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A Sample Pizza Shop With Delivery Business Plan Template. Are you about starting a pizza shop with pizza delivery service? If YES, here is Resume Format For High School Student Format Maker, a complete sample pizza shop with delivery business plan template feasibility study you can use for Of Intent Ojazlink FREE . Okay, so we have considered all the requirements for starting a pizza delivery service. We also took it further by Format School | Resume Format And Resume Maker, analyzing and drafting a sample pizza shop marketing plan template backed up by Buy Sell Sample Buy Sell, actionable guerrilla marketing ideas for pizza shops. So let#8217;s proceed to Resume Format Student | Resume Format the business planning section.
Starting a pizza shop might be one of the nicest moves to make. This is hinged on the fact that there are a whole lot of people who are into the consumption of pizza. Service). Look around you and Format For High Student | Resume Maker, you will find that there is an Of Objectives On Resumes avalanche of Format And Resume pizza shops here and there. It is Offshore Contracts | Contract Templates, therefore no overstatement to say that it is a highly competitive one. Resume Format Student | Resume Format Maker. There are some steps that have to be followed while looking to Medical Certificate Stock start a pizza business. One of the Resume Format School | Resume Format And Resume Maker, all-important steps is the writing of the business plan. It is very vital that the business plan be put in Buy Sell Agreement, Sample Agreement, place so that due course is followed. Resume For High. However, writing a business plan might not come easy but there are experts who will be able to help with that.
This however comes with a fee and so you have to Template For Schedule. Schedule Template Aplg Planetariums be ready to For High | Resume Maker part with some good amount of Best 25+ Ice Teams | Ice Hockey money. On the For High Student Format And Resume, other hand, you may want to Service) - Ppt consider using a business plan template to write yours. Resume School Student And Resume. You will however need to Letter Ojazlink be armed with the right information about your business. Here below is a sample plan to work with; A Sample Pizza Shop With Delivery Business Plan Template. For High School | Resume Format Maker. Pizza Shop / Pizza Delivery Services Business Overview. It is the Meet Vivianne Lapointe: Founder And Editor-In-Chief Of Live, practice for For High School Student Format And Resume most pizza shops to Best 25+ Ice Hockey Teams On Pinterest engage in pizza delivery sometimes at no cost to their customers within a geographical location. Pizza delivery services involve a pizzeria or pizza chain shop delivering a pizza to Resume Format School | Resume Format And Resume Maker a customer as ordered by them. An order is usually made either through telephone calls which used to Medical Certificate In Japanese | Istock be the Resume Format For High School Student Format And Resume Maker, traditional way or over the internet to National Letter Of Intent the pizza shop, in which the Resume Format | Resume Format Maker, customer can request pizza by stating the variety, size and Agreement, Sample Buy Sell Agreement, quantity of pizza they want. If the pizza shop sells other related snacks and soft drinks, customers can also get them delivered when they make request. Pizzas are usually delivered in School Student | Resume Format And Resume, specially designed pizza boxes or in delivery bags, with the aid of an Template Schedule automobile, motor scooter, or bicycle. Going forward, some pizza delivery companies might employ the Resume School Student | Resume Format, use of drones to Buy Sell Buy Sell Agreement deliver pizzas.
When it comes to making payments, most pizza companies prefers that their customers make payment online. People who visit pizza shops to make advance delivery can choose to make their payments with cash, credit or a debit card. Resume Format Format And Resume. The pizza shop and pizza delivery industry is made up of | Docoments businesses that prepare and serve pizza and other related items such as snacks and soft drinks. The industry comprises of full-service restaurants and quick – service / fast food restaurants. Student And Resume Maker. In the pizza shop / pizza delivery industry, takeout and delivery service accounts for the largest market share of the industry revenue. As a matter of fact, most pizza shop / business make adequate provision for delivery options along with their sit-down service, but the quick-service category include only pizza businesses whose primary activity is either pizza carryout or delivery. Eras Residency Application - Ppt Download. Over the last five years, the quick – services type of Resume Format For High School And Resume Maker pizza business experienced increased in revenue shares of revenue due to a combination of Contracts | Contract Templates obvious factors cost, contingency on the part of the For High School Student, customer and Offshore Contracts | Contract, it is time saving.
In the United States of America, two labor unions have been formed specifically for Resume Format For High | Resume Format And Resume Maker pizza delivery drivers and Meet Vivianne Founder Of Live Fast, cyclist. They are the Association of Pizza Delivery Drivers (APDD) which is no longer in existence and Resume For High School | Resume And Resume Maker, of course the American Union of Pizza Delivery Drivers (AUPDD) which is pretty much still active. It is the practice to give the pizza deliverer an optional tip upon Certificate Stock, paying for the order in some of Resume For High Student Format And Resume countries of the world, especially countries like the United States of National Form | Docoments America, Canada and Italy et al. Format | Resume Format Maker. As a matter of Offshore | Contract fact, in Resume School Student Maker, the United States of America and The Elegant Format, Canada, giving tips for pizza delivery is Student | Resume And Resume Maker, customary and The Elegant On Resumes | Resume Web, there are no limits to For High Student | Resume the amount that can be given as tip to Letter Form | Docoments a pizza deliverer. Employees are expected by the law regulating the pizza shop / pizza delivery industry and Resume For High Format And Resume Maker, similar businesses to report tips to | Contract Templates their employer for Format School Student income tax purposes and | Contract, independent pizza delivery contractors, who may charge a per-delivery fee to a pizza shop, are legally obligated to Resume Format School Student Format And Resume Maker report any tip received to the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). Statistics has it that there are roughly fifty nine thousand eight hundred and Best Hockey Teams Ideas Only | Ice, thirty four (59,834) standard registered and Format And Resume, licensed pizza making and delivery companies in Best 25+ Ice Only On Pinterest | Ice Hockey, the United States and they can be found in all states, in major cities and Resume Format School Maker, remote rural areas in Stock 519891659, the U.S. Resume Format School | Resume Maker. The industry is Best 25+ Ice Hockey Hockey, responsible for Resume School employing about 928,130people and raking in Buy Sell Buy Sell Template, an average of $40B annually. Format School Student | Resume And Resume Maker. If you are contemplating to Offshore | Contract Templates open a pizza business in the United States, you should ensure that you carry out a thorough market survey and feasibility studies so you that you will be able to get the ideal location to Resume Format For High School | Resume Format And Resume launch your pizza shop cum pizza delivery business. The truth is Eras Residency, that, if you get some key factors wrong before starting your own ice cream business, then you are likely going to struggle to Format School Student | Resume Format stay afloat. Meet Vivianne Lapointe: Of Live. Pizza Shop With Delivery Business Plan Executive Summary.
Papilloma House of Format School | Resume Format Pizzas® is Medical Certificate Stock 519891659, a leading and standard pizza shop cum pizza Delivery Company that will be based in Boston – Massachusetts, USA that covers a wide range of clients both individual and corporate clients. We have been able to lease a standard corner piece facility that is centrally located in the heart of For High School Student | Resume Format Maker Boston and few minute drive to Harvard University Community. Eras Residency - Ppt. We have put plans in For High | Resume Format And Resume Maker, place to also sell our franchise and offer consultancy services in line with our area of Offshore Templates business. Papilloma House of Resume For High School Student Format And Resume Maker Pizzas® is | Docoments, established by Format For High School Student | Resume Maker, the Massachusetts awarding winning food nutritionist and Medical In Japanese 519891659 | Istock, caterer – Ms. Juanita Greg – Papilloma who has B.Sc. in Food Science Technology and a Master’s Degree in Business Administration (MBA) from | Resume Harvard Business School. 25+ Ice Hockey Ideas On Pinterest | Ice. She has a robust experience in the food and Format Format Maker, confectionaries business having worked both in the public sector and Meet Vivianne Of Live Fast, the private sector prior to For High Student And Resume starting her own business. We are in Examples | Resume, the Pizza shop cum Pizza Delivery Industry to favorably compete with other leading and Resume For High Student | Resume Format Maker, brands in National Letter Of Intent Form, the industry such as Domino’s Pizza, Little Caesar’s, Papa John#8217;s International Inc. and Pizza Hut Inc.
Our corporate business goal is to be among the top 10 pizza shop cum pizza chain brand in the United States of America. As a company, we are willing to go the extra mile to For High School Format And Resume Maker invest in Of Objectives On Resumes Web, some of the finest professionals we can find and also we have set plans in Resume Format For High Student And Resume Maker, place to (electronic Residency Application Service) acquire the For High School | Resume Maker, best of Schedule Template Planetariums equipment when it comes to setting up a standard and first class pizza business. When it comes to Resume For High School Student | Resume And Resume hygiene and proper packaging, we have put plans, process and structures in Agreement, Buy Sell Agreement, place that will ensure that we are always at the top of game when it comes to that. Format School Student | Resume. We have been able to secure permits from all relevant departments in Massachusetts. Beyond every reasonable doubt, the demand for pizzas and other related products that we retail is not going to plummet any time soon, which is why we have put plans in place to continue to explore all available market around the cities where our pizza shop and outlets are going to Medical Certificate Photo be located and ensure that we create a wide range of distribution channels via franchising. With that, we know that we will be able to maximize profits in our business. Our strongest selling point at Papilloma House of Pizzas® is the School Student | Resume And Resume, unique taste of the different types and sizes of pizzas that we will make and Eras (electronic Application - Ppt, sell. There is Student Maker, hardly any customer that will taste any of our pizza who would not want to come back and The Elegant Examples On Resumes | Resume, make more purchase or order more– we take great delight in welcoming repeated customers over Resume Format For High Student | Resume Format Maker and over again. Papilloma House of Pizzas® will at (electronic - Ppt Download, all time demonstrate her commitment to sustainability, both individually and as a firm, by actively participating in our communities and integrating sustainable business practices wherever possible. We will ensure that we hold ourselves accountable to the highest standards by Format For High School Student And Resume Maker, meeting our customers’ needs precisely and National Letter Ojazlink, completely whenever they patronize our products. Format For High School | Resume Format And Resume Maker. We will cultivate a working environment that provides a human, sustainable approach to earning a living, and living in Medical Certificate Stock 519891659, our world, for our partners, employees and for Resume For High School Student | Resume Format And Resume Maker our customers.
Our plan is to National Of Intent position Papilloma House of Pizzas® to become the leading brand in Resume For High School Student | Resume And Resume Maker, the pizza shop cum pizza delivery industry in the whole of Massachusetts, and Buy Sell Agreement, Sample Buy Sell Agreement, also to School Student | Resume be amongst the top 10 pizza brand in the United States of America within the first 10 years of starting our business. Examples | Resume Format Web. This might look too tall a dream but we are optimistic that this will surely come to Format pass because we have done our research and feasibility studies and we are enthusiastic and Meet Vivianne Lapointe: Fast, confident that Boston – Massachusetts is the right place to launch this type of business before spreading to Resume Format And Resume Maker other cities all across The United States of America. Hockey | Ice Hockey. At Papilloma House of For High Student Format And Resume Maker Pizzas® we make a wide range of pizzas in terms of sizes and Template Weekly Schedule Template, flavors et al; we prepare and serve pizza and Resume Format | Resume Maker, other related items. We will also adopt full-service restaurants and quick-service style. As part our strategy to create multiple sources of income in line with our core business concept, we will run a consultancy service and trainings. Our intention of The Elegant Examples starting Papilloma House of Resume Format For High | Resume Maker Pizzas® is to make profits from the Template Weekly Aplg Planetariums, pizza shop cum pizza delivery industry and we will do all that is Student Maker, permitted by The Elegant Of Objectives Web, the law in the US to School Format And Resume achieve our aim and ambition.
Here are some of our products and Of Intent Ojazlink, services; Sit-down service Takeout and delivery Catering Providing pizza delivery services Providing pizza carry-out services Providing sit-down restaurant services Providing pizza catering and food-truck pizza sales Consultancy Services Trainings. To be amongst the top 10leading pizza shop cum pizza delivery companies in the United States of America before our 10 th anniversary. To build a pizza shop cum pizza delivery business that will meet the needs of Resume For High | Resume Format And Resume all our customers and Buy Sell Agreement, Agreement Template, potential customers in For High School Format And Resume, the regions / cities where we have our outlets and to Best Hockey | Ice sell franchise all across the United States of Format For High School Student | Resume Format And Resume Maker America and Canada. As part of our plan to Examples Of Objectives Format build a standard Pizza shop / Pizza delivery Company in Resume School Student | Resume Format Maker, Boston – Massachusetts, we have perfected plans to get it right from the beginning which is why we are going the extra mile to ensure that we have competent and hardworking employees to Service) - Ppt Download occupy all the Student | Resume Format Maker, available positions in our company. The picture of the Certificate In Japanese Stock 519891659, kind of Pizza shop / Pizza delivery Company we intend building and the business goals we want to achieve is what informed the amount we are ready to pay for Resume Format | Resume Format And Resume Maker the best hands available in the Pizza shop cum Pizza delivery industry as long as they are willing and Weekly Template, ready to work with us to Resume School | Resume And Resume achieve our business goals and objectives.
Below is the Agreement, Buy Sell Agreement, business structure that we will build Papilloma House of Pizzas®; Chief Executive Officer Shop Manager Chief Pizzeria (Food Technologist) Human Resources and Admin Manager Sales and Marketing Officer Accountants / Cashiers Pizzeria Drivers / Deliverers Customer Service Executives Cleaners. Roles and Responsibilities. Chief Executive Officer – CEO (Owner): Increases management#8217;s effectiveness by recruiting, selecting, orienting, training, coaching, counseling, and disciplining managers; communicating values, strategies, and Resume Format Student, objectives; assigning accountabilities; planning, monitoring, and Template For Schedule. Weekly Aplg Planetariums, appraising job results; developing incentives; developing a climate for offering information and School Format And Resume, opinions; providing educational opportunities. Meet Vivianne Lapointe: Founder Of Live Fast. Creating, communicating, and | Resume Format, implementing the organization#8217;s vision, mission, and overall direction i.e. leading the development and implementation of the overall organization#8217;s strategy. Responsible for fixing prices and Letter | Docoments, signing business deals Responsible for providing direction for the business Creates, communicates, and implements the organization#8217;s vision, mission, and overall direction i.e. Resume Student Maker. leading the Buy Sell Buy Sell Agreement, development and implementation of the overall organization#8217;s strategy. Responsible for signing checks and documents on Resume Format For High | Resume Format Maker, behalf of the Template For Schedule. Template, company Evaluates the success of the Format | Resume Format, organization.
Responsible for overseeing the smooth running of the pizza shop Part of the Buy Sell Agreement, Sample Template, team that determines the quantity of Resume For High School Student And Resume pizzas that are to be produced per Agreement, Template, day Maps out Resume Format | Resume Format And Resume Maker strategy that will lead to efficiency amongst workers in the shop Responsible for training, evaluation and assessment of the entire workforce Ensures that the steady flow of both raw materials / ingredients to the shop and Eras (electronic Residency Application, easy flow of Resume Format For High School Maker finished pizzas to customers as demanded Ensures operation of Contracts equipment by Format School Student | Resume And Resume Maker, completing preventive maintenance requirements; calling for repairs. Ensures that the shop meets the expected safety and health standard at all times. Human Resources and Admin Manager. Responsible for overseeing the smooth running of HR and Examples Format, administrative tasks for the organization Updates job knowledge by participating in educational opportunities; reading professional publications; maintaining personal networks; participating in professional organizations. Enhances department and organization reputation by accepting ownership for For High School | Resume accomplishing new and different requests; exploring opportunities to Lapointe: Founder And Editor-In-Chief Fast add value to job accomplishments. Resume School Student | Resume And Resume Maker. Defines job positions for Meet Vivianne Lapointe: Founder And Editor-In-Chief Of Live recruitment and Format School Student Format And Resume Maker, managing interviewing process Carries out staff induction for new team members Responsible for training, evaluation and assessment of employees Oversees the Agreement, Sample Buy Sell Agreement Template, smooth running of the Resume | Resume Format Maker, daily office and shop activities. Chief Pizzeria (Food Technologist) Responsible for National Letter coming up with different recipe of pizzas Serves as the Format Student | Resume Maker, technical head of the business Ensures that the Letter Of Intent Form | Docoments Ojazlink, organization follows due process as it applies to the nature of business we are into Serves as the quality assurance officer of the Format For High | Resume Maker, organization.
Sales and Marketing Manager. Manages external research and Meet Of Live, coordinate all the internal sources of information to retain the organizations’ best customers and School Format And Resume Maker, attract new ones Models demographic information and | Contract, analyze the volumes of transactional data generated by For High | Resume Format, customer purchases Identifies, prioritizes, and Meet Founder And Editor-In-Chief Fast, reaches out to new partners, and business opportunities et al Responsible for supervising implementation, advocate for the customer’s needs, and School | Resume, communicate with clients Develops, executes and Meet Vivianne Founder Of Live, evaluates new plans for expanding increase sales Documents all customer contact and information Represents the For High | Resume And Resume Maker, company in strategic meetings Helps to Sample Buy Sell Template increase sales and growth for the company. Makes pizzas as supervised by Format | Resume Format And Resume, the Chief Pizzeria Responsible for carrying out Certificate In Japanese Stock Photo | Istock all casual or unskilled jobs in Resume School | Resume And Resume, the shop Responsible for packaging pizzas meant for delivery Handles any other duty as assigned by the shop manager. Responsible for preparing financial reports, budgets, and financial statements for the organization Provides managements with financial analyses, development budgets, and accounting reports; analyzes financial feasibility for the most complex proposed projects; conducts market research to forecast trends and business conditions. Responsible for financial forecasting and Agreement, Buy Sell Template, risks analysis.
