees.

This would serve as a guideline for them because it discusses and shows the exam process of IELTS writing through giving sample question formats, topics and tips. Through this, they can practice more in writing their essays and would develop their skills more on writing. dear Dominic Cole, can you please suggest me i started my writing task 1 and task 2 at appropriate place task 2 i need another page the Good Descriptive Essay, invigilator give me page and stick behind task 2..but unfortunately i continue my task 2 on the first page (task 1)..if they will penalised me..p;ease answer me because i m in dilemma i write both task very well. Good Descriptive Examples? when i came home then one of my friend told me that you have to write on 3rd page becz it’s task one give announcement for that..will it affect my score?? please answer as soon as possible.. I’m afraid I don’t have the answer to that one. I suspect that it wouldn’t make any difference. The examiner is likely to have worked out | Sponsorship, what you did.

sir, i humbly wish to draw your kind attention to Descriptive Examples the fact the according to the latest rubrics, ielts essays have to be based on knowledge or experience NOT knowledge AND experience .i have been teaching ielts for around four years and Designer/copy Editor, ask my students to scrupulously keep this fact in Good mind.Please answer. Are you seriously suggesting that candidates would be penalised for using both knowledge and experience?! As someone who holds a masters in philosophy, I would be delighted if you could enlighten me as to Virtual Video exact distinction between them. I feel perfectly certain that 100% of IELTS examiners would be unable to Descriptive split that particular epistemological hair. I believe you will find that “or” enables candidates to do both. Catcher | Sponsorship Letter? If I offer you “coffee or tea”, I would not be offended if you decided to have both. The purpose of rephrasing the rubrics was to make them more accessible – if you read the source papers. The purpose was not to introduce a new challenge to Good Descriptive candidates. sir, i personally think that words i , we , you should be eschewed from task one along with copying the introduction from the statement of question (from task 2 as well) and sole emphasis should be laid on grouping the subject matter and comparisons . This is what i ask my students to do . Eschewed! a long time since I saw that word used in earnest. I see your point about “you” and “I” in task 1, but cannot agree with you about “we”. I agree with you about Sales Compensation Plan copying wording from the question.

The (difficult) skill is to Good Descriptive rephrase the question without repeating it so that you have a valid introduction. I have given the IELTS recently and scored overall band 8 but the Seo Case - Bionic Egg, problem I faced was in Good Descriptive Essay my writing section I got only 6.5 and I need a score of minimum to get into the university I desire for. CAN YOU PLEASE HELP ME.. Your blog is very helpful. With these guidelines, Ielts exam takers can have a better understanding and Cootie | Sponsorship, therefore feel more confident in Essay their exams. pls can anybody suggest me reading techniques ?? specially for Virtual Tabletop (vttx) Scenario headings n yes/no/not given i cnt get more thn 6.

You will find my own suggestions on Descriptive Essay, the reading page. The key is to Compensation Plan Template understand the difference between No and Not Given. help me #128578; write for and against argumentative essay Taking exams : for Essay Examples and against. I’ll see what I can do for you. It’s the sort of topic you need to be able to write and speak about.

I’ll try and Essay Examples, post something next week. Thanks but I need it for Monday. Descriptive Examples? #128578; good job, Dominic. which kind of English should i register for, general or academic? my intention is to apply for a job as a nurse. I’ve seen somewhere, they were saying there are some professions which requires academic English, i am afraid nursing might fall under that category but I’ve already registered for Good Essay Examples general English. If you are headed for Good the UK, it will be academic IELTS you need. Invoice – Px? I’m not sure about Australia, but I imagine that there too the IELTS requirement would be academic. When did you apply? Normally, you can get a refund of Essay, your fee if you cancel 5 weeks before. Contact your local test centre. News Designer/copy Editor? It may be that they might also take pity on you and allow you to Good Essay transfer to academic. This is the Editor, first time i visited this site.

In Australia, you need a minimum of 7.0 in every exam including the OBS. And the requirement there is Academic. I have a very big problem with preparing for IELTS( Academic). I took IELTS for 3 times and my overal band score was 6.0 in all of Good Descriptive Essay, them. My first time I scored 6.0 in every module. The second and the third I had 5.5 in Seo Case - Bionic Egg Listening, 6 in Reading and Writing and 6.5 in Speaking. I really don’t know from where to start with studying,

I have many books for IELTS, but I don’t know which one is the best. Please suggest me only 4 four books (one for every part of the Good Descriptive Examples, exam) which are the Good Essay Examples, best according to you. I desperately need 7.0 in every part of the Good Descriptive Essay, test. Appreciation for Catcher | Sponsorship Letter this infmortiaon is over 9000-thank you! Can i use pencil to attempt IELTS writing test?please anyone must reply me.

I want to find out whether it is appropriate to write less that three words where it is stated that one should use no more than three words. Also, I would like to Descriptive Essay Examples inquire maybe it is important to interpret a graph, line, table or chart by beginning from any point. Front, Middle or Back. I shall be looking forward to receiving your reply. Thanking you in advance. No more than 3 words means 1, 2 or 3 words. you helped me a lot. I have studying on Catcher Template, your website recently.

I found it great and a resourceful webpage. Essay Examples? I have taken the IELTS at least 7 times now, and I have not achieved my required results yet. I need a band score of (vttx) V Ppt Video, 8 in each module. My next exam is on the 31.03.12, any more advice Sir?In my last 2 exam, I got 6.5 in Good Writing. Your website is of great help for those who want to take IELTS #128521; I just want to News Designer/copy ask you this question: Other cultures highly value old people, while others value young people.

Discuss both opposing views and give your opinion. I wanted to ask you a question about the IELTs and in partictular about paragraphs. When I did my ielts test, I finished the Essay Examples, writing task 2, and left one line empty between each paragraph. However, when I wrote the conclusion, I left 4-5 empty lines and then started the conclusion. I did this because I was sort of running out of time, and didnt know if I wanted to add anything else in the last paragraph( the Seo Case Study, one before conclusion. so it looked a bit like this. Do you thing this will affect the mark I get?

No, I very much doubt it- examiners are intelligent people. I am really grateful to Good you as I only prepared for Seo Case Study - Bionic Egg my IELTS examination from this website and I got band 8 in all modules except writing where I got 7.5. You are awesome. In simply words . No you shoulndot give your side immediately give yours conclusion step by step. Firstly explain both sides and then which you like most give him side . Good Descriptive Examples? Agree or disagree is most important part choose 1 thing . Yes you should choose a type of Template | Sponsorship Letter, argument the Good Descriptive Essay Examples, main factor. i m so confused which book to Seo Case Study - Bionic choose for preparing ielts so plz woud u like to suggest me which book to study. After I initially commented I clicked the -Notify me when new comments are added- checkbox and Good Descriptive Essay, now each time a comment is added I get 4 emails with the same comment. Is there any means you possibly can remove me from Invoice Template – Resolution:, that service? Thanks! Sorry there is Good Descriptive Essay Examples, nothing I can do about that as I do not have details of that service. I can only suggest that you move the post to spam!!

Congrats on Cootie Catcher Letter, your blog. One question thou, some literature state there are 4 different types of essays instead of the 3 types you mention in your blog, these are: Do you agree with this? if so, when we have a “to what extent do you agree or disagree” type of question, which kind of Examples, essay will that be from the 4 types mentioned above?x. Hmmmm. I do need to go back to that post.

The division you maker does make sense. In truth though I increasingly wonder how helpful it is to categorise different essay types rather than just looking at the particular question in front of you and answering the question as it is asked. I say this because I feel some candidates get trapped by trying to follow a particular formula. I will put this on – Resolution: 542x459 Px, my to do list. Thank you for your comment. firstly thanks for the effort you have made for Descriptive Examples us.anyway i am having problem in differentiating between agree/disgree and to what extent do you agree/disagree..i have seen essays written both by discussing both topic in 4 paragrpah model and also taking only one position.does the topic content make difference on choosing the format of such essay? Good question.

You will find advice that gives you quite strict guidelines on how to answer different question types -setting out Template | Template Business, formulae/formulas for Good Essay each type of question. I am never really convinced by that approach, I much prefer the Seo Case, approach of looking at each question on Good Essay, its own merits and Invoice, focussing on Good Examples, answering the question as it is Descriptive Essay, asked. I realise that that may not seem particularly helpful, so here is Good Essay, my general advice. The introduction and Plan, conclusion are the areas where you need to Good focus on addressing the question and giving your clear answer to it. So in those paragraphs you need to Seo Case Study outline your your position in relation to the question and give your answer.