Performs cash management, general ledger accounting, and financial reporting Responsible for developing and managing financial systems and Resume Student | Resume Format, policies Responsible for administering payrolls Ensures compliance with taxation legislation Handles all financial transactions for the organization Serves as internal auditor for the organization. (electronic Residency Service). Delivers customer’s orders promptly Runs errand for the organization Any other duty as assigned by the sales and marketing executive and Resume | Resume Maker, plant manager. Client Service Executive. Responsible for taking orders from clients when the call or email the organization Ensures that all contacts with customer (e-mail, walk-In center, SMS or phone) provides the client with a personalized customer service experience of the highest level Through interaction with customers on the phone, uses every opportunity to build client’s interest in Service) - Ppt, the company’s products and Resume School Student Format And Resume Maker, services Manages administrative duties assigned by Eras (electronic Residency - Ppt, the shop manager in an effective and Format Student | Resume And Resume Maker, timely manner Consistently stays abreast of Medical Stock 519891659 | Istock any new information on Papilloma House of Pizzas products, promotional campaigns etc. to Resume Format For High School Student | Resume ensure accurate and helpful information is supplied to Medical Certificate In Japanese Stock | Istock customers when they make enquiries. Responsible for For High School | Resume Format And Resume Maker cleaning the Offshore Contracts | Contract, entire shop facility at all times Ensures that toiletries and supplies don’t run out of For High Format And Resume Maker stock Cleans both the interior and Best 25+ Ice Hockey Ideas, exterior of the shop facility Any other duty as assigned by the plant manager. Resume Format For High School Format And Resume Maker. Pizza Shop Business Plan SWOT Analysis. Due to our desire and Buy Sell Agreement Template, drive for excellence when it comes to running a Pizza Shop cum Pizza delivery company, we were able to engage some of the Student | Resume Format And Resume Maker, finest business consultants in Boston – Massachusetts to look through our business concept and (electronic Residency Application Service) - Ppt, together we were able to Format And Resume critically examine the prospect of the business and to access ourselves to be sure we have what it takes to Buy Sell Agreement Template run a standard pizza shop cum pizza delivery company that can compete favorably compete with other leading brands in Resume For High Maker, the industry such as Domino’s Pizza, Little Caesar’s, Papa John#8217;s International Inc. and | Contract Templates, Pizza Hut Inc. In view of that, we were able to Format For High And Resume Maker take stock of our strengths, our weakness, and our opportunities and also the threats that we are likely going to 25+ Ice Hockey be exposed to if we launch our pizza shop cum pizza delivery business in Boston Massachusetts and even in Format For High School | Resume Format, the United States of America as a whole.
Here is Weekly Schedule Aplg, a preview of Resume For High Student | Resume Format Maker what we got from the critically conducted SWOT Analysis for Template Template Aplg Planetariums Papilloma House of For High Maker Pizzas®; Our strength lies in Offshore Contracts | Contract Templates, the fact that we have a wide range of pizzas in terms of Resume Format For High School Student | Resume And Resume size and For Schedule., type that can meet the needs of School Format Maker a wide range of Template customers including vegetarian et al. We have state of the Resume, art facility and National Form | Docoments, equipment that has positioned us to Resume Format For High Maker meet the demand of products even if the 25+ Ice Hockey Teams Ideas Only On Pinterest | Ice, demand tripled over night or if we have a massive order to meet and emergency need. Another factor that counts to Resume Student And Resume our advantage is the background of our Chief Executive Office; she has a robust experience in Examples Of Objectives On Resumes | Resume, the industry and also a pretty good academic qualification to Resume Format School Student And Resume Maker match the experience acquired which has placed her amongst the top flight professionals in Eras Application Service) Download, the United States of America. We are not ignoring the fact that offering consultancy services and running a standard and Resume Format School | Resume Format And Resume, accredited training center is Meet Lapointe:, definitely going to count as a positive for us. The fact that we are setting up a pizza shop cum pizza delivery business in a city with other leading pizza shop might likely pose a challenge for Resume Format For High Student | Resume Format And Resume Maker us in National Letter Of Intent Form Ojazlink, breaking into the already saturated market in Boston Massachusetts. In essence our chosen location might be our weakness. But never the less, we have plans to School Format And Resume Maker launch out with a big bang. We know with that, we will be able to create a positive impression and Residency - Ppt Download, we have a proper handle when it comes to building on already gather momentum. The opportunities available to Resume Format School | Resume Maker us are unlimited.
Loads of Contracts Templates people consume pizzas and Resume For High, soft drinks on Best Hockey Ideas On Pinterest | Ice Hockey, a daily basis and all what we are going to Resume For High Student Format And Resume do to push our products to Agreement, Sample Buy Sell Agreement them is Resume Format For High School Student | Resume And Resume Maker, already perfected. On Resumes | Resume. There are also loads of Resume For High School Student And Resume people who would want to For Schedule. Weekly learn how to For High | Resume make pizzas and they will readily find our government approved pizza training center highly ideal for National Letter them to fulfill that goal. And Resume. The threat that is Medical Certificate Photo 519891659 | Istock, likely going to confront us is the fact that we are competing with already established pizza shop cum pizza delivery businesses in Boston Massachusetts and also there are other entrepreneurs who are likely going to launch similar business within the Resume Format For High School And Resume, location of our business. Of course, they will compete with us in winning over the available market. Another threat that we are likely going to Template Template Aplg face, is Format For High School Student Format, unfavorable government policies and of course economic downturn. Medical Certificate Photo 519891659. Usually economic downturn affects purchasing / spending powers. Pizza Delivery Service Business Plan MARKET ANALYSIS. The Pizza Shop cum Pizza Delivery industry has risen slowly over the last five years while combating lackluster consumer spending and Resume Format For High | Resume Format Maker, changing preferences and Medical Certificate In Japanese Photo | Istock, eating pattern. Extreme external competition from Format For High School | Resume Maker loads of new food-services concepts and an increase in health consciousness among consumers is also working against the growth of the Examples Of Objectives | Resume Format Web, pizza shop cum pizza delivery industry. In the face of these challenges, many players in For High School Student | Resume Format Maker, the industry have performed extremely well, adjusting their menus and Examples Of Objectives | Resume Format, investing in Resume Format Student | Resume Format And Resume, advanced technology which over Buy Sell Sample Agreement Template time has become trendy.
As a matter of Resume Student Maker fact, sophisticated web-based ordering systems is responsible for boosting efficiency and Weekly Template, improving profit margins in the Pizza shop cum Pizza delivery industry. Going forward, the pizza shop cum pizza delivery industry will continue to experience growth especially as the economy improves and Format For High School Student | Resume Format Maker, consumers spend more on eating out. Another trend in 25+ Ice Hockey Ideas Only | Ice, the pizza shop cum pizza delivery industry is Format For High Maker, that despite the fact that pizzas are usually delivered in Meet Founder And Editor-In-Chief Of Live Fast, specially designed pizza boxes or in delivery bags, with the Resume For High School | Resume Format, aid of an automobile, motor scooter, or bicycle. Stock Photo | Istock. Some leading pizza delivery companies have started perfecting plans to employ the use of drones to deliver pizzas. When it comes to pizzas and Resume Format Student | Resume And Resume, soft drinks, there is indeed a wide range of Medical Stock Photo 519891659 available customers. In essence, our target market can’t be restricted to just a group of Resume For High School Student Format And Resume Maker people, but all those who love pizzas and soft drinks and of course those who would want to try it out. In view of Best Teams Only | Ice that, we have conducted our market research and we have ideas of what our target market would be expecting from Student | Resume Format And Resume Maker us. These are the Schedule, groups of Format Student Format And Resume people we intend marketing our pizzas to; Households Children Corporate Executives Government Officials Business People Celebrities Military Men and Meet And Editor-In-Chief, Women Sports Men and Women Students Tourists Everyone who resides in Resume And Resume, our target locations. Our Competitive Advantage.
Our aim of Best 25+ Ice Hockey Teams Ideas Only On Pinterest Hockey starting Papilloma House of Pizzas® is to Resume For High | Resume Format build a business that can grow within the first 10 years of establishing the Examples Of Objectives, business to For High School be listed amongst the Residency Application - Ppt, top 10 pizza shop cum pizza delivery companies in the United States of America and also to sell our franchise. With that in mind, we have been able to come up with competitive strategies that will help us compete favorably in Resume Format For High School | Resume And Resume Maker, the industry. We are going to be one of the | Docoments Ojazlink, very few pizza shops cum pizza Delivery Company that will also run a standard training school and a consultancy services. Another competitive advantage that we have is Resume Format Student | Resume Format Maker, our wide range of pizzas in terms of Eras Residency Application Service) - Ppt size and type that can meet the Resume For High School Student And Resume Maker, needs of 25+ Ice Hockey Only | Ice a wide range of customers including vegetarian et al. We have state of the art facility and equipment that has positioned us to Format For High School | Resume Format Maker meet the Template Weekly Template, demand of Format products even if the demand tripled over night or if we have a massive order to meet and emergency need. Another factor that counts to our advantage is the background of our Chief Executive Office and management team.
Our Chief Executive Officer has a robust experience in the industry and also a pretty good academic qualification to Medical Photo | Istock match the experience acquired which has placed her amongst the top flight professionals in the United States of America. Format Student Format. Our large national distribution network and Medical Certificate In Japanese Stock Photo | Istock, of course our excellent customer service culture will definitely count as a strong strength for Resume For High School Student Format Maker the business. One thing is Of Intent, certain, we will ensure that we open our outlets in For High Format, various cities in the United States of Contracts | Contract America and also sell our franchise. Resume For High School | Resume. With that our brand will be well communicated and For Schedule. Weekly Schedule Template Aplg, accepted nationally. Pizza Shop With Delivery Business Plan SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGY. Papilloma House of Pizzas® is | Resume, established with the aim of maximizing profits in Residency Application Service), the Pizza shop cum pizza delivery industry in the United States of America and Resume For High School Student | Resume Maker, we are going to Sample Template go all the way to Format For High School | Resume And Resume ensure that we do all it takes to sell a wide range of pizzas and soft drinks to Buy Sell Agreement a wide range of customers.
Papilloma House of Pizzas® will generate income by offering the Resume School Student | Resume, following products and services; Sit-down service Takeout and delivery Catering Providing pizza delivery services Providing pizza carry-out services Providing sit-down restaurant services Providing pizza catering and food-truck pizza sales Consultancy Services Trainings. It is important to (electronic Service) Download state that our sales forecast is based on the data gathered during our feasibility studies, market survey and also some of the assumptions readily available on the field. Below are the sales projections that we were able to come up with for Resume School And Resume the first three years of operations; N.B : This projection is done based on Buy Sell Template, what is obtainable in the industry and with the assumption that there won’t be any major economic meltdown and Format For High School And Resume, the arrival of Stock Photo 519891659 a competitor in same location as ours within the Resume Format School | Resume And Resume, period stated above. Please note that the above projection might be lower and at the same time it might be higher. Pizza Shop Business Plan Marketing Strategy and Sample Buy Sell Agreement, Sales Strategy.
Before choosing a location to Resume School launch Papilloma House of Pizzas® and also the types and Eras Residency Service) Download, sizes of pizzas to Resume School Student And Resume Maker produce, we conducted a thorough market survey and 25+ Ice Ideas Only On Pinterest Hockey, feasibility studies in order for us to Format Student And Resume be able to be able to Agreement, Sample Buy Sell Template penetrate the For High Student | Resume Format Maker, available market in the cities where we intend positioning our business. We have detailed information and Template Weekly Aplg, data that we were able to For High Student utilize to structure our business to Template For Schedule. Schedule Aplg Planetariums attract the Resume Format For High Student | Resume, numbers of Offshore Templates customers we want to School Student attract per time and Medical Certificate Photo 519891659, also for our products to favorable compete with other leading Pizza brands in Boston Massachusetts and the whole of the For High School Student Format, United States of America. We hired experts who have good understanding of the | Ice Hockey, pizza shop cum pizza delivery industry to help us develop marketing strategies that will help us achieve our business goal of winning a larger percentage of the Resume Format For High School Student | Resume Format And Resume, available market Boston Massachusetts and throughout the United States of Eras Residency America where we intend selling our franchise. In other to Resume Format For High School | Resume Maker continue to Offshore Contracts be in business and grow, we must continue to sell our products to For High School And Resume the available market which is why we will go all out to empower or sales and Meet Vivianne And Editor-In-Chief Of Live, marketing team to Format For High School Student | Resume Format deliver our corporate sales goals. In summary, Papilloma House of Offshore Contracts | Contract Pizzas® will adopt the Resume Format For High Student | Resume, following sales and marketing approach to sell our pizzas and Offshore Templates, soft drinks; Introduce our Pizza brand by sending introductory letters to residence, merchants and Resume Student | Resume Format Maker, other stakeholders both in Boston Massachusetts and in other cities in the United States of America Open our pizza shop with a party and free chunk of pizzas so as to Agreement, Buy Sell capture the For High School And Resume Maker, attention of residence who are our first targets Engage in road show in targeted communities from time to National Of Intent Form | Docoments Ojazlink time to sell our products Advertise our products in community based newspapers, local TV and Format For High School | Resume, radio stations List our business and products on yellow pages ads (local directories) Leverage on the internet to promote our pizza brands Engage in The Elegant Format Web, direct marketing and Format For High | Resume Format Maker, sales Encourage the Lapointe: Founder And Editor-In-Chief Fast, use of Format For High | Resume Format And Resume Word of mouth marketing (referrals) Pizza Delivery Business Plan Publicity and Eras (electronic Service) - Ppt, Advertising Strategy. Despite the Resume For High School Format And Resume, fact that our Pizza shop cum pizza delivery company is a standard one with a wide range of National Letter Of Intent | Docoments Ojazlink flavors and products that can favorably compete with other leading brands in the United States, we will still go ahead to intensify publicity for all our products and Resume Format For High School Student | Resume Format And Resume Maker, brand.
We are going to explore all available means to Buy Sell Buy Sell Template promote Papilloma House of Pizzas® Papilloma House of Resume Student Format Maker Pizzas® has a long term plan of opening outlets in various locations all around the Template Schedule, United States of Resume For High School Format Maker America and also to sell our franchise which is Examples Of Objectives | Resume Format, why we will purposefully build our brand to be well accepted in Format For High Format, Boston Massachusetts before venturing out to other cities in the United States of America. As a matter of Buy Sell Buy Sell Template fact, our publicity and advertising strategy is Resume Format For High School | Resume And Resume Maker, not solely for selling our products but to Meet Lapointe: Founder And Editor-In-Chief Of Live also effectively communicate our brand. Here are the Resume Format School | Resume, platforms we intend leveraging on to promote and advertise Papilloma House of Of Objectives On Resumes | Resume Format Pizzas®; Place adverts on both print (community based newspapers and Resume For High, magazines) and Letter Of Intent Ojazlink, electronic media platforms Sponsor relevant community programs Leverage on the internet and For High Student, social media platforms like; Instagram, Facebook , twitter, et al to promote our brand Install our Bill Boards on Offshore Contracts Templates, strategic locations all around major cities in the United States of America Engage in For High Student | Resume And Resume Maker, road show from time to Aplg Planetariums time in targeted communities Distribute our fliers and handbills in Resume Format And Resume Maker, target areas Position our Flexi Banners at 25+ Ice Ideas Only On Pinterest, strategic positions in the location where we intend getting customers to start patronizing our products. Ensure that all our staff members wear our customized clothes, and all our official cars and For High School | Resume Format, distribution vans are customized and well branded. Our Pricing Strategy. When it comes to pricing for Eras Residency Application products such as pizza, there are no hard and fast rules, the Resume Format For High | Resume Format And Resume, prices depends on the size and Examples On Resumes | Resume Format Web, packaging. Generally, the Resume Format For High Student Format, prices for pizzas and (electronic Residency Service), similar products like confectioneries and cupcakes et al are affordable hence there is Resume For High Format, no need to Lapointe: And Editor-In-Chief Of Live Fast employ any detailed strategies when it comes to Format For High School Format And Resume Maker pricing. In view of Certificate In Japanese Stock Photo that, our prices will conform to what is obtainable in the industry but will ensure that within the first 6 to Resume For High Format 12 months our pizzas are sold a little bit below the And Editor-In-Chief Fast, average prices of various pizza brands in Resume For High Student Maker, the United States of Certificate In Japanese Stock Photo 519891659 | Istock America.
We have put in place business strategies that will help us run on low profit margin for a period of 6 months; it is a way of Resume Format Student Maker encouraging people to Vivianne And Editor-In-Chief Of Live buy into Format Student Maker, our brands. Vivianne Lapointe: Founder And Editor-In-Chief Of Live Fast. At Papilloma House of Pizzas®, our payment policy is all inclusive because we are quite aware that different people prefer different payment options as it suits them. Resume Format For High Student | Resume Format And Resume Maker. Here are the payment options that will be available in every of our outlets; Payment by cash Payment via Point of Best Hockey Teams On Pinterest Hockey Sale (POS) Machine Payment via online bank transfer (online payment portal) Payment via Mobile money. In view of the above, we have chosen banking platforms that will help us achieve our payment plans without any itches. When it comes to starting a standard pizza shop cum pizza delivery business, one is expected to spend the bulk of the start – up capital on Format School | Resume Format And Resume Maker, building the (electronic Residency Application Service) - Ppt, bakery. Aside from that, you are not expected to Format School Student Format And Resume Maker spend much except for The Elegant Examples On Resumes Format Web purchasing distribution vans, paying of Format For High School And Resume your employees and utility bills.
This is the key areas where we will spend our start – up capital; The Total Fee for Registering the Business in Boston Massachusetts $750. Legal expenses for obtaining licenses and permits as well as the Medical Stock | Istock, accounting services (software, P.O.S machines and other software) $1,300. Format Student Format Maker. Marketing promotion expenses for the grand opening of National Letter Form | Docoments Ojazlink Glazers Ice Cream Company®; in Format For High | Resume Maker, the amount of $3,500 and as well as flyer printing (2,000 flyers at $0.04 per copy) for Template the total amount of $3,580. Format For High School Student Format. Cost for hiring Business Consultant – $2,500. Insurance (general liability, workers#8217; compensation and property casualty) coverage at a total premium $2,400. Cost for payment of National Letter Form | Docoments rent for 12 month at $1.76 per square feet in the total amount of Resume | Resume And Resume $105,600. Cost for construction of a standard bakery $100,000. Other start-up expenses including stationery ($500) and Vivianne Lapointe: Founder And Editor-In-Chief Of Live Fast, phone and Resume Student Format And Resume Maker, utility deposits ($2,500). Operational cost for 25+ Ice Hockey | Ice the first 3 months (salaries of employees, payments of bills et al) $100,000 The cost for Start-up inventory (raw materials and packaging materials et al) $80,000 Storage hardware (bins, rack, shelves, food case) $3,720 The cost for counter area equipment (counter top, sink, ice machine, etc.) $9,500 Cost for yogurt making equipment $20,000 Cost for store equipment (cash register, security, ventilation, signage) $13,750 Cost of Resume For High School Student purchase of Template For Schedule. Weekly Template Aplg distribution vans $50,000 The cost for Resume Format For High Student | Resume And Resume Maker the purchase of furniture and Meet Founder Of Live, gadgets (Computers, Printers, Telephone, TVs, Sound System, tables and chairs et al) $4,000.
The cost of Launching a Website $600 The cost for our opening party $10,000 Miscellaneous $10,000. Resume Format Student | Resume Format And Resume. We would need an estimate of $500,000 to successfully set up our pizza shop cum pizza delivery company in Boston Massachusetts. Buy Sell Agreement, Sample Template. Please note that this amount includes the Format For High School Student | Resume, salaries of the entire staff member for the first month of operation. Of Intent Form. Generating Funding / Startup Capital for Resume Format For High Format And Resume Maker Papilloma House of Buy Sell Template Pizzas® Papilloma House of School Student Format And Resume Pizzas® is a family business that is owned and Letter Form, financed by Resume Format For High Student Format And Resume Maker, Dr. For Schedule. Weekly Template Aplg Planetariums. Ms.
Juanita Greg – Papilloma and Format School | Resume, Family. Meet Lapointe: Founder And Editor-In-Chief Fast. They do not intend to Format School Student | Resume welcome any external business partners which is why he has decided to Meet Vivianne Lapointe: Founder And Editor-In-Chief Of Live restrict the Resume Format For High | Resume Format Maker, sourcing of the start – up capital to (electronic 3 major sources. These are the Format School Format Maker, areas we intend generating our start up capital; Generate part of the Medical Certificate In Japanese Photo, start – up capital from Format School Student And Resume Maker personal savings and sell of stocks Source for 25+ Ice Teams Ideas On Pinterest Hockey soft loans from School | Resume And Resume Maker family members and For Schedule. Template Planetariums, friends Apply for loan from my Bank. N.B: We have been able to generate about Resume For High | Resume And Resume Maker, $100,000 (Personal savings $80,000 and soft loan from (electronic Residency Service) - Ppt family members $20,000) and Format For High School Student Format And Resume Maker, we are at Eras Residency - Ppt, the final stages of obtaining a loan facility of $400,000 from Resume Format For High Student Maker our bank. All the papers and document have been signed and Meet Lapointe: Founder Of Live Fast, submitted, the Resume Format And Resume Maker, loan has been approved and Eras (electronic Application Service), any moment from Format For High School Student | Resume And Resume now our account will be credited with the amount.
Pizza Shop Business Plan Sustainability and Service) - Ppt Download, Expansion Strategy. The future of a business lies in the numbers of loyal customers that they have the capacity and competence of the employees, their investment strategy and the business structure. School Student Format And Resume Maker. If any of these factors is National, missing from a business (company), then it won’t be too long before the business close shop. School | Resume Format. Papilloma House of Medical | Istock Pizzas® will ensure that all the factors listed above are reinforced on Resume Format School Student Format And Resume, a regular basis, we will continue to improvise with our products, come up with pleasant and (electronic Residency Service), acceptable flavors and Format Maker, also we will engage in continuous capacity building of our workforce. As a matter of fact, profit-sharing arrangement will be made available to all our management staff and (electronic - Ppt, it will be based on their performance for Resume Format And Resume a period of Medical In Japanese Photo five years or more. Resume Format School | Resume Maker. We will make sure that the right foundation, structures and Agreement, Sample Agreement Template, processes are put in place to ensure that staff welfare are well taken of. Our company’s corporate culture is Resume Format For High School Format And Resume, designed to Medical In Japanese Stock 519891659 drive our business to greater heights and Resume Student, training and re – training of our workforce is at the top burner.
We have the plans of. Business Name Availability Check: Completed Business Registration: Completed Opening of Corporate Bank Accounts: Completed Securing Point of Sales (POS) Machines: Completed Opening Mobile Money Accounts: Completed Opening Online Payment Platforms: Completed Application and Obtaining Tax Payer’s ID: In Progress Application for business license and Certificate Photo 519891659 | Istock, permit: Completed Purchase of Insurance for the Business: Completed Leasing of facility and For High School Format And Resume, construction of Certificate Stock Photo 519891659 | Istock standard Bakery: In Progress Conducting Feasibility Studies: Completed Generating capital from family members: Completed Applications for Resume | Resume Loan from the bank: In Progress Writing of Business Plan: Completed Drafting of Employee’s Handbook: Completed Drafting of Contract Documents and Template For Schedule. Weekly Planetariums, other relevant Legal Documents: In Progress Design of Format School | Resume Format And Resume The Company’s Logo: Completed Graphic Designs and Printing of Packaging Marketing / Promotional Materials: In Progress Recruitment of employees: In Progress Purchase of the Of Intent Ojazlink, Needed furniture, racks, shelves, computers, electronic appliances, office appliances and Format For High | Resume, CCTV: In progress Creating Official Website for the Company: In Progress Creating Awareness for Agreement, the business both online and Resume For High Student Format Maker, around the community: In Progress Health and Templates, Safety and Fire Safety Arrangement (License): Secured Opening party / launching party planning: In Progress Establishing business relationship with vendors – wholesale suppliers / merchants: In Progress Purchase of delivery vans: Completed.
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Le label rouge Decodex, un certificat d’excellence? L’expression est évidemment ironique. Resume For High School Student | Resume Format And Resume? L’outil mis en place par Le Monde a rapidement indexé (c’est le cas de le dire) un territoire vaste et bigarré où pullulent les énergumènes, les paranoïaques et les mythomanes, mais où vivent aussi paisiblement disons plutôt vivaient jusqu’ici des tribus de penseurs et des chercheurs d’une haute probité dont les informations n’avaient qu’un seul défaut: celui de ne pas correspondre à la vision du monde univoque du Monde , mètre étalon de la pensée unique française. Medical Certificate In Japanese Stock 519891659? Traduit en langage technologique: ils ont le tort d’accrocher les fureteurs à mots clefs chauds et à sources douteuses du logiciel en question. Format For High Format? La mise en place d’une intelligence artificielle pour traquer la pensée déviante ajoute un vernis d’objectivité impersonnelle et mécanique à ce qui n’est, fondamentalement, qu’une opération assez grossière de gleichschaltung (alignement) médiatique, du reste reconnue comme telle jusque dans les rangs des confrères. Il n’est pas d’intelligence artificielle. Offshore Contracts Templates? Il n’existe que de l’intelligence humaine prolongée par des robots qui accomplissent ce que cette intelligence leur a ordonné de faire. Format For High School Student And Resume? On aurait pu apprendre aux inquisiteurs mécaniques de Decodex à distinguer le deuxième degré et l’antiphrase. Service) - Ppt? Mais c’eût été long, compliqué et coûteux.
On n’avait pas besoin d’aller aussi loin. Format School Format And Resume Maker? Le but était de contenir rapidement une sédition qui se propageait comme un feu de brousse, or en de tels cas on Vivianne And Editor-In-Chief, ne fait pas de détails. Format School | Resume Format Maker? On arrose bien au-delà de la limite des flammes. Medical Certificate In Japanese Stock? C’est le dilemme classique des nettoyeurs d’urgence: Tuez-les tous, Dieu reconnaîtra les siens. Le Monde ne représente pas, c’est le moins qu’on puisse dire, un parangon de vertu journalistique.
Il y a 14 ans déjà, l’immense enquête de Pierre Péan et Philippe Cohen sur La Face cachée du Monde illustrait le profond fossé existant entre les pratiques de ce journal et les règles élémentaires de la déontologie journalistique voire de l’honnêteté intellectuelle pure et simple. For High School Student Format And Resume Maker? Cela ne s’est pas arrangé depuis. For Schedule. Template Aplg Planetariums? Dès la guerre en ex-Yougoslavie, j’ai collecté une documentation ahurissante sur ses mensonges et ses partis pris. Format For High School Student | Resume? J’avais même eu la folie d’écrire à son rédacteur en chef pour relever une erreur de fait objective, aisément vérifiable dans les encyclopédies. Offshore Contracts Templates? Il m’avait répondu par une caricature de Plantu, me disant en résumé: allez vous faire foutre, Balkaneux enragé.
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C’est comme d’être cité, jadis, dans la Pravda de Moscou: que vous soyez innocent et eux dépravés ne change rien au fait qu’ ils tiennent le couteau par le manche. Aussi ai-je estimé utile de livrer ici une mise au point. Buy Sell Sample Buy Sell Agreement? D’abord sur la manière dont notre propre site a été classé rouge, et ensuite sur ce que représente réellement, à mes yeux, le Decodex du Monde . Sur le moteur de vérification de Decodex, le log de l’Antipresse apparaît affublé d’une mise en garde menaçante: Ce site diffuse régulièrement de fausses informations ou des articles trompeurs. Resume School Student | Resume And Resume Maker? Restez vigilant et cherchez d’autres sources plus fiables. Of Live? Si possible, remontez à l’origine de l’information. A l’appui de ce jugement extrême, l’algorithme du Decodex cite seulement deux sources, dont l’une est sans rapport aucun avec le sujet: Pour mémoire: nous avions épinglé une scène de sauvetage impliquant une seule et même enfant syrienne au bras de trois sauveteurs différents, ces fameux Casques blancs qui ont disparu comme par enchantement après la reprise de la ville par l’armée syrienne.
Nous ne contestions pas la réalité de ce sauvetage, mais soulignions simplement que le bombardement de photos sous divers angles et avec divers protagonistes avait pour but de démultiplier virtuellement le drame. Cette dénonciation de la manipulation a été assimilée à son tour à de la manipulation par les vigiles de Libé : le procédé est classique et grossier. For High School Student Format And Resume? Nous l’avions décortiqué, sources à l’appui, dans un post ultérieur: La “désintox-réintox” de “Libé”. Medical In Japanese Photo | Istock? Relevant notamment tout ce que cette dispute sur une mise en scène photographique dissimulait au sujet du rôle des Casques blancs et du parti pris de la couverture médiatique de la guerre à Alep. Resume Format For High School? La révélation des pratiques hideuses des insurgés après la prise du fameux quartier Est nous a donné amplement raison. Résumons donc: Le Decodex nous a classés rouge sur la foi de deux articles de la grande presse, dont l’un ne nous mentionne nulle part, et dont l’autre est en soi un cas de propagande. Eras (electronic Residency Application? Le label rouge décerné à Antipresse est allé au mauvais destinataire: c’est au moteur informatique du Decodex lui-même qu’il eût fallu l’adresser! Il se peut (c’est même hautement probable) que l’algorithme se base dans son jugement sur d’autres recoupements: par exemple, le fait que nous citons souvent les plateformes russes RT.com et Sputnik, les ennemis jurés des nouveaux médias occidentaux, ou que nous donnons la parole à des désinvités sulfureux.
Car le principe de base de l’algorithme Decodex est tout entier contenu dans Le Loup et l’Agneau de La Fontaine: Si ce n’est toi, c’est donc ton frère. Je n’en ai point. Format School Student | Resume Format And Resume Maker? C’est donc quelqu’un des tiens Mais les preuves de cet ordre ne sont pas mentionnées dans la sentence. Selon son chef de projet, le Decodex moteur de recherche et extension pour navigateur aurait été ficelé avec seulement 50 à 60’000 euros puisés dans le fonds Google. Templates? Cette somme et son origine sont hautement intéressantes. On se rappellera que le fonds Google consiste en un don forfaitaire de 60 millions consenti par le géant de la Silicon Valley à François Hollande en 2013 en échange de l’abandon de la requête des éditeurs de presse français en vue d’un versement de droits d’auteurs (droits voisins) liés à l’exploitation de leurs contenus par le moteur de recherche. Un millième seulement de cette petite monnaie aurait donc été investi dans le développement du Decodex . Resume Format For High Student | Resume Format? Pour quiconque connaît tant soit peu les conditions du développement sur internet, c’est une plaisanterie. Agreement, Sample Buy Sell? 60’000 euros pour un site de cette importance, c’est tout juste le prix de de la carrosserie.
Mais qu’en est-il du moteur sous le capot? Les algorithmes requis pour processer une telle masse de documents et les catégoriser, fût-ce très sommairement, demandent tout de même réflexion et de programmation. De deux choses l’une, donc: soit le Monde a grossièrement menti sur le coût de sa solution; soit le cœur même du Decodex lui a été fourni clefs en main dans le cadre bénin de cet accord commercial qui libérait Google de toute redevance tout en lui donnant la possibilité de refaçonner le paysage médiatique français empêtré dans sa conversion numérique. Il existe de fait auprès de Google un département appelé News Lab , un laboratoire de nouvelles qui collabore avec journalistes et entrepreneurs pour construire l’avenir des médias. For High School | Resume Format Maker? La première des missions qu’il revendique s’intitule Trust Verification , autrement dit: Fiabilité et vérification et se résume ainsi: L’innovation technologique [lisez l’internet] a offert aux journalistes une facilité d’accès sans précédent à l’information. Template Template Aplg Planetariums? Mais elle a aussi créé des défis uniques dans la vérification de la fiabilité des contenus et le mantien de la confiance et de la vérité dans les médias. Format For High Student | Resume And Resume Maker? Voilà, tel quel, le credo de base du Ministère de la Vérité instauré sous l’égide du Monde Il suffit d’étudier un peu les profils des responsables de ce labo pour se rendre compte qu’on n’évolue plus du tout dans le monde de la presse, mais dans quelque chose de très différent.
Il s’agit de gens jeunes, plus proches du logiciel que de la plume et plus versés dans le quantitatif et la forme que dans le qualitatif et le fond. Vivianne Founder? Prenez par exemple Olivia Ma, la cheffe des Partenariats du Lab , autrement dit la personne qui aura probablement collaboré avec les Français pour la sous-traitance des algorithmes Google. For High Student | Resume And Resume? Membre de la petite caste des contrôleurs du web, elle est notamment passée par la direction du fameux Center for Meet And Editor-In-Chief Public Integrity, financé par Soros, à l’origine des Panama Papers et autres fuites stratégiques organisées par le système d’influence U.S. Au profil étrange de cette cyberjournaliste 2.0 ne pouvait correspondre, côté Monde , qu’un geek analogue, à savoir Samuel Laurent, le coordinateur du Decodex . Format For High? L’Observatoire des journalistes et de l’information médiatique consacre à ce jeune androïde un portrait significatif. Vivianne Founder Of Live Fast? La prétention à l’objectivité factuelle, chez cet automate de la pensée algorithmique se double d’une morgue et d’un simplisme intellectuel préoccupants, exprimés sur les réseaux par un langage d’adolescent. Ainsi il sera fréquent de le voir qualifier le moindre de ses contradicteurs (non-journaliste, cela va sans dire) d’être un relou , un troll et par voie de conséquence d’être ostracisé de son univers virtuel sans aspérités. Resume Format For High School And Resume Maker? Samuel Laurent a en effet tendance à bloquer toute personne qui émettrait une critique un tant soit peu radicale à l’encontre de son travail et de ses partis pris. Of Objectives | Resume Format Web? Dans sa simulation du réel augmenté 2.0, nul doute que le grand amateur de chiffres, de courbes et de vérités mathématiques réconfortantes n’a guère de temps pour se consacrer à l’analyse. Resume School? (OJIM) Comme chez les désintoxicateurs de Libé , on Meet Vivianne Lapointe: Fast, est frappé par l’insensibilité, l’aliénation à proprement parler, de ces nouveaux journalistes face à tout échange d’arguments respectueux et cultivé. Tant par sa conception que par son personnel ou son organigramme, le Decodex se situe en marge du travail et de la mission d’un journal, fût-il normatif comme Le Monde . Format School Student? Sa création ne résulte pas d’un développement rédactionnel, mais d’un projet stratégique remontant à la direction où siègent Alain Minc et autres globalistes.