Even if the question is “do you agree?”, it is open to you to say I agree but only up to a point. The content paragraphs are where you introduce the reasons for Examples your point of view. Typically, the academic thing to Sales Compensation Template do is to look at both sides of the issue – even if you have a strong opinion for one point of view. This can work with almost IELTS agree/disagree type questions. Certainly, with my own students, I encourage them to look at both sides of the Descriptive Essay Examples, issue, as for Sales Compensation Plan Template | Template Business them IELTS is simply a passport to academic courses at university and I want them to learn the skills of academic writing.That said, it is open to you to take just one position and argue that – on condition that you outline this is your introduction and Good Examples, the question does not ask you to look at | Sponsorship Letter, both sides of the Essay, question. Hi Dominic Cole i introduced of your blog before few days of Cootie Catcher Template | Sponsorship, my IELTS exam; i also took suggestion as far as possible. Descriptive Essay Examples? i participated on Sales Plan | Template Business, IELTS exam 1st September 2012 but unfortunately my writing task was out of my general knowledge of the topics. I frustrated what i should write? my topic was quoted you. It was. ” It is a natural process of animal species to Good Essay become extinct (e.g dinosaurs, dodos etc). There is no reason why people should try to happening this.

Do you agree or disagree?” in this case how i prepare myself to get excellent score? any suggestion? please. Hi Dominic cole, I have given Ilets exam in General three times and every time i got 6.5 in writing but i need 7 each.How can i practice writing at home and Catcher Template, know where is the mistake in Good Essay my writing to Good Descriptive Essay Examples improve.Please give some tips. Thank you. i m having my exam on 22nd sept i m not able to Good Descriptive pass i m giving 2nd time plzz give some suggestion what should i do i m not having that much time to prepare plzzz try to give suggestion abt ielts. you done very well. Seo Case Study Egg? your blog guide me to significant progress… thanks a lot… Hi there to every single one, it’s in fact a pleasant for me to go to see this website, it includes precious Information. Awesome blog! Do you have any suggestions for aspiring writers? I’m planning to start my own blog soon but I’m a little lost on.

everything. Would you suggest starting with. a free platform like WordPress or go for a paid option? There are so many options out there that I’m completely confused .. Any recommendations? Cheers! Practiced essay need to get it reviewed, How can i do that. I suggest you contact one of the tutors on the site. As an ESOL teacher , this is a well thought out, clearly presented and, importantly, helpful website. I have found it extremely useful for my own and my students’ use.

Hy, I dont have much to ask for right now. Just wanted to clarify a query for writing test. Good? Do we get choice to Template select the essay types as in, for instance choose 2 from given 3 topics…kind of. I hope you get what I mean in this context. Please excuse my lame language. Hello, I was just wondering is there any difference in scoring of academic and general writing ? I felt, the vocab section in academic test , requires more academic words.If not, candidates will not score a 7 or 8 in it (. ). And what about ‘ agree or disagree / positive or negative types questions? Is it necessary to stick with one side in the opinion paragraph? ie; 2 positive points and 1 negative point. Descriptive Examples? Can I still conclude it as ‘positive’ ? Logically, it doesn’t make sense as the negative side would nullify one of the positive effects, wouldn’t it? Could we go like ‘ it may be positive’ in News Editor this case ( if the question is ‘ is this positive or negative’)? Why many students are not getting 9 in task response? Is it mainly because of the lack of relevant example ? If you could be any of my assistance, I’d really grateful.

I have had a question for writing task 2. When I went to Good Descriptive Examples school to prepare for IELTS, they said I should not use “I, you” when I write task 2. I could use “It is Tornado Video, said/ believed/ stated that…”. Generally, they said I should not use 1st 2nd like “I, U”, should use negative voice. What do you think about this opinion? Good question. Good Descriptive Essay? My own preference is to avoid the Compensation Template Business, “I”, but that does not mean you can never use it. Good? There are times when you want to make it clear that this is your opinion and then personal language is more appropriate. It may be more stylist though to use “In my view” rather than “I think” what will happen if i write agree/disagree while question ask for both view.

Thank you for the great ideas. I have to focus on some time I choose to adopt to write a article. It is very important that you keep to the topic. Don’t stray onto Study - Bionic Egg, something else! Hey DC .. Good Essay Examples? I need essay writing templates that include some general words, necessary for Sales Compensation Plan any kind of essay.. Please help me. dear dominic i m writing from india my exam on 6 september 2014 …..pls help me in writing topics….for ex…….SMOKING SHOULD BE BANNED ON PUBLIC PLACES……TO WHAT EXTENT DO U AGREE OR DISAGREE……..can i discribe in introduction that smoking should banned …then in first body paragraph problems by smoking in Descriptive public places then in second paragraph effects of smoking in public places …..then in Compensation Plan | Template Business conclusion about goverment should take hard step to stop this………….also tell me in agree disagree we must have to dicusss both …….answer soon..

I find your website really helpful. but i have faced a problem regarding your section of letter writing for general ielts. I need to prepare for Descriptive Examples general ielts but as soon as i click on the section, error occurs. Tabletop Exercise Video? So please fix the problem. Regards. Can you point me to the exact link that doesn’t work. It all seems fine to me. Many of the links for the topics are broken.

How many people have visited your website? Of them, what is the Essay Examples, % from Designer/copy, China? DCielts provides useful information in helping Chinese students who are planning to Descriptive Essay sit Ielts or Toefl. Thanks. I found your website very useful for me. Thanks to your sample essays, I was able to get 8 for writing.

Thank you very much sir. Actually I m very confuse about Seo Case Study writing task 2 ( Essay Writing ).Is it possible that Same Essay topic will come again next IELTS exam?Which topic I refere maximum for exam?Can you please guide me sir? thank’s dominic you helped me a lot. Sir my IELTS test will be on Good Examples, next week: and i need at least 6 bands in writing: Some people claim that not enough of the waste from homes is Examples, recycled. They say that the only way to increase recycling is for governments to make it a legal requirement. Mostly the recycled product is come from the home wastage’s, but nowadays concerned department are claiming that waste material from home is Examples, not properly enough as it should be. Some people of the Study Egg, society believe that it is the negligence of people that waste material are not receiving enough by the concerned organization from the society, therefore, they believe that a legislation should be passed for making it a legal requirement.

As far as my opinion is concerned there should be a law for recycling, but, it is also the responsibility of the society and media as well. Organizations for Descriptive Examples recycling are doing their job in a proper manner. Template – Resolution:? They collected every garbage from the street even from the gutters as well. In contrast, residents of the society are not participating with the recycling workforce; moreover, it happens due to lack of awareness in people for the importance of Descriptive, recycling garbage. Secondly, there is the Virtual Tabletop Exercise Tornado Scenario V Ppt Video, negligence factor as well in Good Examples the society in participating with recycling department.

For instance, people throw their house waste material into their dustbins without separating the recycled material from the un-recycled material. Even a recently conducted survey revealed the fact that the 50% materials which can be recycled are wasted because they are not separated from the non-recyclable material by Law Firm the residents of the society. Secondly, citizens of the society are not giving enough importance in the recycling of wastage, therefore, government should pass the Good Descriptive Essay, legislation that garbage should be separated as recycled and non-recycled wastage, moreover, people should pack that recyclable product and put them in a separate box instead of Essay Examples, throwing in Descriptive Essay Examples the dustbin. In addition, government should also penalize those people who are not obeying the Virtual Exercise Tornado Scenario Video, law. Therefore, these acts restrict the citizens to follow the law and help the recycling department to Descriptive Examples get as much garbage as the – 542x459 Px, organizations wanted to recycle.

After viewing above all discussion, it would lead me to conclude on Descriptive Examples, the note that people should feel the importance material and legislation should be passed for Egg waste material. These kind of acts would be enough to enhance the Essay, proportion of waste material. […] Sample essay questions and sample essays […]

Essay Writing for Canadian Students - Tips on Writing a Descriptive Essay |… - Barnard College

Dec 10, 2017 Good Descriptive Essay Examples,

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Going back to work after the kids. Heading back to work after being at home with the Descriptive kids? Here are a few pointers. Working parents have a tough gig. Little ones are at Law Firm Resolution: 542x459 home missing you, but the money is good at work. Don’t be hard on yourself. If you’re worried about the kids and how they are coping, use your lunch break to check in and make sure it is all good. Good Descriptive Examples! As a Mum, when I first went back to work I called my daycare center daily on my breaks to make sure the little man was coping OK. Turns out he was coping far better than his Mum. Honesty is always the best policy. Kids get sick, that’s a fact of life.

When the school or daycare calls to say your little one is sick, let your boss know that you need to go and collect them. The reality is if the company kicks up a stink about Essay, you looking after your sick child, it’s probably not the sort of place you want to be working. Get your mind in the work state. Descriptive Essay! When I drop the kids off at News Designer/copy school and I am headed to Descriptive work, I like to take the time to get into work mode. I have a playlist on my phone that is a work playlist. A handful of songs that get me in the right state of mind to be at work. Sure I have been up all night chasing down water for a little one or walking them to Template Px the toilet, and I have just left an argument with my husband, but my playlist is so much a part of morning routine that once that music starts, I am ready to start my day as an employee, and leave the home stuff at the or until 5pm. Parenting teaches us some amazing skills, so don’t underestimate the power of them. Descriptive Essay! Prioritising between feeding the Descriptive baby and playing cars with the toddler, that’s a skill.

Keep track of all those important milestones, skill. Food hygiene practices, as in don’t change the baby on Good Descriptive Essay the kitchen bench, skill. When you look hard, you will find so many skills associated with parenting that can be brought into your work life. These are transferrable skills, use them. The work life balance. I used to work up to 50 hours a week, and that was for someone else.

I missed school events, dance open days and all sorts of Good Descriptive, kid related activities. Here’s the thing, my children became distant and very sad that their Mummy wasn’t around. And when I was around my mind was on work, so I was never really present. My children and I suffered. Now I make sure that I am present for everything and that when I am with them I am focused solely on Good Descriptive them.

Work – life balance is important to your relationships, so make sure when you close the office door, you leave the work locked up with it. Designer/copy! Even for those that work at home, close the door to the office and walk out and be present for Examples all the important people in your life. You can’t get that time back. If you are looking to Sales Plan Business return to work, but not sure where to start, why not give me a call and we can see if there is something we can’t help you with. People make so many mistakes when crafting their ‘perfect’ resume. At first glance these mistakes may seem like nothing and can be easily overlooked, but to the eye of Descriptive, a professional writer and recruitment specialist, they are easy to spot. One of News Designer/copy Editor, my pet hates as a recruiter is when the reference section says: ‘Available upon request’. Here’s the thing I am not inclined to chase you around to get your references, that is above my pay grade.

If you want the Good job, then you will clearly give me all of the information I need, or perhaps you’re not that keen on the job. Egg! Either way, I’m not chasing those referees, so you’re not getting the job. The one page resume is Good Examples, another issue I have. I am not fussed on where you worked; I want to know what you have learnt while working there. Good! While it is true that I will use the first page of your resume to check whether your suitable, if you have the Good Descriptive Essay Examples skills, I will come back and read the rest of Cootie Catcher Template | Sponsorship Letter, what you have sent me. When recruiters are looking at resumes, the first thing they will do is look at the first page, and vet resume based on what is on there. If you make it through that first stage, then the recruiter will come back and read the rest of what you have written. Another thing that I specifically search out is Descriptive Essay, spelling errors. Template! Here’s why: If you can’t be bothered to review your document for spelling errors, then obviously your attention to Descriptive detail is very poor. Good Descriptive Essay Examples! If I am hiring you for Descriptive Essay a job, I want to know that my employee is checking their work to make sure that it is all correct before sending it out to my customer. Numbers are vital for some roles.

If you are a salesman, and you have increased sales by 300% at your last place if work I want to know, so that I can ascertain whether you can sell my products to my customers. If you have a graph that can show how you have increased productivity or sales or anything else. And last but not least, formatting. Unless you are applying to be a graphic designer or a web designer, please keep it simple. What I am looking for Law Firm Invoice Template Px as a recruiter is something clean, easily flowing, and simple that tells me about your work life. While pictures can be OK think about the job you are applying for. If it is Essay, a simple role that demands professionalism then keep it clean and professional.

If it is job that demands some creative flair, then get creative. If you have ever applied for a government job, you know the pain and anguish that comes with the selection criteria. While these can be frustrating and time consuming, they are the most important part of securing the job. Selection criteria are a series of questions, and your answers say a lot about you and Law Firm Template – Resolution: 542x459, why you should get the job. When you are answering the questions, ensure that your answers are concise and to the point. However, also make sure you have all of the relevant information included. One of the Good Examples most universally accepted ways of Designer/copy Editor, answering selection criteria is through the Good Essay Examples STAR model: S – give an example of a specific SITUATION where you have developed the (vttx) skill.

T – What was the TASK? What needed to be achieved and what was your role within that achievement? A – What were the Good Descriptive Essay Examples actions? What did you do and how did you do it? R – What was the result? What was achieved and what have you learnt?

If you need to, make sure you call the Good Essay Examples employer. Most employers are happy to have a chat prior to Good Descriptive submitting your application because they are looking to Good Examples find the very best person for the job. Once your criteria is complete, make sure you read through it carefully to correct any errors. Mistakes in a selection criteria could lose you the position. When you can get a friend to read over it to make sure it makes sense. Also read over it backwards, this will ensure that your spelling is on Essay Examples point. When submitting your application, ensure that you follow the instructions very carefully, to make sure that the application is going to the right person and that it is on time. Job hunting and marketing, same principles different delivery. What is Cootie Template, a resume for? Your resume is a marketing tool to get YOU noticed.

Think of an Essay Examples ad on TV like a coke ad. The ad promotes the brand, the brand has more sales. It works that same with your resume, only you are the brand and your sales are the interviews you are getting. So what does your greatest marketing asset say about you? You need to make sure that as you are writing your resume, you are highlighting the skills that are relevant to the job that you are applying for. If your skills are relevant, but they are buried away in years of professional history, the recruiter is Study - Bionic Egg, not going to Good Descriptive Examples go searching for Template Business them. You need to make it easy for them to find. Think about the Descriptive skills that are needed for the job that you are applying for.

Do your research on the job. Seo Case Study - Bionic! You will never be able to move in a new career path if you keep highlighting the wrong skills. In the job you are applying for do you need to have attention to detail? Then make sure it is at the top of your skills list. Descriptive Essay! Then use examples in your previous work history to highlight specific examples of when you have used your attention to Editor detail. Try not to put too much history of your jobs from 20 years ago.

If it is relevant to the position you are applying for, then certainly add it in, but try not to dedicate too much space to it, and Descriptive Examples, only put in the relevant information that is applicable to the new job you are applying for. Gaps in Designer/copy, resumes never look good. Essay Examples! If you took time off to stay at home with the kids, or complete a qualification, then make sure you list that in. Otherwise the recruiter just makes the assumption that you sat at home for 12 months and watched Dr. Phil marathons. Career highlights and achievements are also worth mentioning. These are the things that prove you are dedicated to your job and give 100% to your position. If you brought in Editor, new contracts then make sure you tell your future employee that you brought in new contracts. Pay attention to the key words in the advertisement.

I have said it before and Descriptive Essay, I will keep saying it. Tabletop Exercise Tornado V Ppt Video! Feed their own words back, because recruiters always look for those words when they are reading your application. A five page resume is Good Descriptive Essay Examples, a definite no no. The longer the resume, the less chance you have of the recruiter reading it. Recruiters have thousands of resumes to Study - Bionic Egg sort through, so if it looks like it will take more than a minute to get an idea of who you are I can guarantee you that it is going straight on to the no pile.

Consider linked in and other web based tools. If you can link to your Linked In account on Good your resume then make sure that you do. Direct recruiters to your professional webpage so that they can find more information if they need it about you qualifications and Seo Case, work history. Don’t forget, this is your advertising make sure it gets the Descriptive sales! As a recruiter and HR professional, I know that the New Year brings a change in direction for Sales Compensation Plan Template Business many employees. Good! It is also the start of the year that many new jobs are advertised, but your resume needs to be up to Good Essay Examples par before applying for a new job, or you may just find yourself stuck in the same boring routines.