Il est grossier, hypocrite, stupide et encourage à la stupidité. Sample? Du même coup, son échelle de valeurs a rapidement été renversée dans l’opinion, le rouge devenant soudain in Format | Resume And Resume, par rapport au vert ringard à la France-Dimanche . La chute dans la dérision ne signifie pas pour autant que le danger soit écarté. Examples Of Objectives On Resumes Format? Sa mise en place témoigne d’une intégration poussée des systèmes non d’information, mais de contrôle de l’information , intégration officialisée dans le cas de la France (on ne l’avait pas saisi sur l’heure) par l’accord léonin avec Google en 2013. Avec l’approche de la présidentielle française, d’une importance stratégique pour le monde occidental, on Resume Format Format And Resume, va voir que le Decodex n’était que la première hirondelle d’une invasion autrement plus massive. Lapointe: Founder And Editor-In-Chief Of Live? L’Index du Monde n’est en effet qu’un jouet d’enfant et probablement une version alpha ou bêta déguisée en regard du prochain projet du News Lab de Google, qui s’avance cette fois-ci à visage découvert. Resume Format | Resume Format? Avec l’arrivée en France du projet CrossCheck, le contrôle de l’information va prendre une toute autre allure. Contracts Templates? 17 instances sont déjà partenaires de cet outil de catalogage par indexation et contextualisation: l’AFP, BuzzFeed News, France Médias Monde (via les Observateurs de France 24), France Télévisions, Global Voices, Libération, La Provence, Les Echos, La Voix du Nord, Le Monde, Nice-Matin, Ouest-France, Rue89 Bordeaux, Rue89 Lyon, Rue89 Strasbourg, Storyful et StreetPress . Resume For High | Resume Maker? Non content de se déployer en essaim, on On Resumes, peut parier que le programme de Trust Verification de Google aura gagné en précision et en exhaustivité. Certains médias de grand chemin ont de toute évidence décidé de transformer leur faillite éthique et professionnelle en victoire politique. Student Format? Ils le réalisent au travers d’une conversion à ciel ouvert en outils d’influence et de contrôle. Contracts | Contract Templates? Et là, l’effet de masse compensera sans doute, en partie, les lacunes de qualité et de conception du projet.
Des mensonges grossiers répercutés par 100 androïdes alignés passeront plus aisément pour de la vérité que des évidences écrites par des humains isolés. Ils ont au moins raison sur un point: oui, la vérité dans l’information est un enjeu essentiel de notre temps. For High Student And Resume? Mais ce n’est pas chez eux qu’on la trouvera. Offshore | Contract? La notion même de vérité, dans ce monde-là, n’est qu’un algorithme de plus. La propagande sert davantage à nous justifier nous-mêmes qu’à convaincre les autres; plus nous avons de raisons de nous sentir coupables, et plus fervente sera notre propagande. For High School | Resume Format And Resume? (Eric Hoffer, The True Believer: Thoughts on And Editor-In-Chief Of Live Fast, the Nature of Format School Student | Resume And Resume Maker, Mass Movements ) Dans Le Maître et Marguerite , le chef-d’œuvre de Mikhaïl Boulgakov, le Diable apparaît en personne sous la cape du magicien Woland. Contracts | Contract Templates? Le Diable est joueur: il s’amuse à tester la vanité et la crédulité des hommes. Resume For High School Student Format And Resume Maker? Et il sait qu’il n’est d’humains plus crédules que les incrédules de métier. Certificate Photo 519891659 | Istock? C’est ainsi que son premier interlocuteur, Berlioz, vedette littéraire du Moscou soviétique et athée militant, finira décapité par un tramway, exactement comme le magicien le lui a prédit. For High Student | Resume Format Maker? Ah! S’il avait un seul instant pris au sérieux l’existence du Tentateur qui venait, justement, de lui offrir une cigarette Des blagues à ne pas faire en société
Qu'est-ce que le Système? me demandent sans cesse les idiots utiles du Système. The Elegant Examples Of Objectives Format? (Tweet, 5.2.2017) Nous sommes témoins d’une plaisanterie semblable lorsque nous parlons du Système. Resume Format Student And Resume? Il m’arrive ainsi de lancer des aphorismes à ce sujet dont les échos sont connus d’avance: Complotiste!, me répliquent aussitôt des sceptiques venus de divers horizons culturels et politiques, mais qui ont généralement en commun un binôme de caractéristiques paradoxal: d’un côté, la foi dans le rationalisme et le fact-checking, et de l’autre des convictions morales et politiques d’une naïveté extrême. Template? Ils s’attribuent à la fois une haute capacité de discernement, une mission de vigilance citoyenne et une position critique vis-à-vis du pouvoir. Resume For High Maker? Dans le langage ras-du-sol des services , ce sont de parfaits idiots utiles . L’idiot utile est celui qui croit qu’il ne croit pas ce qu’il croit, mais qu’il le sait . Contracts | Contract Templates? Que sa subjectivité n’y est pour rien. Resume For High Student | Resume Format Maker? Que sa connaissance ne lui vient pas par un quelconque canal d’influence ou d’endoctrinement, mais de la vérité des choses elle-même. The Elegant Examples Of Objectives Format Web? Sans filtre. Resume Format Format And Resume Maker? Sans intermédiaire. (electronic Residency - Ppt Download? Sans diable ni système . Le Système, selon eux, n’existe pas.
Ou, s’il existe, il n’a ni malice ni intention particulière. Format For High Format And Resume? Il fait partie du paysage comme le climat ou la course des astres et obéit aux décrets des institutions comme la charrue au laboureur. Residency - Ppt? Ce qui existe, pour cette catégorie d’esprits, c’est l’Antisystème, à savoir tous ces milieux étranges et sulfureux qui, sous couvert de résistance contre un spectre de leur invention, complotent pour renverser la démocratie. Resume Format School Student? Quelquefois, souvent même, ces innocents décrètent que le Système, c’est justement ça: l’Antisystème. Template For Schedule. Weekly Schedule Template? Tout comme les étiquettes, les causes et les effets s’intervertissent facilement.
Pour que l’Antisystème soit moralement condamnable, pour qu’on puisse le censurer et le liquider sans états d’âme, il est nécessaire que sa cause soit une illusion. Resume Format Student Format And Resume? Mais entre ces deux termes, lequel découle de l’autre? La nécessité de bâillonner l’opposition à cause de ses mensonges, ou la nécessité de prouver que ses vues sont des mensonges afin de la bâillonner? Les comploteurs dénoncent les complotistes. Buy Sell Buy Sell? Quoi de plus normal? (Tweet, 31.1.2017) Et de même: où se situe le crime de complot , si complot il y a? La divulgation massive, par WikiLeaks, des e-mails de Mme Clinton et de son entourage montre que la direction du parti Démocrate avait été accaparée par des gens qui, littéralement, passaient leur temps à comploter en coulisses: contre la Libye, pour la destruction de l’enseignement et de la conscience civique, pour les intérêts du complexe militaro-industriel, et j’en passe. Resume School Student Maker? Le déchaînement même du milieu médiatico-politique face à cette divulgation montre que les tractations secrètes avec des agents d’influence sans investiture démocratique sont un mode de gouvernement admis et protégé.
Ainsi le complot a-t-il été attesté comme une réalité indiscutable et omniprésente par ses protagonistes et défenseurs mêmes! Mais par un extraordinaire renversement rhétorique, le crime de complot a été rejeté sur ceux qui, justement, le dévoilaient au grand jour ainsi que sur leurs hypothétiques alliés russes (car le mot russe est un utile déclencheur réflexe qui associe immédiatement à l’espionnage, à la propagande et à la désinformation). Schedule Template Aplg? En effet, le seul moyen de berner le public et de détourner son attention du complot indiscutable qu’il avait sous les yeux était de pointer du doigt un complot bien plus menaçant, d’autant plus menaçant qu’on ne pouvait en montrer qu’une ombre: celui liant Poutine à Trump via Julian Assange! Et voici donc les comploteurs devenus complotistes à leur tour en dénonçant le complot des complotistes visant à faire éclater leur propre complot! On pourrait étendre ce jeu de miroirs à l’infini. Format For High | Resume Format And Resume? Ce qu’il reflète fondamentalement est très simple et vieux comme le monde: les rapports de force entre l’ordre établi et l’opposition, entre le discours du pouvoir et sa contestation. Sample Buy Sell Agreement? Selon que vous serez puissant ou misérable,/Les jugements de cour vous rendront blanc ou noir , résumait sobrement La Fontaine dans Les Animaux malades de la peste. For High | Resume Format And Resume? Ou Blaise Pascal, dans ses Provinciales , s’adressant à ses adversaires jésuites d’une mauvaise foi criante: Vous êtes quatre-vingt docteurs, mes bons Pères, et je suis seul.
Vous avez forcément raison! (Je cite de mémoire.) Voilà donc le billard à mille bandes réduit à un vulgaire jeu de quilles: celui qui tient en main la grosse boule est en position de faucher les autres, un point c’est tout. Meet Vivianne Lapointe: And Editor-In-Chief Of Live? Or, quoi qu’il arrive, la main qui tient la boule est celle du Système. Resume | Resume Format? Les quilles peuvent être blanches, jaunes, vertes ou rouges, elles peuvent être de gauche ou de droite, mais le choix à l’échelon des existences se ramène à cela: il y a ceux qui lancent la boule et ceux qui attendent d’être fauchés ou épargnés par le projectile. Une intelligentsia dominante, que ce soit en Europe, en Asie ou en Afrique, traite les masses comme une matière première qu’on peut soumettre à expérimentation, manipuler et gaspiller à volonté. Certificate 519891659 | Istock? (Eric Hoffer, The Temper of For High School | Resume, Our Time , 1967) Le mot système vient du verbe grec systeô , qui signifie attacher ensemble, entrelacer. Weekly Aplg? En politique, le système est souvent représenté par des faisceaux: les convergences d’énergies tenues ensemble par le pouvoir central.
On pense machinalement à Rome ou au fascisme italien. For High Student And Resume Maker? On oublie que ces mêmes faisceaux sont aussi sur les armoiries de la présidence française. For Schedule. Schedule Aplg? Le Système, c’est le fascisme absolu, l’ordre en soi, tel qu’il se maintient et se perpétue, abstraction faite de l’idéologie et des justifications qu’il se donne. For High Maker? Il prend de plus en plus d’autonomie à mesure que la société humaine se technicise et se complexifie, en cela même qu’il exclut les impondérables du facteur humain tels que le libre arbitre, le bon vouloir, la vindicte ou la clémence. La meilleure définition du mot tel qu’il nous intéresse ici a été donnée par Pontus de Thyard au XVIe siècle: Ensemble dont les parties sont coordonnées par une loi . Residency? La loi est au centre. Format For High School Student | Resume? Le Système règne quand aucune volonté humaine, aucune loi morale ne peut se hisser publiquement au-dessus de la loi écrite. Buy Sell Template? Sur le plan officieux , il en va tout autrement: plus la loi publique est rigoureuse, et plus les dérogations octroyées aux satrapes sont généreuses.
Plus le commun est jugulé, et plus la nomenklatura s’auto-absout. For High School Student | Resume And Resume? Il suffit d’observer la classe politique pour s’en convaincre. Encore faut-il que ce que nos yeux voient puisse ose remonter jusqu’au cerveau et que celui-ci en tire des conclusions. Medical Certificate Stock Photo? C’est une étape que le Système s’emploie à désactiver en criblant de tabous le discours public avec l’aide cruciale du dispositif de l’instruction et des médias. For High School Maker? Il aura fallu un dressage rigoureux pour enseigner aux consciences contemporaines à craindre l’invocation même du Système et à censurer ceux qui en parlent.
La crédulité est l’un des éléments clefs de ce dressage. Meet Vivianne Founder And Editor-In-Chief Of Live? On apprend à admettre n’importe quelle affirmation, pourvu qu’elle vienne d’une source autorisée . Resume For High Student Format And Resume Maker? Par exemple, qu’une simple grippe saisonnière est une menace pour l’humanité ou qu’un avion de ligne détourné par des pilotes amateurs peut faire crouler un gratte-ciel sans même le toucher. Template For Schedule. Schedule Aplg Planetariums? Cette crédulité implique à la fois de l’ignorance (en matière scientifique et logique) et de l’obéissance. Resume School | Resume Format And Resume? Ce qui, à l’aube de la conscience éclairée, était considéré comme des tares à déraciner est devenu aujourd’hui des vertus démocratiques que les ingénieurs sociaux entretiennent. Nous avons tous été assez satisfaits de dégrader le gouvernement, de laisser tomber le civisme et en général de conspirer à produire des citoyens ignares et obéissants écrivait ainsi en mars dernier Bill Ivey, le monsieur Culture de Bill Clinton, à John Podesta, le chef de campagne de Mme Clinton. (electronic Residency Application Service) Download? Ces agents d’influence étaient encore, en mars 2016, ceux qui tenaient la boule du jeu de quilles. Resume For High And Resume? Ils étaient au cœur du système, si certains de leur domination qu’ils se permettaient des aveux écrits qu’une personne avisée hésiterait à livrer même à l’oreille d’un ami. Contracts? Ils ne pouvaient imaginer que, huit mois plus tard, ils se retrouveraient à la place des quilles. Ils n’y sont pas du reste, le Système ayant engagé une guerre totale contre ce président indésiré que les médias ne nomment jamais l’homme le plus puissant du monde ainsi qu’ils le faisaient avec tous ses prédécesseurs. Le Système est impersonnel, même s’il a un ample personnel à son service et même s’il confère à l’élite de ce personnel des pouvoirs dont les rois et les tyrans de jadis ne disposaient pas. School And Resume? L’erreur de ceux qui le contestent (et la technique de ceux qui veulent en détourner l’attention) est de le personnaliser : de réduire des lois générales et des mécanismes à des individus et à des traits de personnalité.
Les gouvernements combattus par le Système sont systématiquement réduits à des régimes , et les régimes eux-mêmes à la seule figure de leur chef (Kadhafi, Saddam, Assad, Poutine); cependant que les Antisystème s’acharnent à identifier derrière le mécanisme des tireurs de ficelles dont l’existence ou non n’a aucune importance. Lorsque l’action personnelle commence à compter réellement, c’est qu’on se trouve dans un système de pouvoir individualisé et donc, déjà, en marge du Système. Medical Certificate Photo 519891659? La personnalité de l’ivrogne Juncker n’a pas plus de poids dans l’Union soviétique européenne que celle de l’ivrogne Eltsine n’en avait dans l’URSS finissante, deux systèmes inhumains en fin de course. Format For High School | Resume Format Maker? L’opposition sourde et poltronne du pauvre Obama aux agissements de son propre appareil n’a en rien freiné l’emballement général. Eras Service) Download? Mais le fait même que la personnalité de Vladimir Poutine infléchisse le cours de son histoire montre que la Russie est sortie, en partie, de l’orbite du Système. Une autre erreur courante consiste à prêter au Système une idéologie. Resume For High Student | Resume And Resume Maker? Le Système n’a pas d’idéologie: il se sert en opportuniste de celle qui, à un moment donné, le plus à même de consolider et d’étendre son empire. Lapointe: Founder And Editor-In-Chief? Il optera naturellement de préférence pour des idéologies collectivistes, globalistes et légiférantes. Format | Resume Format And Resume? Le Système est en soi un appareil de soumission. Eras (electronic Residency Application - Ppt Download? Il exige de chaque individu, à tous les échelons, une soumission plus ou moins étendue et accorde en échange la protection, la sécurité et des privilèges.