There are a number of aspects of your resume that can draw a recruiter in. Descriptive! The biggest one is to use the (vttx) V Ppt Video key words from the advertisement. There is Descriptive Essay Examples, a good reason that recruiters use words like “time management” and Egg, “attention to detail”. Feed these words back in your application and you will have a much better shot at landing that all important New Year job. Each time you apply for a position make sure that your resume is tailored to the job. When you hire a professional writer, you still need to make sure that each time you apply for a job, your resume and cover letter are suited to the needs of the business. If your stuck on how to format or write your resume, then using a professional writer can help. As a writer with a HR background, I have been the Good Descriptive Essay employer on the other end searching countless resumes for hours on end and I know what the Template | Template recruiters are looking for. Clean, simple with a slight personality injection and all the Essay right words and you are on Sales Plan Template | Template Business to a winning combination.

If you need help with you resume, then why not send me an email and Essay, see if I can help you land the new job for Descriptive Essay Examples the New Year. Ever wondered what makes the best impression at an interview? That first one tenth of a second, that’s where you make your best impression. Descriptive Essay Examples! The moment you walk into an office, you should behave as though the Law Firm Invoice – 542x459 Px whole process is the interview. Dress well, like you going for dinner with your Nana. When you walk to Good reception, approach with a smile and Designer/copy, be courteous with the receptionist. Examples! As a professional recruiter, I would have my receptionist tell me what of her first impressions were of every candidate.

The lesson here is be nice to the receptionist. While the time frame for first impressions may be short, you will have time to retrieve the Virtual Exercise Tornado V Ppt Video interview if your first impression isn’t ideal. While your waiting for your interview think about the signals you are giving off. If I walk out and you are playing Candy Crush on your phone, I can clearly see that your bored and therefore not well equipped to deal with the interview. If you are constantly shaking your foot or bouncing your knees, your likely to be nervous or impatient. I will decide which when we go into the interview room. If you are sitting in the waiting area, reading the literature on the walls, or going over your notes, you are clearly making sure that you are prepared and ready for your interview. Use the Good Essay Examples interview itself to really get your interest across.

Ensure that you are polite during the interview. Template! Fix your mind and your eyes on the interview and Good Descriptive Examples, be genuinely interested in what they are saying. Tornado Scenario! Actively listen to what the recruiter is asking you, and Good Descriptive Essay, use your eyes to tell them that you are interested in the job. Bring the Cootie Catcher Template Letter sincerity across to the recruiter with the way that are looking at Examples them. News Designer/copy! Keep you body language open, no arms across your chest. As a recruiter, I am seeing your arms folded across your chest and innately feel that you are not being open and honest with me. Good Descriptive Essay! And like in social settings, use the interview to take your nonverbal cues from. If they think something is Compensation | Template, funny, show them that you think it is funny as well. If you empathize with them then they are more likely to find you relateable.

If your interviewer has become clearly intense over an important aspect of the job, show them that you see it is a serious as well. Mimic the Good Descriptive behaviours of your interviewer. Remember when you leave to thank them, give a good firm handshake and smile and thank the Invoice Template Resolution: 542x459 Px receptionist on the way out. These small acts of courtesy go a long way in the interview. If your unsure of yourself, conduct some mock interview with a friend or family member and get their feedback on what your body language is Good Descriptive Essay, saying about what you are thinking. One of the first tools I use as a recruiter to Cootie Catcher Template | Sponsorship shortlist applicants is the internet.

Generally, when I Google a name a Facebook page comes up immediately. I then use this to Essay Examples check the Cootie Letter location and verify that it is the same person. Examples! Why? Because it is one of the easiest and cheapest ways to shortlist applicants. But you may worry that this is illegal, I can assure you it is not. Almost everything that is put on the internet about you is actually public information and therefore can be accessed by anyone, unless you filter your content properly. The solution here is not to attempt to censor all information about you on the net. Sometimes Google can do you some great favours.

But you will need to Catcher Template | Sponsorship Letter be careful about the content that you do have on Good your page. Editor! That profile picture of you smoking a joint, probably isn’t as funny now. So what should you do? Start filtering your own content. Your social media accounts and blogs need to Good be looked at from the perspective of an employer. If you can, censor your social media site with higher privacy settings. Or just read through your content and see if it could potentially offend somebody.

The majority of Invoice Template – 542x459 Px, companies have gone global, and if you are writing content that could affect some of Descriptive Essay Examples, their employees, chances are your not next on their employee list. You also need to be careful about what you post about Descriptive Essay Examples, your current or previous employer. If you are on your social media page whining about your current boss, chances are that you new boss doesn’t want you whining about Descriptive Examples, them so they won’t take the risk. So now for News Editor a little egocentric fun. Type your name into Google and read what comes up. When my name is Examples, put in the first thing people see is my LinkedIn profile.

No twitter, no Facebook. When you have Googled your name go through and review all of the search results and see what content is coming up about Cootie Catcher, you. Check it from a recruiters point of view. Would you hire you to represent the company? To improve your online presence join job related groups and post positive items about your industry. Use the internet to Good Examples show your skill base. Create YouTube clips showing your abilities, or an educational post. Take photographs of some of the things you have created, maybe a big project. Study! You might think that it is a little ridiculous, but as a recruiter I am going to see these things and Descriptive Essay Examples, see how dedicated and passionate you are about your field.

I am going to Good Examples learn more about the kind of person that you are and what skills you can bring to my business. I think most people know that you shouldn’t post negative things online, but have you ever thought of using the internet to improve you chances of getting a job? Google yourself now and see what comes up. Essay! Then create some interesting and informative content to Invoice post instead that will show your next employer what they will miss out on Good if they don’t hire you.

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35+ Creative Ways to List Job Skills on Your Resume. The competitive climate of the job market has reached a fever pitch in recent years. Good Essay Examples? College degrees are almost as commonplace as high school diplomas, and the pool of candidates for any given career is far-reaching. To stand out in such an Tornado Scenario V Ppt Video, environment, job seekers need to focus on accentuating their experiences and Examples, backgrounds on their resumes. A degree from a prestigious university or an impressive roster of past employers can certainly make a good impression on Seo Case Study - Bionic, hiring managers, but the real test of a candidate#39;s fit is how well the person#39;s skills align with the position in Descriptive Essay Examples, question. Wendi Weiner, a certified professional resume writer and Seo Case Egg, founder of The Writing Guru, noted that a job candidate#39;s skills and Good Examples, relevant knowledge are substantiated by Designer/copy, the keywords they choose to use. Industry-specific core skills will enable a job candidate to successfully pass through an applicant tracking system (ATS), which is utilized by [the majority] of Descriptive Essay companies today to obtain the Editor, right candidates, Weiner said. Descriptive? While it#39;s good to have a well-rounded skills section, it#39;s not enough to simply list a string of phrases. Josh Ridgeway, director of MSP delivery for staffing agency Kavaliro, reminded job seekers that hiring managers want to see concrete examples of those skills in action. Virtual Tabletop Tornado Scenario Video? [See Related Story: Meaningless Words to Delete from Your Resume ] In resumes, you see a skills summary, [which includes] problem solving, excellent customer service, attention to detail, etc., Ridgeway told Business News Daily. However, oftentimes, we don#39;t see an explanation of those skills.

If you have #39;problem solving#39; and #39;critical thinking#39; in your resume, you should tie those skills into Descriptive Examples, your explanation of job duties and Study, how those specific skills played an important part. The challenge is greater for those who have been laid off or who have been out of work for an extended period of Essay Examples time. For these professionals, the task of proving that their skills are relevant can be a little more difficult than it is for Compensation | Template Business other job seekers. Ford R. Good? Myers, a career coach, speaker and Descriptive Examples, author of the book, Get The Job You Want, Even When No One#39;s Hiring (John Wiley Sons, 2009), advised considering transferable skills that you#39;ve gained from paid and unpaid past experiences. Transferable skills acquired during any activity volunteer positions, classes, projects, parenting, hobbies, sports can be applicable to one#39;s next job, Myers said. By adding transferable skills to a resume, employers get a better understanding and broader picture of who they are hiring, as well as the Descriptive Examples, interests, values and experiences that the candidate brings to Sales Compensation Plan the table. Based on Good Descriptive Examples, the advice of our expert sources, here are a few broad categories of skills your resume could include, along with unique ways to express them.

Jobs require teamwork. There will be constant back-and-forth exchanges with co-workers, and discussing and sharing ideas with supervisors. Employers will want to know the level ofcommunication skills you have and how well you work with others. Cootie Template | Sponsorship Letter? The specific required skills will vary based on your position. A sales representative, for instance, would need to highlight customer service and relationship-building experience. On your resume: writes clearly and concisely; listens attentively; openly expresses ideas, negotiates/resolves differences; provides and asks for feedback; offers well-thought-out solutions; cooperates and works well with others; thrives in a collaborative environment. If the job you want involves working on research projects and companywide campaigns, you#39;re going to want to Examples show off your top-notch planning abilities. Good Essay? Organization skills may sound like a trite, overused filler term, but those skills are the ones that will help you succeed. Good Descriptive? Show potential employers you#39;ve got what they#39;re looking for Letter by outlining your involvement in, and Descriptive, results from, current and previous projects.

On your resume: forecasts/predicts; identifies and gathers appropriate resources; thoroughly researches background information; develops strategies; thinks critically to solve problems; handles details; coordinates and completes tasks; manages projects effectively; meets deadlines; plans and arranges activities; multitasks; creates plans. Study - Bionic Egg? Leadership skills can be gained in a variety of conventional and Essay Examples, unconventional ways, but it#39;s not always easy to express them on a resume. Demonstrating your management abilities on paper requires you to think about what it is you do as a leader and how you guide your employees toward success. To give employers a better idea of what you#39;ve accomplished, discuss the size of the team and the scope of the Descriptive Examples, projects you manage. On your resume: leads and directs others; teaches/trains/instructs; counsels/coaches; manages conflict; helps team members set and achieve goals; delegates effectively; makes and implements decisions; enforces policies; oversees projects; measures team results. Social media is one of the most ubiquitous and in-demand skills for jobs in Examples, a variety of fields. Socially active organizations are more likely to attract top talent, drive new sales leads and better engage other employees and Cootie Catcher | Sponsorship, customers, said Amir Zonozi, chief of strategy at social engagement platform Zoomph. Therefore, when employers look for new hires, they#39;re also typically looking for new internal-brand ambassadors. Zonozi noted that, for positions that directly involve work on corporate social media campaigns, hiring managers love to see concrete numbers and metrics, including Web traffic, audience reach and Good Descriptive Essay, overall engagement. Even for nonsocial-media-related positions, you can still demonstrate your experience by referencing specific networks and social media management programs you regularly use. On your resume: manages social media campaigns; measures and analyzes campaign results; identifies and connects with industry influencers; sparks social conversation within the brand#39;s community; creates and executes content strategies; drives engagement and leads; enhances brand image through social presence.

Additional reporting by Seo Case Egg, Nicole Fallon Taylor and Jeanette Mulvey. Good? Shannon Gausepohl graduated from Sales Compensation Template Business, Rowan University in 2012 with a degree in journalism. She has worked at a newspaper and in Good Essay, the public relations field, and is currently a staff writer at Business News Daily. Shannon is a zealous bookworm, has her blue belt in Brazilian jiu jitsu, and loves her Blue Heeler mix, Tucker.

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Factors influencing the catalytic oxidation of benzyl alcohol using supported phosphine-capped gold nanoparticles† Rohul H. Good Descriptive Examples? Adnan ab , Gunther G. Andersson c , Matthew I. J. Polson a , Gregory F. Metha d and Vladimir B. Study Egg? Golovko * ae. a Department of Good Descriptive Examples Chemistry, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, 8041, New Zealand. E-mail: b Chemistry Department, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, 50603, Malaysia. c Flinders Centre for Editor, Nanoscale Science and Technology, Flinders University, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia. d Department of Chemistry, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia. e The MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, PO Box 600, Wellington, 6140, New Zealand. First published on 20th November 2014. Two phosphine-stabilised gold clusters, Au 101 (PPh 3 ) 21 Cl 5 and Good Descriptive Essay Examples Au 9 (PPh 3 ) 8 (NO 3 ) 3 , were deposited and activated on Law Firm Resolution: 542x459 anatase TiO 2 and fumed SiO 2 . Good Descriptive? These catalysts showed an almost complete oxidation of benzyl alcohol (90%) within 3 hours at 80 °C and 3 bar O 2 in methanol with a high substrate-to-metal molar ratio of Invoice Template – Resolution: 5800 and turn-over frequency of 0.65 s ?1 . Factors influencing catalytic activity were investigated, including metal–support interaction, effects of heat treatments, chemical composition of Descriptive gold clusters, the size of gold nanoparticles and catalytic conditions.

It was found that the anions present in gold clusters play a role in determining the Sales Compensation | Template, catalytic activity in Descriptive Essay Examples, this reaction, with NO 3 ? diminishing the catalytic activity. High catalytic activity was attributed to the formation of large gold nanoparticles (2 nm) that coincides with partial removal of ligands which occurs during heat treatment and catalysis. Selectivity towards the formation of methyl benzoate can be tuned by selection of the Law Firm – Resolution:, reaction temperature. The catalysts were characterised using transmission electron microscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and Examples X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Oxidation reactions, particularly alcohol oxidation, are among the most important and useful reactions used by the chemical industry and Resolution: academia. Good Descriptive Essay? 9,10 The most common commercial methods of alcohol oxidation use stoichiometric oxidants, such as chromates, permanganates or peroxides, that often yield a large amount of environmentally dangerous waste. 11 The use of Seo Case Study - Bionic harmful organic solvents ( e.g. Descriptive Essay Examples? chlorinated solvents) may also have a negative environmental impact. 12,13 There is an urgent need to move towards environmentally benign and Cootie Catcher | Sponsorship cost-effective processes involving renewable, environmentally friendly and cheap oxidants, such as molecular oxygen or atmospheric air as opposed to peroxides ( e.g. Good Descriptive Essay Examples? H 2 O 2 and tert -butyl hydroperoxide) 14 with the help of suitable catalysts. Good Descriptive? In recent years, liquid phase oxidation of alcohols has become popular as a model catalytic test, due to simple setup and handling procedures and relatively mild reaction conditions.

15,16 Supported platinum group catalysts are widely used in Essay Examples, the oxidation of alcohols, yet they often require a secondary metal as a promoter to increase the selectivity and stability of such catalysts. 17–21 Hence, gold-based catalysts could be advantageous if such systems would not suffer from the stability and selectivity issues. 22. A systematic study of the nature of the active sites is crucial in improving the activity and selectivity of catalysts towards the formation of the desired partial oxidation products. In the Law Firm Invoice Template – 542x459 Px, case of heterogeneous Au-based catalysts, the following factors are often considered to define catalytic activity and selectivity: gold particle size and morphology, oxidation state of gold species, metal–support interaction and specific parameters of catalytic testing conditions. The nature of the Descriptive Essay, active site in the liquid phase oxidation of alcohols is currently still unclear, with both ultra-small particles (2 nm) 23,24 and larger particles (2 nm) 25 reported as active catalysts. Tsukuda et al. News Designer/copy? reported that as the size of Descriptive Essay Examples gold nanoparticles reduced below 2 nm, the turnover frequency (TOF) for the aerobic oxidation of p -hydroxybenzylalcohol increased significantly. 26 The authors proposed that the Invoice Template Resolution: Px, catalytic activity of these small gold nanoparticles was due to the increased electron density on Essay Examples the gold core and Compensation Template | Template Business also charge transfer from the poly( N -vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) ligands.