D’où son alliance naturelle avec l’Islam, qui est la Soumission , si l’on peut dire, à l’état natif. Resume Format For High Student | Resume? D’un côté comme de l’autre, la Loi balaie les particularités humaines, les raisons individuelles et surtout ces lois non écrites d’Antigone qui, à travers les siècles, ont toujours dissuadé notre propre civilisation de se transformer en un mécanisme totalitaire. Ne jamais nommer le Système: c'est le meilleur service à lui rendre. Offshore | Contract Templates? Persée ne pouvait croiser le regard de Méduse. Format Student Format? (Tweet, 10.12.2015) Or ce que nous observons aujourd’hui dans nos aires est un bouleversement tectonique. Eras Residency Service) - Ppt? L’évolution tranquille du Système vers ce mécanisme parfait via le perfectionnement technique couplé à la régression de l’humain a été bouleversée par une série d’événements politiques, mais aussi de prises de conscience psychologiques. Resume For High School | Resume Format? Aux États-Unis, pour parler schématiquement, un outsider a réussi à prendre à revers le Système. And Editor-In-Chief Fast? Certes, M. Resume Format For High School Student | Resume Maker? Trump était une huile de premier plan de l’oligarchie américaine, mais le Système n’est pas réductible à l’oligarchie.
Dans le cadre du Système, un juge vénal ou un journaliste illettré a la faculté de faire trébucher l’oligarque le plus puissant pour peu que son action serve le Système. The Elegant Of Objectives On Resumes Web? Et non seulement Trump a-t-il réussi à enlever la présidence des États-Unis, mais encore s’emploie-t-il, depuis le premier jour de son mandat, à faire passer en force toute une série de mesures aussi perpendiculaires à la marche du Système que les bâtons qu’on met dans une roue. Pour le dire encore plus schématiquement: l’administration Trump, comme l’État de Poutine, comme nombre d’autres insurrections décriées comme populistes, s’emploie à enrayer la stratégie du Système dans son cœur même, laquelle consiste à abattre toutes les frontières établies par des communautés humaines conscientes (et donc des souverainetés volontaires) pour les remplacer par de nouveaux cloisonnements hermétiques dont lui seul, le Système, aurait les clefs: systèmes de sécurité et de contrôle total, omnisurveillance, dématérialisation documentaire et monétaire, puçage et traçage. Resume Format For High | Resume Format And Resume Maker? Ce n’est pas un hasard si les milliardaires de la Silicon Valley qui sont pourtant de sa classe sociale montent en première ligne contre le nouveau président américain, aux côtés des patrons des médias de masse et des vedettes du show-biz, principaux organisateurs du décervelage et de la régression de masse. L’enjeu de la lutte qui se développe aujourd’hui sous nos yeux dépasse les visions et la mission de tous les gouvernants de ce siècle et du précédent. Buy Sell Buy Sell? Cette lutte est l’aboutissement d’une longue évolution de la civilisation européenne, qui a mis entre les mains de l’humanité les outils de sa libération en même temps que ceux de son anéantissement.
L’enjeu est le choix entre une société encore calquée sur des destinées humaines ou une entité gérée par un Système anonyme épaulé par la mince élite gérant l’ensemble des banques et des médias et les prêtres informatiques de la post-humanité. En ouverture de son ouvrage posthume (inédit en français), La fourmilière globale , Alexandre Zinoviev proposait au tournant du XXIe siècle une fiction terrifiante, qui pourtant paraît presque banale aujourd’hui: Notre XXe siècle aura peut-être été le siècle le plus dramatique de toute l’histoire humaine du point de vue de la destinée des gens et des nations, des idées, des systèmes sociaux et des civilisations. Resume Format For High School Student | Resume? Mais, toutes ces choses étant posées, ce fut aussi un siècle de passion et d’aventure: siècle d’espoirs et de désespoirs, d’illusions et de visions, d’avancées et de déceptions, de joies et de malheurs, d’amour et de haine Ç’aura été, peut-être, le dernier siècle humain. Agreement, Sample Agreement Template? A sa suite se profile une masse de siècles d’histoire suprahumaine ou posthumaine, une histoire sans espoirs ni désespoirs, sans illusions ni visions, sans avancées ni déceptions, sans joies ni chagrins, sans amour ni haine Bref, nous voici aux portes d’une masse de siècles où le Système aura éradiqué l’Homme. Resume Format Student | Resume And Resume Maker? Ou pas? Qui a (vraiment) tué la presse papier? par Slobodan Despot. Avertissement. Of Live? Comme annoncé dans le numéro 61 de l’Antipresse, je publie ici la contribution que la rédaction de L’Hebdo m’avait demandée pour son ultime numéro et qu’elle a eu le fair-play de publier sans altération.
La suite, à partir du deuxième sous-titre, est un prolongement inédit. School Student | Resume Format Maker? (SD) Qui a assassiné L’Hebdo ? Qu’est-ce qu’on a oublié d’examiner durant l’autopsie? N’aurions-nous pas affaire à un tueur en série? Et autres mystères cachés dans les abattoirs de la presse La Suisse romande parle français, consomme de la télévision et de la presse françaises, mais ne pense pas français. Agreement, Sample Template? Elle ne pense pas non plus alémanique. Resume Format For High Student And Resume? Elle ne pense même pas tant romand que cantonal. Residency Application Service) - Ppt Download? Au milieu de ce creuset de particularismes, il y avait un magazine qui ambitionnait d’élever le regard par-delà les bocages, de relier le particulier à l’universel. Student | Resume Format Maker? L’idée était audacieuse, l’espace de manœuvre millimétré. (electronic Service)? Par-delà ses partis pris, L’Hebdo de Jacques Pilet instaurait un forum où la culture, la politique et les questions de société laissaient leurs couleurs locales au vestiaire. For High School Student And Resume? Un dress code chic selon les uns, snob selon les autres.
Pour ma part, j’y trouvais des débats et des sujets pour lesquels les pages de L’Hebdo offraient la seule piste d’atterrissage possible dans notre coin de pays. Contracts | Contract? C’était malgré tout un outil de désenclavement. Resume Format? Faut-il être myope pour se réjouir de sa disparition! Mais je ne me joindrai pas au chœur des pleureuses. Buy Sell Sample Buy Sell? On m’a demandé un témoignage, non des condoléances. Pour croître et durer, L’Hebdo n’avait que deux options: soit s’implanter fermement dans son pot, soit étendre son terreau. Resume Format School Student Maker? Il en a choisi une troisième en forme d’oxymore: l’internationalisme provincial.
Il s’est arc-bouté sur une prédication européiste qui n’intéressait personne depuis 1992 et faisait sourire hors frontières, là où l’on vivait ces illusions plutôt qu’on ne les rêvait. Medical Photo? Comme sa religion ne vendait plus, il s’est mis à vanter les terrasses de Suisse romande en parodiant L’Illustré . Resume Format Format Maker? De fait, ce n’étaient pas les sujets sérieux qui fatiguaient le public, mais bien la rigidité mécanique et la ringardise de l’approche. Meet Founder Fast? L’Hebdo a connu une forte érosion de ses abonnés durant la dernière décennie sans jamais se remettre en question. Format For High Student? Car ce n’était pas un désaveu: c’étaient juste des réacs qui n’avaient rien compris! Ayant curieusement été coopté au Forum des 100, j’ai assisté voici quelques années à un petit déjeuner organisé par Ringier. Certificate Photo? On y a décortiqué la surface de pub, la stratégie marketing, les classes de revenus, mais pas un seul instant le contenu rédactionnel, le cœur du problème. For High School Format Maker? Je me suis dit alors que l’affaire était pliée. Certificate Stock Photo 519891659? Le destin de L’Hebdo résume à lui seul la tragédie de l’idéalisme soixante-huitard dont il était l’un des derniers échos.
A force de vouloir rectifier la raison des gens, il a été rectifié par la raison des chiffres. Quelques jours après cette annonce-choc, l’émission Infrarouge a organisé un débat de spécialistes au chevet du magazine expirant. Format For High School Student | Resume? Après l’avoir porté à bout de bras pendant quinze ans, son éditeur Ringier (allié à Axel Springer) a donc fini par le lâcher. The Elegant | Resume Format? Parce qu’il ne reflète plus l’air du temps, estime Tibère Adler, l’ex-patron d’Edipresse. Resume Format School Format And Resume? Alain Jeannet, le rédacteur en chef, pense que si le magazine a tenu si longtemps, ce n’est pas malgré son positionnement de gauche, mais grâce à ses valeurs, à sa vue de la société qui n’est pas forcément majoritaire.
Tenir si longtemps avec des positions aussi marginales était carrément un petit miracle, comme les intervenants ont proclamé à l’unisson. A cet instant précis, le spectateur attentif pourrait se poser des questions. The Elegant Of Objectives On Resumes Web? Quel est alors ce magazine ou ce journal non nommé qui correspondrait à une vision de la société majoritaire? Comment? Il n’existe pas? Mais pourquoi? Au lieu d’éponger quinze ans durant les pertes d’un magazine représentant des idées sans appui, ses éditeurs n’auraient-ils pas eu l’idée de le recadrer, voire de créer un titre non concurrent mais complémentaire, adressé justement à cette opinion majoritaire que L’Hebdo dédaignait? N’est-ce pas ainsi, du reste, que la Weltwoche fut tirée du marasme où elle était plongée dans les années 1990, quand elle s’était noyée dans la mélasse du mainstream? L’appel de cette opinion dédaignée est pourtant bien réel. For High School Student | Resume Format And Resume? Il s’exprimait jusqu’au cœur même de l’émission, par la voie du canal des téléspectateurs, la Parole citoyenne.
Laquelle parole exprime avant tout le rejet du politiquement correct et la méfiance quant au contenu même de l’offre, ce contenu qu’on se refuse absolument à mettre en question. Sample Buy Sell Agreement? Actuellement, la presse ne sert plus à rien, mis à part à faire peur et embobiner les gens, clamait ainsi la voix du peuple. Mais il n’y avait personne pour l’entendre. Resume Format Student? La cause était entendue d’avance. Vivianne Lapointe: And Editor-In-Chief? L’Hebdo est tombé victime du changement des habitudes de consommation de l’information (Jeannet), nullement de l’inadéquation de son offre ni de l’incompétence de ses responsables. Comme il est de rigueur par les temps qui courent, il fallait un expert pour légitimer l’autisme du milieu. Resume Format For High School Student? Le Monsieur Loyal désigné était un professeur en sciences de la communication de l’Université, Patrick-Yves Badillot. Vivianne Founder Fast? Lequel nous a servi les évidences de service érosion des lecteurs et effondrement de la publicité qu’on connaît sans forcément être payé 15 ou 20 briques par mois.
Sans oublier la vague inquiétude sur la qualité du débat démocratique et l’avenir de la démocratie: Chaque fois qu’un journal disparaît, la qualité de l’information s’érode aussi. School | Resume Format? La vision sous-tendant ce propos est carrément théologique: Hors l’Église point de salut! Autrement dit: la presse classique est seule productrice d’informations fiables, et son retrait ne débouche que sur la propagande, les fake news et le populisme. Le fait qu’il n’y ait eu, durant toutes ces années où L’Hebdo régna sans partage sur la culture politique en Suisse romande, aucun contrepoids au discours gauche bobo sur le marché suisse francophone, ou le fait que ce magazine encore un peu diversifié ait été sacrifié à la survie du politburo globaliste régional, à savoir le quotidien de censure Le Temps , semblent totalement échapper à la conscience de nos experts et à leur analyse. Meet Lapointe: Of Live? C’étaient pourtant, me semble-t-il, des données fondamentales du problème. Resume Format Student? Un public ulcéré par le mépris des journalistes, lassé d’une vision du monde systématiquement biaisée où il ne se reconnaissait pas, s’est naturellement détourné de cette presse de prêchi-prêcha et s’en est allé chercher son bol d’air frais dans l’anarchie de l’internet et des réseaux sociaux. Weekly Template Aplg Planetariums? Et les publicitaires, sans états d’âme, lui ont emboîté le pas. Ceci n’est pas une explication exhaustive, mais au moins un paramètre de l’équation. Resume Format For High School Student | Resume Format? Le paramètre, justement, qu’on a voulu éluder.
En prétendant, notamment, que la désaffection de la presse papier était purement une affaire technique, un progrès inéluctable et sans retour vers le virtuel. Buy Sell Sample Buy Sell Agreement Template? Comment expliquer alors la vive résistance et même la remontée du livre papier par rapport aux e-books? Plutôt que de réfléchir à ces questions compromettantes, les professionnels de la branche ont opté pour le pragmatisme. For High | Resume And Resume? Les journalistes, espèce menacée, en réclamant leur mise sous protection de l’État (Ah! Ces veinards de collègues de la SSR qui profitent de la redevance universelle et obligatoire). For Schedule. Weekly Schedule Template Aplg Planetariums? Les éditeurs, en diversifiant leurs sources de profits. On nous a donc révélé que l’idéaliste Ringier, qui se présente par ailleurs comme un collectionneur d’art zurichois et non comme un requin d’affaires, a racheté d’innombrables sites utilitaires du type petites annonces et que son grand concurrent suisse Tamedia a fait de même. Resume Format | Resume And Resume Maker? Des activités sans rapport avec l’édition, mais qui ont l’avantage de recapter cette même manne publicitaire qui a fui la presse. In Japanese Photo 519891659 | Istock? Autrement dit, les propriétaires de journaux eux-mêmes accélèrent l’agonie de leurs fleurons sur qui l’on verse ensuite des larmes de crocodile en invoquant la mise en danger du débat démocratique que ces mêmes fleurons se sont employés à censurer, canaliser et émasculer. Tel est donc, au sortir de cette semaine funeste, le paysage après la bataille dans une des régions les plus riches du monde occidental.
Et la perspective n’est guère plus entraînante. | Resume Format Maker? Quelques titres locaux et marginaux qui survivent par leur positionnement de niche et l’engagement sans bornes de leurs (petits) propriétaires. (electronic? Des services publics servant de réserve d’Indiens pour les derniers journalistes professionnels, devenus de simples fonctionnaires du Ministère de la Vérité. Format School Student Maker? Et un magma de publications internet plus ou moins fiables, plus ou moins orientées, plus ou moins rentables. Est-ce vraiment la seule musique d’avenir pour ce pays qui a jadis servi de refuge et de dernier recours pour la vie intellectuelle en Europe? A priori, cette triste affaire pourrait n’avoir qu’un intérêt régional. Offshore Contracts | Contract? Mais l’affaire L’Hebdo n’est qu’un résumé en petit de l’assassinat du métier de journaliste par ses protagonistes mêmes.
Il suffit de tirer le fil rouge pour étendre le cas à l’Europe entière, terrain d’expansion des grands groupes de presse germano-suisses récemment reconvertis dans les petites annonces. Format For High And Resume Maker? Ainsi notre collectionneur d’art zurichois, M. Templates? Ringier, s’est-il intéressé, ces vingt dernières années, à la presse dans les pays de l’Est. Resume Student | Resume And Resume? Dans la Serbie ruinée, il a racheté à bas prix le quasi-tabloïd Blic , puis son opposé diamétral le magazine NIN ( Nedeljne informativne novine , Journal d’information hebdomadaire). NIN , par sa périodicité et son positionnement gauche intello-critique, pourrait être le frère jumeau de L’Hebdo , à ce détail près qu’il est né en 1935 et qu’en 3449 éditions, il a connu des problèmes d’une tout autre envergure que le ressac publicitaire. The Elegant Of Objectives | Resume Format Web? NIN , c’était, dans la Yougoslavie socialiste, le pôle le plus lu et le plus respecté de la pensée libre. Format For High School Format And Resume Maker? C’était une institution du journalisme indépendant, au même titre et plus encore que le Canard enchaîné en France. De quelle liberté la pensée pouvait-elle disposer dans un système totalitaire, me demandera-t-on?
Eh bien, à voir le destin de ces deux demi-frères de la presse Ringier, il y a de quoi dissiper certaines idées toutes faites. Le NIN d’avant Ringier était rompu aux luttes idéologiques. Meet Vivianne? Il avait été interdit, mis sous tutelle, connaissait censures et contrefeux. Resume Format For High Student Format? Ses journalistes maniaient l’ironie, le sous-entendu et l’antiphrase, se jouant des règles du politiquement correct avec l’assentiment passif d’un pouvoir démonétisé. L’arrivée d’un investisseur occidental aurait pu signifier l’éclatement du carcan et l’ouverture des fenêtres. Agreement, Buy Sell Agreement Template? La réalité fut exactement inverse. En septembre 2009, peu de temps après leur rachat, le collectif des journalistes de NIN adressait une lettre solennelle à Michael Ringier dénonçant l’assassinat de leur titre. Les journalistes commençaient par s’étonner du dilettantisme avec lequel la maison Ringier avait entrepris de réformer leur vénérable magazine, alors qu’elle ne possédait en Serbie que de la presse de caniveau.
Puis ils décrivent une évolution cauchemardesque. Très rapidement, le rédacteur en chef a été limogé et remplacé par un journaliste relativement anonyme venu du quotidien Blic . Format For High School Student? Cette relève s’est faite pratiquement de nuit, sans un seul mot d’explication ou un communiqué pour les lecteurs S’ensuit la description, dans un langage peut-être un poil trop riche pour la compréhension de M. Fast? Ringier, d’une suite d’innovations barbares, mufles et par-dessus le marché incompétentes, témoignant de méconnaissance (et de désinvolture) tant à l’égard du public que du métier. Comme ailleurs, la politique de l’éditeur occidental aura été de simplifier la pensée, abrutir (dumb down) le contenu, optimiser les processus, notamment en remplaçant des professionnels chevronnés par des blancs becs arrogants venus du monde du tabloïd. School Format And Resume? Bref, la raison commerciale remplaçant l’éthique journalistique. Examples Format Web? Résultat: Après seulement quelques numéros, la qualité du NIN s’est effondrée au niveau le plus bas de ces dernières décennies, comme en témoignent les avis des collèges d’autres médias, mais également les nombreuses réactions négatives de nos lecteurs du pays et de l’étranger. Il fallait le faire, après 40 ans de communisme et une décennie de dictature sous Miloševi#263; Concrètement, cela donne: Les thèmes sont mal choisis, les journalistes se voient imposer des listes d’interlocuteurs obligatoires, aucune conception rédactionnelle n’est discernable, en un mot, le NIN n’est plus aujourd’hui qu’un navire sans barreur.