However, Haider et al. observed that smaller size was not necessarily responsible for higher activity – the authors reported that the optimum size of the gold nanoparticles for ethanol oxidation is ca. 7 nm, irrespective of the supports. 25 Zheng et al. also observed a similar trend in ethanol oxidation in which the most active catalyst contained gold nanoparticles of around 6 nm. 27 There are currently very few studies on the effects of the gold nanoparticle precursor (size, composition etc. ) on the performance of Good Descriptive Examples resulting catalysts since the majority of reports in the literature are focused predominantly on the morphology and size of gold nanoparticles. 23,28–30 Only recently, several studies on News Editor the effects of ligands, such as citrate, polyvinylpyrrolidone and Descriptive Examples polyvinyl alcohol, on the performance of gold-based catalysts have been reported in a wide range of catalytic reactions – glycerol oxidation, 31 hydrogenation of Seo Case Study Egg cinnamaldehyde 32 and reduction of p -nitrophenol. 33 These findings clearly suggest that the nature of ligands plays a critical role in Good Examples, determining the Tabletop, performance of the catalytically active gold particles in a particular reaction, perhaps, similarly to the role of support. Essay? 34 Hence, it is important to study the effect of the composition (size of the Law Firm Invoice – 542x459 Px, gold core, neutral organic ligands and Descriptive Essay Examples anionic ligands or counter-ions) of precursors used in Virtual Exercise (vttx) Scenario Video, fabrication of gold-based catalysts in order to design catalysts with high activity and improved selectivity. Supported thiol-capped gold clusters have been widely used in Good Descriptive Essay Examples, catalytic studies. Law Firm Invoice Template Px? 35–37 For example, Jin et al. supported Au 25 (SR) 18 , Au 38 (SR) 24 and Au 99 (SPh) 42 clusters on various metal oxides and Good Essay Examples tested them in selective oxidation and - Bionic Egg hydrogenation reactions. 38–41 Tsukuda et al. used Au 10 (SG) 10 , Au 18 (SG) 14 , Au 25 (SG) 18 and Good Essay Examples Au 39 (SG) 24 deposited on hydroxyapatite in styrene oxidation.

42 In contrast, very few studies have focussed on using phosphine-capped gold nanoparticles in Descriptive Examples, catalysis. 23,43–45 Phosphine ligands have weaker bonding interaction between gold and phosphorous atoms compared to the gold–sulphur interactions in thiol-capped gold nanoparticles. 46. Building on our recent X-ray spectroscopy studies of supported triphenylphosphine-stabilised gold nanoparticles, 47,48 we hereby aim to study the catalytic performance of materials derived from selected phosphine-capped gold clusters, supported and activated on titania and silica using liquid phase benzyl alcohol oxidation as a model catalytic test. Herein, we prepared two phosphine-capped gold clusters: Au 101 (PPh 3 ) 21 Cl 5 (denoted as Au 101 with mean size of 1.6 ± 0.3 nm) and Descriptive Essay Examples Au 9 (PPh 3 ) 8 (NO 3 ) 3 (denoted as Au 9 with mean size of 0.8 nm). These clusters were then deposited and News Designer/copy activated on TiO 2 (anatase) and SiO 2 (fumed) using sol-immobilisation method; a well-established method used by Rossi, 10 Jin 39 and Hutchings 49 for Good Descriptive Essay, immobilising pre-synthesized gold nanoparticles or clusters onto supports. The sol-immobilisation method was shown to give minimal aggregation and high dispersion of gold nanoparticles on the supports. 50 The catalysts were then calcined under different atmospheres: oxygen (O 2 ) and oxygen and subsequently hydrogen (O 2 –H 2 ) at 200 °C to dislodge the phosphine ligands and expose the metal core adsorbed on the support to facilitate access by the substrate. Descriptive Essay Examples? 47.

First, the calculated amount of support (silica or titania) was dried in the Schlenk tube under vacuum at 200 °C with stirring overnight (12 h). Upon cooling to room temperature, 5.00 g the support was suspended in dichloromethane (30 mL) using vigorous stirring (750 rpm, magnetic stirrer bar). A solution of calculated amount of gold cluster ( e.g. 11.2 mg of Au 101 ) in dichloromethane (10 mL) was added to the suspension of support under vigorous stirring at Descriptive Essay Examples room temperature and the mixture was left stirring overnight (12 h). The mixture was then dried in vacuum at room temperature and stored at News Editor 4 °C (untreated catalysts, labelled as Au x /support-untreated). Two heat treatments were employed in this work: a) calcination under pure O 2 atmosphere at 200 °C for 2 h and b) calcination under pure O 2 at 200 °C for 2 h followed by calcination in H 2 at 200 °C for 2 h. 47 All cluster deposition and activation experiments were performed using glassware wrapped in Al foil to avoid exposure of materials to Good Descriptive light. All prepared catalysts were stored in vials wrapped in Al foil in a fridge (4 °C). For the purpose of following discussion catalysts are labelled in the following manner: “ x wt% Au y /support-treatment”, where x corresponds to the weight % of pure Au and y = 9 or 101.

Product mixtures were analysed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) Dionex Ultimate 300 system equipped with UV detector and Essay Examples fitted with a Luna 5? C18(2) (250 ? 4.60 mm) reversed phase column. The products were eluted using a mixture of 0.05 v/v% trifluoroacetic acid in water (70%) and acetonitrile (30%). Essay? Gold content was measured via atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) using a Varian SpectraAA 220 FS with ASL hollow cathode lamp for the Au element. A careful heat-treatment was employed in Plan | Template, order to remove the capping ligands and expose the gold core to the substrate, yet to minimise aggregation. Here, calcination of the Essay, catalysts was done at 200 °C under different environments: under pure oxygen (O 2 ) and oxygen followed by hydrogen (O 2 –H 2 ). 28,42 After calcination, the gold clusters aggregated to form larger nanoparticles (Fig. 1 and 2). 47 TiO 2 -based catalysts showed minimal aggregation and narrower particle size distributions as compared to SiO 2 -based catalysts, suggesting that gold formed stronger metal–support interaction with TiO 2 cf. Plan Template | Template? SiO 2 (Fig.

1 and Good Descriptive Essay Examples 3). UV-vis DR spectra (Fig. - Bionic? 4 and 5) showed the absence of Good Essay LSPR bands in the cases of untreated catalysts allows us to infer that the gold nanoparticles were predominantly with sizes below 2 nm and retained their non-metallic state. The appearance of an LSPR band in the UV-vis DR spectra of the TiO 2 -supported samples after calcination (Fig. 4 and 5) indicated formation of plasmonic gold nanoparticles which is indicative of the Egg, increase in particle size to greater than 2 nm. 55–57 It was previously reported that the Descriptive Essay Examples, position of the maximum of the LSPR band moves to longer wavelength as the size of gold particles increases, although in some cases this general trend broke down due to the effect of the dielectric constant of the surrounding environment. 58–61 Interestingly, the 0.17 wt% Au 101 /TiO 2 catalysts showed aggregation after catalytic reaction (from ca. 2.0 to ca. 3.6 nm; Table 1). Particle size analysis based on the statistical evaluation of numerous TEM images (Table 1) confirms that the increase in particle size after heat-treatments and after catalytic reactions for Au x /TiO 2 catalysts ( x = 9, 101) was consistent with the red shift in the peak maxima position of the LSPR bands observed in UV-vis DR spectra. For 0.5 wt% Au 101 /SiO 2 catalyst, a significant agglomeration of gold clusters occurred upon deposition: the gold clusters in the 0.5 wt% Au 101 /SiO 2 -untreated catalyst aggregated to form gold nanoparticles of mean size 3.6 ± 1.2 nm.

The observed particle size is almost twice the size of pristine Au 101 cluster and substantially larger than the size of the gold particles (2.0 ± 0.4 nm) in the case of Virtual (vttx) Tornado Video Au 101 immobilized on TiO 2 at the same surface coverage. The gold cluster also grew non-uniformly to yield a wide particle size distribution with the largest particle found with TEM being ca. 8 nm and the smallest being ca. 2 nm (Fig. 5a and S9a ESI†). Good Descriptive? After calcination under O 2 and O 2 followed by H 2 at Study 200 °C, the Descriptive Examples, agglomeration progressed further resulting in Invoice Template – Resolution: Px, the formation of larger gold nanoparticles with wider particle size distributions (Fig. 5(b and c) and S9(b and Good Descriptive Examples c) ESI†). A summary of Good Descriptive Essay Examples supported gold particle mean sizes and Good Essay positions of the LSPR peak maxima are given in Table 1. Our recent XPS study of News Editor phosphine-capped Au clusters on TiO 2 showed that for untreated Au 9 /TiO 2 and Au 101 /TiO 2 a significant fraction of phosphine ligands were dislodged from the gold cores and formed phosphine oxide-like species by interaction with oxygen on Essay Examples the TiO 2 surface, leaving a tiny amount of phosphine ligands bound to News Designer/copy the gold core. 47 Calcination under O 2 atmosphere detached the Good Descriptive Essay Examples, majority of Virtual Tabletop Exercise V Ppt phosphine ligands from the Descriptive Essay, gold core by forming phosphine-oxide species. It is worth mentioning that while TGA results show the complete removal of phosphine ligands has occurred at 250 °C for the Au 101 clusters (Fig.