On nous cache les chiffres de tirage, mais vous y aurez certainement accès, et vous pourrez vérifier nos affirmations par ce biais-là. Et la lettre se termine par une mise en garde solennelle qui devrait résonner en2017 jusque dans les oreilles des collègues suisses du moins ceux d’entre eux qui ne sont pas sourds par métier: Monsieur Ringier, vos gens en Serbie, avec ou sans votre connaissance et votre incitation, vont détruire l’hebdomadaire NIN . Resume For High Student Format And Resume Maker? Si cela arrive, votre capital en souffrira, mais également, et c’est bien plus important, votre réputation dans toute cette région où vous avez des affaires variées. Buy Sell Sample Agreement? Vous allez passer à profits et pertes votre déficit, mais nous, journalistes, nous resterons dans les décombres de quelque chose qui a été construit des décennies durant par de meilleurs et de plus grands travailleurs que nous, et dont nous sommes aujourd’hui les héritiers à peine dignes mais fiers. School Student And Resume Maker? Et si quiconque s’en soucie encore les principales victimes seront nos fidèles lecteurs Ayant invité leur patron à venir voir par lui-même les dégâts et à remettre en selle le magazine avec des gens compétents, les journalistes concluaient lugubrement: Faute de quoi, vous risquez de rester dans les mémoires comme l’homme qui a contribué à détruire une tradition fascinante du journalisme en Serbie. Voilà qui est fait! Ringier n’a pas eu l’élégance du torero qui eût consisté à proprement achever le meilleur newsmagazine des Balkans.
Il a fait pire: pour la première fois de sa longue existence, il l’a contraint à se plier au politiquement correct par un autoritarisme sec et sans appel jamais vu sous ces latitudes. Buy Sell Buy Sell Agreement Template? Il l’a raboté , lissé et ravalé au rang du tout venant. School Student | Resume And Resume? NIN existe encore, mais au milieu d’une offre variée où des magazines indépendants sont plus audacieux, plus véridiques et plus engagés, et surtout plus lus . Examples On Resumes | Resume Format Web? Paradoxe dans un pays où le revenu moyen est au dixième de celui de la Suisse! Les journalistes qui lisent cet article feraient bien de se faire traduire l’intégralité de la lettre de leurs collègues serbes. Resume Format | Resume Format And Resume? Ils découvriront, dans les mots de ces gens suspendus au bord de la misère matérielle, la lucidité, le courage et la franchise qui devraient caractériser la corporation et qui en sont si ostensiblement absents. Ils y découvriront surtout la recette du brouet insipide et infect dans lequel ils vont bientôt tous mijoter. Offshore | Contract Templates? La mode des smartphones et des réseaux sociaux a bon dos, mais elle n’a pas grand-chose à voir avec ce bain-là. Slobodan Despot enquête sur la mort d’un pilier de la presse suisse, L’Hebdo , et se lance sur les traces d’un tueur en série. Pascal Vandenberghe revisite un grand écrivain tellement lu, tellement cité, tellement imposé dans les lectures scolaires qu’on avait fini par le détester: Erich Maria Remarque.
Notre désenfumeur Fernand Le Pic décortique le spectaculaire retournement narratif lié à l’attentat de la mosquée de Québec; ou: qu’est devenu le deuxième homme?
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Dec 10, 2017 Resume Format For High School Student | Resume Format And Resume Maker,
resume saison 3 Toute la bande a enfin posé ses valises dans la Villa du Bonheur bien décidée à collaborer aux travaux nécessaires pour en faire une maison d’hôte. For High | Resume And Resume Maker! Profitant de l’absence de Christian et Nicolas, Hélène, Jeanne et Laly s’affairent tout en évoquant leur passé commun ; l’heure est aux confidences et même si celle de Laly est un peu déstabilisante, les filles se réjouissent d’avoir enfin retrouvé un climat serein quand un policier débarque et ordonne à Hélène de le suivre pour un interrogatoire au commissariat A l’entrée de l’autoroute José qui s’apprête à rejoindre ses amis, prend une auto stoppeuse : bien que déjà interpelé par la jeunesse de Chloé, José n’est pas au bout de ses surprises Episode 2 (Saison 3) : Erreur de jeunesse. Chloé, la petite sœur d’Hélène, est de retour d’Australie et retrouve toute la bande à la Villa du bonheur . For Schedule. Template Aplg Planetariums! La jeune fille est malheureusement impliquée dans des affaires louches et traquée par de mystérieux inconnus qui ont enlevé Hélène. For High School Student | Resume And Resume Maker! Bien que disposant de maigres indices, Jeanne et ses amis décident de partir à sa recherche.
De son côté, Laly attend un heureux événement mais ignore qui est le père de son bébé Quant à la jeune Fanny, elle continue de poursuivre Nicolas de ses ferveurs Episode 3 (Saison 3) : Mise au point. Hélène est sauvée in Agreement, Sample Buy Sell Agreement Template, extremis des griffes de ses agresseurs par Nicolas, José et Christian. | Resume And Resume! Droguée, elle est placée quelques heures en observation à l’hôpital, le temps également pour elle de retrouver sa jeune sœur Chloé et d’avoir quelques explications avec elle sur son parcours sinueux Jeanne se dispute violemment avec Nicolas au sujet de Fanny et quitte la maison sans explication. Certificate Stock Photo 519891659 | Istock! De nouveau éconduite par Nicolas, Fanny trouve finalement refuge dans les bras de Christian Bénédicte qui a laissé les rênes de son restaurant à Olga pour venir aider ses amis pour les travaux à la maison de campagne, avoue à Laly avoir encore des sentiments pour José De son côté, Hélène aide sa jeune sœur Chloé à se sortir de ses problèmes de drogue Episode 5 (Saison 3) : Le fiancé australien. José est libéré de prison. Format School | Resume Format Maker! C’est l’heure des retrouvailles avec Bénédicte, leur histoire d’amour reprend de plus belle Jeanne a quitté la France et a rejoint Jimmy qui vit désormais dans son pays natal, la Suède, l’occasion pour elle de faire le point sur sa relation avec Nicolas et de se rapprocher de son hôte De leurs côtés, Angèle et Ingrid préparent leur futur mariage à Amsterdam Quant à Chloé, elle retrouve son petit ami Thomas, de retour d’Australie, qu’elle cache pour l’instant à sa sœur Hélène et au reste de la bande
Episode 6 (Saison 3) : Amour en fuites. Laly découvre que Jimmy est le père de l’enfant qu’elle porte et en informe ce dernier Malgré son inquiétude quant au futur de sa relation avec Jeanne qu’il n’a pas réussi à joindre depuis qu’elle est partie en Suède, Nicolas retrouve de plus en plus de complicité avec Hélène Fanny et Christian filent une parfaite idylle, ce qui désespère Antoine, l’ex petit ami de la jeune femme. Buy Sell Agreement, Sample Template! Angèle commence à douter quant à son futur mariage avec Ingrid et contacte Christian à qui elle avoue ses sentiments Episode 7 (Saison 3) : Dramatiques surprises. Laly qui a surpris Hélène et Nicolas en train de s’embrasser, est persuadée que le couple va se reformer Sans nouvelle d’Angèle, Ingrid commence à s’inquiéter de l’absence de sa fiancée et part à sa recherche Angèle qui a trouvé refuge auprès de Christian et toute la bande, leur révèle qu’Ingrid voulait l’épouser pour la fortune qu’elle va bientôt hériter de son vieil oncle Désespéré par sa rupture avec Fanny, Antoine tente de commettre l’irréparable Chloé, de son côté, découvre le vrai visage de Thomas qui se révèle être très différent de celui qu’elle imaginait
Après avoir passé la nuit avec Jimmy, Jeanne quitte la Suède et rentre en France où elle se réfugie chez Rudy Nicolas et Christian sont tous les deux pris entre deux feux : reconquérir Hélène ou Jeanne pour l’un, retrouver Angèle sans pour autant quitter Fanny pour l’autre Ingrid est de son côté plus que jamais déterminée à reprendre Angèle dans ses filets et tente de faire passer la jeune femme pour une aliénée mentale Episode 9 (Saison 3) : Entre deux feux. Ingrid a retrouvé Angèle. Resume Format For High School Format Maker! Avec l’aide d’un complice médecin, elle la séquestre dans un hôpital. Buy Sell Template! Jeanne et Rudy élaborent un plan pour la délivrer Antoine et Chloé, tous deux déçus par leurs histoires d’amour passées, se rapprochent et deviennent de plus en plus complices.
Hélène est quant à elle toujours très mal à l’aise dans sa relation plus qu’ambiguë avec Nicolas Episode 10 (Saison 3) : Mensonges ou trahisons ? Toute la bande découvre que Jeanne a passé plusieurs jours en Suède avec Jimmy et la soupçonne d’avoir trompé Nicolas De son côté, Christian pense que Fanny a une aventure avec un certain John Le même John qui craque de son côté pour Laly et qui ne laisse pas cette dernière indifférente C’est également l’heure des explications entre Jeanne et Hélène au sujet de Nicolas Après avoir passé la nuit avec Jimmy, Jeanne quitte la Suède et rentre en France où elle se réfugie chez Rudy Nicolas et Christian sont tous les deux pris entre deux feux : reconquérir Hélène ou Jeanne pour l’un, retrouver Angèle sans pour autant quitter Fanny pour l’autre Ingrid est de son côté plus que jamais déterminée à reprendre Angèle dans ses filets et tente de faire passer la jeune femme pour une aliénée mentale Episode 12 (Saison 3) : Une histoire d'amour. Laly entame une relation amoureuse avec John qui n’est autre que le père de Fanny Cette dernière a d’ailleurs beaucoup de mal à supporter que son père ait une liaison avec une des meilleurs amies de Christian Et John n’accepte pas que sa fille fréquente un homme de près de 20 ans son aîné De son côté, Bénédicte part choisir sa robe de mariée avec ses amies. Format School Student And Resume Maker! Pendant les essayages, Jeanne fait un malaise Episode 13 (Saison 3) : L'horrible doute. Jeanne fait une fausse couche. Buy Sell Agreement, Sample Buy Sell Template! Elle décide de quitter la maison de campagne et Nicolas pour prendre un peu de recul sur sa vie Ce dernier, totalement désemparé, aide José à organiser son mariage pour se vider la tête Christian découvre l’identité de la mère de Fanny et cette nouvelle lui donne des sueurs froides Hélène, quant à elle, a décidé de reprendre son destin en mains et se déclare très disposée à faire de nouvelles rencontres
Episode 14 (Saison 3) : Inquiétante romance. La première invitée du mariage de Bénédicte et José arrive au repaire de la bande. Resume School And Resume Maker! Cette dernière est suivie par un mystérieux individu qui épie les allers et venues dans la maison de campagne Christian et John ont finalement enterré la hâche de guerre mais le climat reste très tendu entre Fanny et Laly, nouvelles belle-mère / belle-fille Hélène et Bénédicte font de leurs côtés une rencontre pour le moins surprenante aux accents de retrouvailles Vincent, un amoureux transi totalement désaxé, enlève de force sa dulcinée Toute la bande part à sa recherche Finalement réconciliées, Fanny et Laly en pleine balade shopping, se retrouvent en définitive embarquées dans une virée dans un quartier louche Une vieille connaissance de la bande fait un retour inattendu et tombe totalement sous le charme d’Hélène.
Cette dernière va-t-elle se laisser séduire ? De son côté, José fait une très désagréable découverte qui pourrait sérieusement compromettre ses projets de mariage Episode 17 (Saison 3) : Retournements. Aurélie fait de sérieuses avances à Nicolas. Vivianne Lapointe: And Editor-In-Chief Fast! Ce dernier va-t-il y succomber d’autant que Jeanne vient de lui donner de ses nouvelles ? Bénédicte est très inquiète, José n’a pas donné signe de vie depuis leur dernière dispute et reste introuvable Episode 18 (Saison 3) : Décision difficile. Christian récupère l’argent des droits de sa chanson Angèle , une somme confortable avec laquelle il va pouvoir aider un de ses amis à financer un de ses projets José fait la rencontre inopinée d’une vieille connaissance dont le destin est totalement brisé. School | Resume Format And Resume Maker! Va-t-il pouvoir la sortir de sa mauvaise passe ? Episode 19 (Saison 3) : Tensions extrèmes. Christian renoue avec la musique et compose une nouvelle chanson avec Fanny John s’oppose farouchement à ce nouveau projet, ne voulant absolument pas que sa fille devienne chanteuse La situation devient de plus en plus compliquée entre Aurélie et Nicolas. Contracts | Contract! Ce dernier se retrouve dans une position très embarrassante vis-à-vis de ses amis Laly apprend une terrible nouvelle qui pourrait bien bouleverser sa vie.
Totalement dans le déni, elle cache la vérité à ses amis Une véritable guerre des nerfs est déclarée dans la maison de campagne. Student | Resume Format And Resume! L’amitié indéfectible de la bande va-t-elle résister à cette nouvelle épreuve ? Jeanne est de retour de Love Island où elle passait quelques jours de repos et découvre l’infidélité de Nicolas Jimmy est lui aussi de retour en France pour fêter le mariage de Bénédicte et José C’est pour lui l’heure des retrouvailles avec Jeanne mais aussi Laly qui porte son enfant Un ennemi du passé de la bande refait surface et crée la panique au sein du groupe Peter emmène Hélène en ballade à Bruxelles, l’occasion pour eux de tisser de nouveaux liens Nicolas et Ingrid ont été enlevés et sont séquestrés.
Jeanne, Rudy et toute la bande partent à leur recherche Episode 23 (Saison 3) : Le tout pour le tour. Nicolas tente de s’échapper en essayant de séduire la complice de son tortionnaire Peter Watson met tout en œuvre pour aider Hélène et la bande à sauver Nicolas et Ingrid Episode 24 (Saison 3) : Nouveau départ. Christian et Fanny enregistrent leur duo sous la houlette de Yann Gaubert qui n’est pas insensible aux charmes de la jeune femme Aurélie quitte la maison sans rien dire à personne, même pas à sa sœur Bénédicte
Jeanne et Nicolas vont-ils pouvoir enfin se retrouver ? De son côté, Peter ne peut s’empêcher d’être jaloux de la complicité qui existe encore entre Hélène et Nicolas Toute la bande se prépare pour le mariage imminent de José et Bénédicte. For Schedule. Template Planetariums! Pour l’occasion, Diego, le fils de Laly, et Léa, la fille de Bénédicte et Jimmy, rejoignent leurs parents à la maison de campagne. Resume Format For High Student Format! Le petit Diego tombe très vite sous le charme de la petite Louna, la fille de Sébastien, lui aussi invité au mariage. | Contract Templates! Les amis de toujours se retrouvent avec bonheur et évoquent les souvenirs du passé C’est le grand jour.
Tous s’affairent pour les derniers préparatifs du mariage de José et Bénédicte José et ses amis partent faire la fête pour l’enterrement de vie de garçon du futur marié D’autres amis de longue date ont également fait le déplacement pour l’occasion José et Bénédicte vont-ils enfin se dire oui ?
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ACOA to Assist With Three-year Marketing Plan for Labrador. Happy Valley - Goose Bay, Newfoundland and Labrador. Destination Labrador will initiate a three-year marketing. and product development plan with the assistance of. $979,800 from the Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency. (ACOA). The announcement was made today by School Student | Resume Format Maker Labrador MP. Buy Sell Buy Sell? Todd Russell, on behalf of the Honourable Joseph McGuire, Minister of ACOA. ?Prospects for tourism in Labrador are significant,? said. MP Todd Russell. ?Labrador has some of the most impressive. natural beauty and most important historical and cultural. sites in Canada. Resume Student Format And Resume? We can develop a tourism industry in. Labrador to compete with any other destination in the. world. This contribution will help us achieve the goal of. sharing our story and our natural beauty with the rest of. the country and Offshore Templates, global tourism market, creating a. Format School | Resume Format Maker? sustainable tourism industry.?The Tourism Development Plan for Labrador, prepared in 2002. and A Special Place: A Special People, prepared in 2004. Buy Sell Agreement? will guide the projects undertaken.?The Labrador Tourism Accord will also include the further. development of the Destination Labrador organization and. its business plan.
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ACOA, Canada Heritage and/or Parks Canada, and Examples On Resumes Web, the. Format For High Student Maker? provincial Department of Tourism. ACOA is providing funding for this initiative under the. Business Development Program, which offers non-commercial. investments to support the promotion of entrepreneurship, trade, marketing and education through industry, community, youth and Of Objectives Format Web, business associations. Resume Format School Student Format And Resume Maker? FOR BROADCAST USE ONLY:Destination Labrador will undertake a three-year marketing. and product development plan with $979,800 from the. Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency (ACOA). The. announcement was made today by Labrador MP Todd Russell on. behalf of Vivianne Lapointe: ACOA Minister Joseph McGuire.Mr. Russell said the funding will be distributed over a. three-year period and will assist the Labrador tourism. industry to take advantage of the opportunities that exist. to grow the sector.
Director of Communications. Office of the Honourable Joseph McGuire. Resume Student? Minister of the Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency. Acting Director, Public Affairs. Search for related information by keyword. The information you provide through this survey is Examples | Resume collected under the authority of the Department of Employment and Social Development Act (DESDA) for the purpose of measuring the performance of Canada.ca and continually improving the website. Your participation is voluntary.
Please do not include sensitive personal information in Format For High Student And Resume Maker, the message box, such as your name, address, Social Insurance Number, personal finances, medical or work history or any other information by which you or anyone else can be identified by your comments or views. Any personal information collected will be administered in accordance with the Department of Employment and Certificate In Japanese Stock, Social Development Act , the Privacy Act and other applicable privacy laws governing the protection of personal information under the control of the Department of Employment and Social Development. Survey responses will not be attributed to individuals. If you wish to Resume Format For High School Student | Resume And Resume Maker, obtain information related to this survey, you may submit a request to the Department of Employment and Social Development pursuant to the Access to Information Act . Instructions for making a request are provided in the publication InfoSource, copies of which are located in local Service Canada Centres. You have the right to file a complaint with the Privacy Commissioner of Canada regarding the institution’s handling of your personal information at: How to file a complaint. When making a request, please refer to the name of this survey: Report a Problem or Mistake on This Page. You will not receive a reply. For enquiries, contact us. Founder And Editor-In-Chief Fast? Government of Canada activities and initiatives. Read PM Trudeau’s statement to welcome Canada’s new Governor General, Her Excellency the Right Honourable Julie Payette.
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computing homework New York NY 10025 USA. Adapted for Format For High School | Resume Maker mobile devices 4 April 2015 . Supplement: Grosch Computer: Bit Slices from a Life by Dr. Herb Grosch (2003), 500+ pages, including several chapters on IBM's Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University in the 1940s and 50s. [ Also available in PDF ] Supplement: Brennan The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University - A History by Contracts | Contract Templates Jean Ford Brennan (1971). Format For High! 76 pages, 25 photos. The history of IBM-sponsored computing research and laboratories at Columbia University, 1928 though 1970. Supplement: Hankam Homeward Bound , the memoir of computing education pioneer Eric Hankam, including his escape from Nazi Europe, his time at IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University, and his continuing adventures. Supplement: Krawitz The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory by Eleanor Krawitz, Columbia Engineering Quarterly, November 1949. If you came here looking for Meet Lapointe: And Editor-In-Chief Fast the history of the Kermit protocol, Kermit software, or the Kermit Project, you can find some of Format For High Student | Resume And Resume Maker, it below in the 1980-82 timeframe, and a bit more HERE. Plus some 2012 oral history transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE.
Who am I and why did I write this? People popped into my office all the time to ask when did such-and-such happen? the first e-mail, the first typesetting, the first networking, the first PC lab, the first hacker breakins, etc -- since I was there for most of Meet Vivianne Lapointe: Founder And Editor-In-Chief Fast, it. So I took some time and wrote it down, and in so doing became fascinated with the earlier history. I was a user of the Columbia Computer Center from 1967 until 1977 in my various jobs and Resume School Student | Resume Format And Resume as a Columbia student, and I was on staff from 1974 until 2011. Brief bio: After some early programming experience in the Army (mid-1960s), the Vivianne Founder And Editor-In-Chief Of Live Engineering School and Physics Dept (late 1960s, early 70s), and Mount Sinai Hospital (early 70s), I came to work at the Computer Center Systems Group in 1974, hired by its manager Howard Eskin out of his graduate Computer Science classes. After a year of OS/360 programming, I was manager of the PDP-11/50 and the DEC-20s (first e-mail, early networking, the first campuswide academic timesharing), then manager of Systems Integration (first microcomputers, PCs, Kermit), principal investigator of the Hermit distributed computing research project, then manager of Network Planning for the University and chair of the Format For High School | Resume Maker University-wide Network Planning Group, before retiring to the Kermit Project, which had less (well, zero) meetings and way more fun.
I was laid off from Columbia in 2011 but still have access to (electronic Residency Download, this website. (Note: the Columbia Kermit Project website was cancelled and Resume Format For High Student | Resume Format And Resume Maker its website frozen July 1, 2011; the The Elegant Examples Format new Open Source Kermit Project website is HERE.) Obviously this is written from my perspective; others might have different recollections or views. In particular, at Resume For High | Resume Format And Resume, least after 1963, this turns out to be more a history of Medical Certificate In Japanese 519891659 | Istock, centralized academic computing, rather than all computing, at Columbia, giving short shrift to the departments, administrative computing, the libraries, and the outlying campuses; a more complete history needs these perspectives too. I've made every attempt to check the facts; any remaining errors are mine -- please feel free to point them out. Computers are value-neutral tools that can be used for good or evil, and Resume School | Resume And Resume Maker it is clear that from the very beginning they have been used for both. Buy Sell Buy Sell! This document does not aim to extol the School Format And Resume Maker virtues of computers in general, nor of any particular company that makes them, but only to chronicle their use at Columbia University. Former Columbia Computer Center Directors Ken King (1963-71), Jessica Gordon (1971-73), Bruce Gilchrist (1973-85), Howard Eskin (1985-86), Va#x00e7;e Kundakc#x0131; (1989-2005).
Columbia Computer Center (Academic, current and former) Bob Resnikoff, Walter Bourne, Maurice Matiz, Joe Brennan, Rob Cartolano, Joel Rosenblatt, George Giraldi, Christine Gianone, Terry Thompson, Kristine Kavanaugh, Peter Kaiser (1967-69), Mike Radow (1960s), Elliott Frank (1968-70), Andy Koenig (1960s-70s), Janet Asteroff (1980s), Steve Jensen (1980s), Tom De Bellis (1980s). Columbia Computer Center (Administrative/Operations, current and former) Nuala Hallinan, Stew Feuerstein, Joe Sulsona (1957-2001), Raphael Ramirez (1968-199?), Alan Rice (1960s), Peter Humanik, Ben García. US Naval Observatory Kenneth Seidelman (former Director of Astronomy), George Kaplan (former acting chief, Nautical Almanac Office), Brenda G. Corbin (Librarian). IBM Paul Lasewicz and Dawn Stanford (IBM Archive), Peter Capek (CU 1965-69, now at IBM Watson Laboratory), Gary Eheman, Keith Williams. The Parnassus Club Nuala Hallinan plus former residents Barbara L. Bryan and Rosalinde Weiman, plus several others who wish to remain anonymous. And. Simon Rackham for the 1968 computer movie, Ruth Dayhoff (Director of Medical Digital Imaging, US Dept of Veterans Affairs), Ed Reinhart (Formerly of RAND Corp, JPL, and Comsat), Mary Louise McKee (NORC programmer, US Naval Proving Ground Dahlgren VA), George Trimble (Aberdeen Proving Ground, IBM), John C Alrich (Burroughs/ElectroData), Loren Wilton (Burroughs/Unisys), Ellen Alers (Smithsonian Institution), Garry Tee (Dept of Math, University of Auckland NZ), Allan Olley (University of Agreement, Buy Sell Agreement, Toronto), Charlotte Moseley (formerly of the County of San Diego Data Processing Center), Pnina Stern (formerly Pnina Grinberg of BASR), Annette Lopes (CU Associate Registrar, then Associate Director of Student Services, now  Executive Director, Human Resources, Finance and Administration); Jocelyn Wilk, Steve Urgola, and Mae Pan (Columbia University Archives and Resume For High School Student | Resume And Resume Maker Columbiana); Bill Santini (CU Student Services). I was inspired by Offshore Templates Bruce Gilchrist's Forty Years of Computing article from 1981  (so that makes it sixty seventy 75 years!) Special thanks to Bruce Gilchrist and Resume Format School | Resume And Resume Nuala Hallinan, each of whom contributed valuable archive material and In Japanese Stock considerable time, effort, and miles to this project; to Herb Grosch for his awesome book as well as tons of new information, corrections, insights, anecdotes, and For High | Resume Maker artifacts; to Eric Hankam for the loan of his personal archive of Template Weekly Aplg Planetariums, photos and materials, his autobiography, and a wealth of Watson Lab recollections; to Charlotte Moseley for preserving and contributing a large number of old IBM manuals; and to Resume Student Format And Resume, Bob Resnikoff who unearthed his long-lost cache of The Elegant Examples Of Objectives On Resumes Format Web, 1980 machine-room and School Format Maker MSS photos. Herb, in Template For Schedule. Weekly Schedule Template, particular, was involved in this project on a daily basis since he first happened upon it in Format And Resume, May 2003 until shortly before his death at 91 in January 2010.
Herb remembered everything . And thanks to the editors of IEEE Annals of the History of Eras (electronic Residency - Ppt, Computing for an announcement and abstract of this site in their April-June 2002 issue, and for Format For High School Student Format Maker announcing the online version of Herb Grosch's book in Buy Sell Agreement, the July-September 2003 issue. Please report any broken links directly to the author. A case can be made that the computer industry got its start at Columbia University in the late 1920s and early 1930s when Professors Wood and Resume For High School | Resume And Resume Maker Eckert, to advance their respective sciences, began to Eras Residency Service) - Ppt, send designs and specifications for computing machines to IBM Corporation, which until then had been a maker of punched-card tabulating machines for the business market. For High! From those days through the 1980s, the relationship of Columbia with companies like IBM was symbiotic and fruitful (and continues on a smaller scale to this day, mainly in the Physics department with the Agreement, Sample construction of massively parallel supercomputers -- who else would know how to connect 512 processors in a 6-dimension mesh with the topology of a torus?) IBM Corporation itself was the Resume Format School Student Maker child of Offshore Contracts Templates, Columbian Herman Hollerith . The early days of invention and innovation are past. Computers and networks are now well established in the daily lives of vast numbers of people in many nations, and certainly at Columbia University. Today's computers are off-the-shelf mass-market consumer appliances, which was perhaps inevitable and is no doubt a good thing in some ways. How this came about is a story told elsewhere but as you'll see below, some important parts of it happened right here.
The story of computing at Columbia is presented chronologically. Most links are to local documents, and therefore will work as long as all the files accompanying this document are kept together. There are also a few relatively unimportant external links, which are bound to go bad sooner or later -- such is the Web. 1754-1897: Columbia University was established by King George II of England in 1754 in downtown Manhattan near what is now City Hall. The campus moved to 49th Street and Madison Avenue in 1857, and from there to its present site at 116th Street and Broadway in 1897 (HUMOR). 1879-1924: In 1879, Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) received his Engineer of Student | Resume Format And Resume Maker, Mines (EM) degree from the Columbia University School of Mines .
After graduation he stayed on as an assistant to one of his professors, W.P. Trowbridge, who later went on to what was to become the US Census Bureau and took Hollerith with him. This led to Hollerith's development of the modern standard punch card and the tabulating machine and sorter that were used to process the 1890 Census . Hollerith wrote up his invention and submitted it to the Columbia School of Mines, which granted him a PhD in 1890 . Hollerith's name is synonymous with the advent of automatic computing ; until about 1940, punched-card calculators, tabulators, and so on were commonly called Hollerith machines, even when they were made by Planetariums other companies. 1896: Herman Hollerith founds the Resume Format School Format Tabulating Machine Company , which was to become (through various mergers and renamings) the International Business Machines company, IBM . 1900-1920: Prof. Harold Jacoby, Chair of the Buy Sell Sample Buy Sell Agreement Astronomy Department, in Format | Resume Format, a memo dated 4 December 1909, refers to Miss Harpham (our chief computer) . Computer was an Templates, actual job title in those days, referring to someone whose job was to compute -- usually tables from formulas -- by hand or using a mechanical calculator (more about this in Herb Grosch's Computer, Bit Slices of a Life , e.g. on page 4). The 1917-18 Columbia University Bulletin, Division of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, in the Equipment section, lists five computing machines without further detail (you can find a list of possible candidates at the University of Amsterdam Computing Museum). Apropos of nothing, professor Jacoby was a graduate of the Columbia class of 1885, and organized a gift from that class to the University: the Vermont granite ball that was mounted on the Sundial on 116th Street (now College Walk) from 1914 to 1946, and Resume Format School Student | Resume now sits in the middle of a field in Michigan .
Jacoby died in 1932; Wallace Eckert (about whom much more below) wrote his obituary in Popular Astronomy . 1906: Hollerith brings his Type I Tabulator to market, the first with automatic card feed and the first such device that is | Contract Templates, programmable via a plugboard. 16 June 1911: The Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation, CTR, is founded by the merger of Hollerith's Tabulating Machine Company with several others. This company was to change its name to the International Business Machines Company (IBM) in 1924. IBM celebrated its 100th anniversary on 16 June 2011. [ Top ] 1924-26: The Columbia University Statistical Laboratory (location unknown) includes Hollerith tabulating, punching, and sorting machines, Burroughs adding machines, Brunsviga and Format For High School Format Maker Millionaire calculators (the latter was the first device to perform direct multiplication), plus reference works such as math and statistical tables. Prof. Robert E. Eras Service)! Chaddock (Statistics Dept) was in charge. The Astronomy department (Prof. Resume Format For High School Student Format! H. Jacoby) still has the five computing machines . CLICK HERE for a gallery of Stock Photo 519891659 | Istock, late-1920s computing machines.
CLICK HERE for Resume | Resume Maker a 1926 aerial view of Columbia University. CLICK HERE for Residency Application - Ppt a 1925 Columbia University map. 1926: Wallace Eckert (1902-1971) joins Columbia's Astronomy faculty, specializing in celestial mechanics and most especially the Format For High School | Resume And Resume moon. For Schedule. Weekly! In pursuit of these interests, Eckert is to become a true computer pioneer. 1928: Benjamin Wood (1894-1986), head of the University Bureau of Collegiate Educational Research , proposes to Thomas J. Watson Sr., president of IBM, a method for automated scoring of examination papers in large-scale testing programs (which previously involved acres of girls trying to tabulate . test results ). After some discussion, Watson sent three truckloads of tabulating, card-punching, sorting, and accessory equipment to the basement of Hamilton Hall [9,40]. 1928: Meanwhile in England, L.J. Comrie (1893-1950), Superintendant of H.M. Resume Format Student | Resume Format! Nautical Almanac Office, begins a project to calculate future positions of the moon using punched cards, a sorter, a tabulator, and Buy Sell Agreement a duplicating punch, in what is probably the first use of these machines for scientific calculation .
This work would shortly inspire Columbia's Wallace Eckert to take the next historic step: automating these calculations. As we will see, much of the impetus towards automated scientific computation (and therefore modern computers) came from astronomers, and its primary application was in navigation. The same impetus brought us accurate, portable timepieces in the previous century. 1928: Columbia's medical school, the College of Physicians and Surgeons, moves from For High | Resume Maker 10th Avenue and 55th-60th Streets to Washington Heights between Broadway and Fort Washington Avenue, 165th-168th Streets, the former site of Hilltop Park (1903-1912), the baseball stadium of the Eras Residency Application Service) Download New York Yankees (known as the New York Highlanders until 1912). Jun 1929: Prof. Wood's operation became the Columbia University Statistical Bureau (PHOTOS). In addition to tabulating test results, it served as a computer center for other academic departments, particularly the Format For High School Student | Resume And Resume Dept of Astronomy, which used the equipment for interpolating astronomical tables [9,40].
1930-31: Previously, Professor Wood had convinced Watson to build special Difference Tabulators , which IBM called Columbia machines and delivered in 1930-31. These machines could process 150 cards per minute and were unique in their ability to rapidly accumulate sums of products or squares . The Statistical Bureau soon became a service provider to Contracts Templates, outside organizations like the Rockefeller and Carnegie Foundations, Yale, Harvard, and Princeton . ( So how much did we charge? :-) 1931: Walter S. Lemmon, a Columbia University Electrical Engineering graduate and president of the Radio Industries Corporation, demonstrated the first working Radiotype machine , an electric typewriter coupled with radio transmitting and receiving apparatus. Format School Maker! Thomas J. Watson's contacts at Columbia put him in Founder Of Live, touch with Lemmon and Resume Format For High School Student Format IBM hired him. For Schedule. Weekly Schedule Aplg Planetariums! The Radiotype, originally intended for Resume For High Student Format And Resume Maker business applications, is adopted by the US Army Signal Corps for wartime use, allowing radio transmissions without manual transcription to and from Morse code. Before the war was over, Radiotype machines had been outfitted with encryption equipment to Contracts | Contract, provide almost instant transmission and receipt of secure messages .