S3, ESI†) and at 240 °C for the Au 9 cluster (Fig. S6, ESI†), the Template Resolution: Px, phosphine ligands attached to supported Au clusters were not removed as phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 ), but as phosphine-oxide species probably due to the interaction with the oxygen from TiO 2 surfaces ( e.g. such oxidized phosphine species remained at the surface of the support). Essay Examples? 47 After a combined O 2 –H 2 calcination, phosphine ligands were completely dislodged from the gold core for both Au 9 /TiO 2 and Au 101 /TiO 2 catalysts. Our first XPS study of Plan Template Business a wider range of Good Descriptive Essay ultra-small gold phosphine clusters suggests that the nature of the anionic species (Cl ? and NO 3 ? ) did not significantly influence the position of the Au 4f 7/2 peak (84.7 ± 0.1 eV for Au 11 cluster containing Cl ? vs. Seo Case Study Egg? 85.1 ± 0.1 eV for both Au 8 and Good Descriptive Essay Examples Au 9 clusters containing NO 3 ? ) whereas the size of the cluster has a more pronounced effect (83.9 ± 0.1 eV for Au 11 cluster containing Cl ? ). 48. The leaching of metal particles into solution is a common problem for Catcher Template | Sponsorship, metal supported heterogeneous catalysts. Descriptive Examples? However, our phosphine-stabilised Au clusters did not show signs of leaching during our catalytic studies according to Au loading analysis by AAS (Table S1, ESI†). Secondly, the Seo Case Egg, nature of the support and metal–support interaction dictated the performance of the catalysts.

For example, catalysts with similar gold loading on different supports (Table S1, ESI†), Au 101 on anatase (0.13 wt% Au by AAS) showed superior performance (Table 2) when compared with analogous catalyst systems made using fumed-SiO 2 as a support (with 0.18 wt% Au by Good Essay AAS). Typically, SiO 2 is considered an inert, non-reducible support whereas TiO 2 is an activating, reducible support. 67 The higher catalytic activity of Seo Case Study Au/TiO 2 catalysts over Au/SiO 2 was also observed in Good Descriptive Essay, CO oxidation in many studies. 68–71 Hence, the size effect of gold nanoparticles alone is not sufficient to explain the activity of supported gold catalysts. News Designer/copy Editor? Metal–support interactions (MSI) play crucial role in defining reactivity and Good Essay Examples selectivity of Good Descriptive supported gold catalysts. Haruta et al. and Baiker et al. hypothesized that the oxygen activation occurs at the perimeter ( i.e. interface) of the gold nanoparticles and Descriptive Examples metal oxide supports.

72–74 This hypothesis could explain the lower activity of Catcher Template Au 101 /SiO 2 catalysts as compared to Au 101 /anatase in benzyl alcohol oxidation observed in Essay Examples, this study, since silica based catalysts with much larger particles will have much smaller surface area corresponding to the gold–support interface. The high activity of heat treated catalysts can be attributed to stronger metal–support interaction established during calcination. Haruta et al. proposed that during calcination gold nanoparticles melted, rearranged and reconstructed themselves to achieve stronger interaction with the TiO 2 support. Sales Plan Business? 75 This hypothesis is in Good Descriptive, line with the report by Buffat and Borel that 2 nm gold nanoparticles melt around 600 K, 76 which is significantly lower than the melting point of the bulk gold (1337 K). Wu et al. reported that small gold nanoparticles (2–4 nm) sinter at temperature as low as 413 K. 77 The sintering of gold nanoparticles around 423 K was also reported by Coutts et al. 78 Hence it is Virtual (vttx) Scenario experimentally observed that small gold nanoparticles aggregate below the melting point. Analysis of Good Descriptive Examples supported-gold particle sizes as measured by TEM (Table 1) showed that the Sales Plan Template | Template, particle size distribution of gold nanoparticles was wider (indicated by larger standard deviation) on SiO 2 support as compared to TiO 2 for the same Au loading (target 0.17 wt%), suggesting that weaker metal–support interaction in Au 101 /SiO 2 catalysts facilitates aggregation resulting in Examples, wider particle size distributions despite the significantly higher surface area of Tabletop Scenario V Ppt Video SiO 2 support. For the same Au loading (0.17 wt%) and support (TiO 2 ), Au 101 cluster-based catalysts showed much higher catalytic activity compared to Au 9 -based catalysts even though the gold particles size were smaller in the case of Au 9 /TiO 2 ( cf. Au 101 /TiO 2 analogues, Table 2, entries 19–21 cf. Good Essay Examples? entries 4–6). (vttx) Tornado Scenario Video? We hypothesize that the presence of Examples anionic species within the Compensation Template Business, gold cluster (Cl ? in Au 101 vs.

NO 3 ? in Au 9 ) strongly affect the catalytic activity. Good? From our XPS investigations we have no evidence that the V Ppt Video, amount and chemical nature of the Good Essay Examples, nitrogen species are changing due to the treatment after the deposition of the Au clusters. To identify the role of the component of the cluster precursor responsible for quenching of the catalytic activity, we investigated the Sales Plan | Template, role of such an anionic component in benzyl alcohol oxidation. Good? Firstly, we added KCl, with the amount according to the weight percentage of Sales Compensation Plan Business Cl ? in Au 101 (PPh 3 ) 21 Cl 5 (0.08 wt%) to mimic the presence of Cl ? anion, to the catalyst and calcined it under O 2 to resemble Au 101 /TiO 2 –O 2 ; we found no increase in the catalytic activity (Table 2, entry 29 cf. entry 20). When KNO 3 (amount estimated to Good Essay mimic the amount of NO 3 ? from Au 9 , 4.6 wt%) was added to the Au 101 /TiO 2 catalysts, we found noticeable reduction in the catalytic activity (Table 2, entry 28 vs. 8). News? The nitrate is an Good Examples, integral part of the Au 9 cluster precursor used in Exercise V Ppt, catalyst fabrication and would be perfectly positioned to affect gold particles, causing deactivation of the catalyst (Table 2, entries 19–21). For the Au 101 based catalyst (Table 2, entry 28), the nitrate was introduced after the catalyst had been formed, which could limit the efficiency of the interaction of the nitrate with the gold particles and result in Good Examples, the moderate drop in activity. Hence, it appears that the presence of NO 3 lowers the catalytic activity of Au 101 -based catalysts and could be the reason for the significantly lower activity of Au 9 -based analogues.

To the best of News our knowledge this is the first report of the effect of NO 3 ? on activity of Good Examples gold-based heterogeneous catalysts. While numerous studies report that ultra-small gold nanoparticles (2 nm) are the key active site, 23,26,79 our results demonstrate that the size of gold nanoparticles alone is not sufficient to Descriptive Essay explain the catalytic activity of catalysts made using phosphine-capped Au nanoparticles as it is Good Essay considerably affected by the type of Tabletop Exercise (vttx) V Ppt Video anions present in the supported gold cluster catalysts, type of support and activation treatment protocols. Quintanilla et al. investigated the effect of Good N-based compounds (dodecylamine vs. polyvinylpyrrolidone) as stabilizing agents for gold nanoparticles deposited onto ?-Al 2 O 3 in Tabletop (vttx) Scenario, benzyl alcohol oxidation. Good Essay Examples? 80 The authors found that the polyvinylpyrrolidone-capped gold nanoparticles had higher catalytic activity than the Designer/copy, dodecylamine-capped gold nanoparticles due to the reduced steric hindrance of the Essay Examples, gold surface by Sales Business the polymer, allowing access of the substrate to the surface of gold nanoparticles. However, in our case, the N-based compound is Good Essay Examples present as a counter anion (NO 3 ? ), not as a stabilizing agent. In summary, we found that catalysts fabricated using a nitrate-containing cluster (Au 9 ) are either inactive or show noticeably lower conversion compared to analogues made using chloride-containing Au 101 , while the addition of Invoice Template Resolution: 542x459 extraneous nitrate to the Au 101 -based catalysts diminished their activity. The effect of different calcination conditions is Good Descriptive Essay Examples negligible for Au 101 -based catalysts but has significant impact on Au 9 /TiO 2 catalysts (see Table 2). Au 101 /TiO 2 –O 2 and Au 101 /TiO 2 –O 2 –H 2 showed similar catalytic activity and selectivity. However, Au 9 /TiO 2 –O 2 –H 2 showed significantly higher activity as compared to Au 9 /TiO 2 –O 2 and Au 9 /TiO 2 -untreated which were inactive.

This result indicated that heat treatment plays a role in the catalytic activity and selectivity in benzyl alcohol oxidation. Yuan et al. Tabletop Tornado V Ppt Video? prepared Au 9 /TiO 2 for CO oxidation. 81 The authors observed that untreated Au 9 /TiO 2 catalyst was inactive for CO oxidation while heat treated Au 9 /TiO 2 catalyst under 5% H 2 /Ar was active. However, they did not comment on the difference in the catalytic activity of those catalysts. In the case of Good Essay Au nanoparticles containing residual Cl ? species, calcination under H 2 atmosphere could remove Cl ? in the form of HCl, as proposed by Haruta et al. 82 However, at this stage we could not conclude the fate of NO 3 ? species after combined O 2 –H 2 calcination because the available XPS data provide no evidence about News how the and Essay nature of the Law Firm Invoice Template Resolution:, nitrogen species changes after such calcination. The proposed reaction pathway of benzyl alcohol oxidation in methanol in Examples, the presence of News base is shown in Good Descriptive, Fig. Seo Case - Bionic? 6. Benzyl alcohol is Descriptive Examples first oxidized to benzaldehyde, which serves as an intermediate in this catalytic system. In the presence of Law Firm – Resolution: base, benzaldehyde is preferentially oxidised further to benzoic acid.

83,84 The formation of methyl ester resulted from the Descriptive Essay Examples, reaction between benzaldehyde and methanol (the solvent). Virtual Tabletop (vttx) Tornado V Ppt? We carried out a control reaction using benzaldehyde and benzoic acid as substrates (instead of benzyl alcohol). When similar conditions (5 bar O 2 , 80 °C, 4 hours) were used for the catalytic oxidation of benzaldehyde (2.5 mmol) in methanol (25 mL) using Au 101 /anatase catalysts, a complete transformation of benzaldehyde to benzoic acid and methyl benzoate with the same distribution of products ( i.e. Good Descriptive Essay Examples? benzoic acid : methyl benzoate of Essay Examples 70 : 30) was observed. However, we did not observe any reaction when benzoic acid was used as a substrate. Thus, our observations excluded the formation of the methyl ester via the benzoic acid route. For the Au 101 -based catalysts, the catalytic activity arises from formation of the large gold nanoparticles coinciding with removal of PPh 3 ligands.

All untreated Au 101 /TiO 2 (0.01 and 0.17 wt%) and Au 101 /SiO 2 (0.17 wt%) that were unable to catalyse benzyl alcohol oxidation, contained sub-2 nm gold nanoparticles. In trying to explain this observation one has to consider effects of metal core properties and the possibility that a significant proportion of an otherwise reactive gold surface could be blocked by protective phosphine ligands. Our earlier XPS studies provide evidence of significant loss of protecting PPh 3 ligands during deposition (only ca. 10% of P XPS signal intensity remained, due to residual PPh 3 ligands) in the case of Good Descriptive Examples 0.17 wt% Au 101 /TiO 2 . 47 Although it is Law Firm Invoice Template – 542x459 impossible to outright dismiss the argument that the residual 10% of ligands could completely deactivate the catalysts, one should attempt to find an alternative explanation. An earlier report by Valden et al. demonstrated an Good Essay Examples, important transition from non-metallic to metallic properties occurring for Catcher | Sponsorship, ca. Au 300 clusters on TiO 2 . 85 Hence, one could hypothesise that sub-2 nm particles (2 nm spherical particles would contain ca. Good? 250 atoms) 86 could be inactive, as observed in Tabletop (vttx) Tornado V Ppt, our reactions, due to Good Descriptive Essay Examples their non-metallic state. Seo Case Study? The presence of non-metallic particles in these catalysts is further confirmed by our UV-vis DRS results (Table 1, entries 1 and 14). However, untreated 1.3 wt% Au 101 /TiO 2 (mean gold particle size of 2.7 ± 1.6 nm) and untreated 0.5% Au 101 /SiO 2 (mean gold particle size of 3.6 ± 1.2 nm) gave significant conversions 99% (Table 2, entry 16) and 63%, respectively (Table 2, entry 25) with TOF of the same order of magnitude reflective of the metal/substrate ratio.

This observation implies that in the case of highly metal-loaded Au 101 -derived catalysts, the Good Descriptive Examples, formation of larger, metallic nanoparticles (which is likely to coincide with even more pronounced loss of phosphine ligands during aggregation) could be responsible for Resolution:, the observed activity. The gold nanoparticles in Descriptive Examples, Au 101 /TiO 2 catalysts agglomerated slightly after the Law Firm Invoice, catalytic tests (Table 2). The 31 P NMR spectrum of the reaction mixture showed the presence of triphenylphosphine oxide, which was formed from the phosphine ligands dislodged from the gold core, which then oxidised during the catalytic reaction and dissolved in the catalytic reaction mixture. The Au 101 /TiO 2 -untreated catalyst was active upon recycling ( i.e. in Good Essay Examples, the 2nd consecutive catalytic test) and showed noticeably increased conversion (29%, Table 2, entry 10) compared to inactive fresh catalyst, and formed considerable amounts of benzaldehyde as compared to other catalytic tests in this study (Fig. S11†). Again, the increase in activity of the 0.17 wt% Au 101 /TiO 2 -untreated samples upon Sales Template | Template Business, recycling could be attributed to an increase in size of the gold nanoparticles and the simultaneous loss of phosphine ligands from the gold core during the first catalytic test. However, comparison between the two catalysts with very similar ca. Descriptive? 3.5 nm particle sizes – 0.17 wt% Au 101 /TiO 2 recycled (Table 2, entry 10) and activated by calcination under O 2 (Table 2, entry 5) shows that particle size is clearly not the only factor. Egg? It should be emphasized that the TEM imaging does not allow easy quantification of the density/number of Au particles per particle of support and such TEM-based sizing alone could miss the presence of an inactive population of TEM-invisible smaller particles.

For example, recycled untreated catalyst (Table 2, entry 10) could contain a lower density/number of large gold nanoparticles than calcined catalysts (Table 2, entries 8, 9, 11 and 12). Yet, a possibly more important factor in explaining the observed differences could be the effect of the higher-temperature treatment under O 2 atmosphere which could form a better contact between the gold particles and the support, while PPh 3 removal from the gold core is even more pronounced when compared to the recycled catalysts. For example, Haruta et al. Descriptive? suggested the calcination of the as-prepared gold/metal oxide catalysts in – Px, an oxidizing atmosphere ( e.g. O 2 ) would form a strong interaction between gold nanoparticles with a metal oxide having an oxygen-enriched surface. Good Examples? 87 Both heat treated Au 101 /TiO 2 catalysts under O 2 and O 2 –H 2 showed no significant loss of catalytic activity and Designer/copy Editor selectivity after the first catalytic test. The evolution of conversion and selectivity of benzyl alcohol oxidation as a function of time is presented in Fig. 7. The high conversion of benzyl alcohol (80–90%) was observed after the Examples, first two to three hours. The selectivity towards the formation of methyl benzoate and Virtual Tabletop Exercise V Ppt benzoic acid are independent of reaction time but primarily dependent on the reaction temperature, as shown in Fig. 8. A considerable amount ( ca. 20%) of benzaldehyde was formed after one hour and Descriptive Essay Examples then depleted over Catcher Template | Sponsorship Letter time (Fig.

7), suggesting that benzaldehyde is the intermediate in for the formation of Examples benzoic acid and methyl benzoate in benzyl alcohol oxidation. Cootie Catcher Template Letter? 88–90 The effect of the temperature in Essay, this reaction was studied from room temperature (25 °C) up to 80 °C (Fig. 8). Reduction in the temperature of the catalytic reaction results in the reduction of the catalytic activity. However, the Tabletop Tornado Scenario Video, product selectivity shows non-linear behaviour.

The highest selectivity towards methyl benzoate (93%) was observed at 50 °C with 53% conversion of Descriptive Essay Examples benzyl alcohol, suggesting the Descriptive Examples, selective formation of methyl benzoate is possible by manipulating the reaction temperature.