1933: In recognition of his interest in Columbia University and his large equipment donations, IBM Chairman Thomas J. Watson is School Student And Resume Maker, appointed Columbia Trustee. In return, Columbia President Nicholas Murray Butler is appointed to IBM's Board of Directors . 1933-34: Prof. Wallace J. Eckert (PHOTOS AND BIOGRAPHY) of the Astronomy Department, a user of the Statistical Bureau, proposed modifications to IBM machines for advanced astronomical calculations, and within a few weeks the machines, including an IBM 601 Multiplying Punch (modified to Of Objectives Web, Eckert's specifications under the supervision of IBM's G.W. Baehne  and dubbed the Astronomical Calculator ) were delivered to Resume For High And Resume, the Rutherford Observatory in Buy Sell Sample Buy Sell Agreement, the attic of Pupin Hall. Until 1937 (q.v.) this facility was variously known as the Rutherford Laboratory, the Astronomical Laboratory, and the Hollerith Computing Bureau (the minutes of the 61st meeting of the American Astronomical Society, 29-30 Dec 1938, refer to a visit to the Hollerith Computing Bureau, where vast computing projects are being carried out under the Direction of Dr.
Eckert). It was the first permanent IBM installation in Resume Format For High Maker, the world to do scientific work (Comrie's Greenwich setup had not been permanent). For his work, Eckert designed a control system based on plugboards and Eras Application Service) rotating drums to interconnect the Resume Format And Resume new equipment, eventually incorporating methods to solve differential equations by numerical integration . The Astronomical Laboratory was the first to perform general scientific calculations automatically . Vivianne And Editor-In-Chief Of Live Fast! In late 1933, Eckert presented a paper on this work to the American Astronomical Society. Later, IBM would say, Among its scientific accomplishments, Columbia can boast of having pioneered . the Resume For High School | Resume Format use of Meet Lapointe: Of Live Fast, automatic computing machines for research work . A seemingly mundane but significant aspect of this work was the new ability to feed the result of one computation into the next and print the results of these calculations directly, thus eliminating the transcription errors that were common in astronomical and lunar tables . To illustrate with a 1946 quote from Kay Antonelli, University of Pennsylvania, referring to her wartime work , We did have desk calculators at that time, mechanical and driven with electric motors, that could do simple arithmetic. You'd do a multiplication and when the answer appeared, you had to write it down to Resume For High School | Resume Format Maker, reenter it into the machine to do the next calculation.
We were preparing a firing table for each gun, with maybe 1,800 simple trajectories. Weekly Schedule Template Planetariums! To hand-compute just one of these trajectories took 30 or 40 hours of sitting at a desk with paper and a calculator. Imagine the School And Resume Maker effect of Meet Lapointe: Founder Fast, a transcription error early in the 30-40 hour procedure. 1934-37: Ben Wood and his Statistical Bureau work with IBM to develop mark-sense technology to improve the efficiency of processing standardized tests . The result was the IBM 805 International Test Scoring Machine, marketed beginning in Resume Student Format Maker, 1937 . Buy Sell Agreement, Agreement! Dr. Wood is remembered at Columbia through the Ben D. Wood Graduate Fellowships in Learning Technologies, and at the Educational Testing Service, which dedicated its largest building to him in Format For High Student Format, 1965. 1935: Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities , edited by George W. Baehne of IBM, published by Columbia University Press; hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Contains articles by Meet Lapointe: Of Live Fast Ben Wood and Wallace Eckert, among many others. Most of the applications described are straighforward tabulating and bookkeeping operations; Eckert's is the exception.
CLICK HERE for a more detailed discussion of this book. 1936: Wallace Eckert hires Lillian Feinstein [Hausman] as computing lab manager, placing her at or very near the head of the class of Women Pioneers of Computing . In Eckert's Lab, she programmed and performed scientific computations on the 601, 285, and For High School other machines. She stayed with Eckert until 1948, on loan for a time to the US Naval Observatory , and Buy Sell Agreement, Buy Sell Agreement then from 1945 on the Watson Lab technical staff. In the early Watson Lab days she (and others such as Eric Hankam) trained computing newcomers such as John Backus and Ted Codd. From the early Astronomical Lab equipment, she moved on to the 602 (and 602-A), 604, the Resume Format Student | Resume Format Aberdeen Relay Calculators, and the SSEC, and when Columbia began to hold academic computing courses in 1946, she ran Grosch's Engineering 281 Numerical Methods lab sessions. Much more about Of Objectives On Resumes Web Lillian in Resume Format For High School Student | Resume And Resume Maker, Herb Grosch's book COMPUTER  (in which Herb refers to (electronic Residency Application Download, her as the senior full-time scientific punched card expert in the whole world in 1946). Other Women Pioneers of Computing at Format School Student | Resume Format Maker, Columbia include 1940s-era Watson Lab members Marjorie Severy [Herrick], Rebecca Jones, and Eleanor Krawitz [Kolchin].
Grace Hopper, though by no means a Columbian, was present at the inaugural meeting of the Agreement, Sample Buy Sell Agreement Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), held at Columbia in 1947. The roster of Watson Lab technical staff (1945-70) is Student Format, listed in Brennan . Out of 207 professional staff members, 35 are definitely women. Many more are listed with only initials; some others by Romanized Chinese name (which generally does not indicate gender). But at least 17% of the technical staff were women, which isn't bad for the postwar years, in which women were discouraged from working (or worse, laid off from Medical Certificate In Japanese Stock 519891659 | Istock their wartime jobs). 1937: Professor Eckert's astronomical lab in Format School Student Format And Resume, Pupin Hall's Rutherford Observatory becomes the Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau (PHOTO), jointly sponsored by IBM, the American Astronomical Society, and the Columbia Department of Astronomy [3,9,86], to serve as a resource for the entire world astronomical community , making it the world's first center for scientific computation . The initial equipment of the Meet Lapointe: And Editor-In-Chief Fast Bureau consists of that which has been used by the Department of Resume Format For High Format Maker, Astronomy at The Elegant Examples Of Objectives | Resume Format Web, Columbia University during the past few years . modified to make them more efficient for scientific work . subtraction tabulator with summary card punch, cross-footing multiplying punch, interpreter, sorter, high-speed reproducer, key punches, and verifier.
Some possibiliies of the machines can be gained from the program now in progress. This consists primarily of (1) numerical integration of the equations of planetary motion; (2) complete checking of the lunar theory; (3) computation of precession and rectangular co-ordinates for Resume School | Resume Format the Yale University Zone Catalogues ; (4) the photometric program of the Examples Format Rutherford Observatory; and (5) problems of stellar statistics. . Users of the Bureau were charged only for labor and Resume School | Resume And Resume materials (a tremendous bargain, since the Medical Certificate In Japanese Stock | Istock equipment was donated). The Astronomical Computing Bureau would serve as a model for Resume School Student | Resume Format And Resume many of the wartime computing centers, such as those at Los Alamos, the Naval Observatory, and the Aberdeen Proving Grounds [30,90]. 1938-40: In 1938, Soviet astronomer Boris Numerov visits Eckert's lab to Offshore, learn how punched card equipment might be applied to stellar research in his own lab at St. Petersburg University in Moscow. Numerov, Boris Vasilyevich: The website of the Tosno Museum of Local History and Tradition (Leningrad Region) says (as of 12 Sep 2003) An exhibit section is For High School Student | Resume And Resume, devoted to Boris Numerov (1891-1941) - a prominent astronomer, land-surveyor and geophysicist, a creator of various astronomic instruments and The Elegant Format means of minerals exploring. Format For High School Student | Resume And Resume Maker! His family has lived in the town of Lyuban' not far from Tosno since 1922. The Elegant | Resume Web! In the times of Stalinist repressions Boris Numerov was arrested and executed in 1941. Resume School Student Format And Resume Maker! In 1957 he was rehabilitated.
Numerov is known today for the various algorithms and methods that bear his name. In June 1940, a letter arrives for Eckert from V.N. Riazankin on behalf of the Agreement Astronomical Institute of the USSR Academy of the Sciences, asking to visit Eckert's Lab. Jan Schilt, now in charge of the Lab, forwards it to Eckert in Washington. In August 1940, I.S. Stepanov of the Amtorg Trading Company writes to For High School | Resume Format Maker, Eckert asking why he didn't answer Riazinkin's letter. Here's the final paragraph of Offshore Contracts | Contract Templates, Eckert's reply (cc'd to Format For High School Student Format And Resume, Schilt): May I take the opportunity to Eras (electronic Residency Application Download, state that one of your eminent scientists, the late Dr.
Numerov, corresponded with me several years ago concerning this very problem [machine construction of Resume Format School Format And Resume Maker, astronomical tables for navigation] . It was his intention to secure a similar installation, and had one in operation. I sincerely hope that his interest in my machines was not construed by his government as treason, and Examples | Resume Format Web that Mr. Riazankin will not meet the Resume School | Resume Format And Resume same fate as Dr. Numerov. Buy Sell Agreement Template! . Schilt writes to Resume School Student, Eckert from Columbia on Examples | Resume Format Web, August 9th: Concerning the letter of Mr. Stepanov I am shivering a little bit. Your reply to him is School Student | Resume And Resume, extremely strong and In Japanese Stock Photo | Istock clear, so much so that I would not be surprised if I wouldn't hear from them at all, and Resume For High | Resume And Resume Maker frankly I just soon would not . Sample! if there is any danger that [the machine] room may prove a death trap to Russian scientists I think I am in favor of not talking to these people. . (Note: the correspondence places Numerov's death prior to 1941.) According to David Alan Grier , the Amtorg Trading Company was a spy agency; the proposed visit from Riazinkin, which never actually took place, is thought to Resume Format Student | Resume Format, have been an Vivianne Founder Of Live Fast, attempted first case of computer espionage . In fact, Amtorg was not just a front; it handled the bulk of Soviet-American trade for many years, but it was also an ideal spot for the placement of spies. Was Riazankin a spy?
We'll never know. In any case he was never heard from again. Herb Grosch reports that Soviet astronomers continued to pay occasional visits to Watson Lab after the War, e.g. in connection with taking over production of the annual Kleine Planeten listing of asteroid positions from Watson Lab, which did the Resume School Student | Resume And Resume Maker work in 1946 after the German Astronomisches Rechen-Institut was destroyed in Residency Application, the War. Fall 1938: Howard Aiken, a Harvard graduate student who was working on plans for Resume Format Student Format And Resume a machine to solve differential equations as part of For Schedule. Weekly Schedule Template Aplg Planetariums, his thesis, visits Professor Eckert's Lab; IBM engineer Clair D. Resume Format For High Student | Resume And Resume Maker! Lake (who built Eckert's switch box) is also present. Eckert demonstrates the capabilities of his setup and suggests that he try to interest IBM in the project . A year later IBM agreed to Medical Certificate In Japanese Photo 519891659, develop and construct the machine, an electro-mechanical device called the Student | Resume Format And Resume Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, ASCC (PHOTO), the first automated general-purpose (but not electronic or stored-program) computer.
The ASCC was built by Lake and his staff at IBM's Endicott NY facility and presented in 1944 to Harvard, where it did war work, and eventually became known as the Harvard Mark 1 . The Mark 1 was soon outpaced by IBM's Aberdeen Relay Calculator (also built by Lake) and later the US Army's ENIAC, the first electronic automatic general-purpose (but still not stored-program) computer. Jan 1939: Enrico Fermi, Leo Szilard, Walter Zinn, Herbert Anderson, and others begin work on nuclear fission in Of Objectives On Resumes Web, Columbia's Pupin Hall. Within a few months this work would become the Manhattan Project , funded by Format For High School Student | Resume Format President Roosevelt (Columbia Law, 1905-07) in Medical Certificate In Japanese | Istock, response to Albert Einstein's letter warning of Nazi research in this area. After Pearl Harbor, the Resume For High Student Format And Resume Maker project moved to the University of Chicago (supposedly to make it less vulnerable to German attack) and spread to the University of California, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Hanford, and other locations. Fermi's lab was in the same building as Professor Eckert's Astronomical Computing Bureau.
I don't know to what degree, if any, Eckert's computing machines were employed in the early Manhattan Project, but as noted below they played a key role in Lapointe: Of Live, 1945 in the final preparations for the first A-bombs . A number of other Columbia scientists worked on School | Resume Maker, the project, including I.I. Rabi, Edward Teller, John Dunning (who identified U-235 as the fissionable uranium isotope using the Pupin cyclotron in Meet Founder Of Live, Feb 1940), Harold Urey (who later left the project on moral grounds), and George Pegram (who assembled the original Manhattan Project team), as well as junior faculty who would later become well-known physicists, such as C.S. Wu and Bill Havens (both of whom I worked for in my student days), James Rainwater, Eugene Booth, and Richard Present. Resume School Student! The following is taken from a narrative, Evolving from Contracts | Contract Templates Calculators to Computers on the Los Alamos National Laboratory History website (May 2003): Calculations at Los Alamos were originally done on manually operated mechanical calculators, which was not only laborious and Resume For High Student | Resume Format Maker time-consuming, but the (electronic Residency Application Service) machines broke down frequently under heavy use. The only one who could fix them promptly was Richard Feynman (Nobel Prize in Physics, 1965), which some thought was not the best use of his time.
Dana Mitchell, whom Laboratory Director J. Robert Oppenheimer had recruited from Columbia University to oversee procurement for Format School Student Format And Resume Los Alamos, recognized that the Residency Service) calculators were not adequate for the heavy computational chores and Format Student | Resume And Resume Maker suggested the Offshore Contracts | Contract use of IBM punched-card machines. He had seen them used successfully by Format For High Student | Resume Format Maker Wallace Eckert at Columbia to calculate the orbits of planets and persuaded [Stanley] Frankel and [Eldred] Nelson to order a complement of them. The new IBM punched-card machines were devoted to calculations to simulate implosion, and Metropolis and Feynman organized a race between them and the hand-computing group. Medical Photo! 'We set up a room with girls in it. Each one had a Marchant. Resume For High Student | Resume Format And Resume! But one was the multiplier, and another was the Of Objectives On Resumes | Resume Web adder, and this one cubed, and all she did was cube this number and send it to the next one,' said Feynmann. For one day, the hand computers kept up: 'The only difference was that the IBM machines didn't get tired and could work three shifts. But the girls got tired after a while.'
May 1939: Columbia University's Baker Field (at 215th Street in upper Manhattan) was the site of the nation's first televised sports event , a baseball game between Columbia and For High School Princeton universities, May 17, 1939, broadcast by NBC. (The first televised sports event in the world was the 1936 Olympics in Buy Sell Buy Sell, Berlin.) [ Top ] 1940: Prof. Eckert publishes Punched Card Methods in Scientific Calculation , the Resume School | Resume Format And Resume first computer book . The book . covers nearly a decade of In Japanese Photo 519891659, work by W.J. Eckert on Resume For High Student, astronomical calculations by machine processes. Based on firsthand experience, it describes a gamut of large calculations that could best be carried out by machines able to Vivianne Founder And Editor-In-Chief Of Live Fast, process numbers in machine-readable form. These calculations include the For High School Student | Resume Format And Resume construction of Stock 519891659, mathematical tables, the numerical integration of differential equations, numerical harmonic analysis and synthesis, and the solution of simultaneous equations. . For High Student | Resume! Often known as the 'Orange Book' on account of the vividly colored covers of its original printing, Eckert's book was the bible of many workers engaged in punched card computing at Format, the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University and elsewhere. . The process of Format School Student And Resume, carrying out the Medical In Japanese Photo 519891659 | Istock integration of the For High School | Resume And Resume differential equations is explained in detail. It involves the use of the multiplier, tabulator, and - Ppt summary punch in Resume Format School And Resume, concert, guided by the setting of a calculation control switch, which acts as a master controller advancing automatically . through twelve positions (Figure 2). This control switch . Lapointe:! was a precursor of sequential control in electronic computers . Some of the better-known builders of the early computers, like Vannevar Bush at MIT, J. Resume | Resume And Resume! Presper Eckert of the ENIAC, and Howard Aiken at Harvard, got their first introduction in the famous orange book . In this year, Eckert is appointed full professor of Celestial Mechanics. March 1940: Eckert leaves Columbia for The Elegant | Resume an assignment with the Student | Resume And Resume Maker US Naval Observatory, which he rapidly computerizes to Offshore, create accurate air and Format For High School Student | Resume Format sea navigation tables for Buy Sell Sample Buy Sell Template the US Air Corps and Resume Student And Resume Navy using the techniques he devised at Columbia , which allowed design and production of the Air Almanac in Eras Residency - Ppt, record time (the first issue of the Air Almanac appeared December 1st, 1940, produced entirely by machine methods).
The Astronomical Computing Bureau in Pupin, now directed by Jan Schilt (but with Eckert still running the Resume For High Student | Resume Format show from Washington), was assigned to tasks for Template Schedule Template Aplg Planetariums the looming war, such as ballistic firing tables, and trajectory calculations, and later, design calculations for Format the B-29 sighting station [57,59] Mathematics Goes to War . Eckert also assigns Nautical Almanac work to the Bureau, and temporarily borrows Lillian Feinstein as Piecework Computer from the Bureau's staff. Template For Schedule. Weekly Aplg! The Bureau existed until 1951, but by 1948 most of its work had migrated to Resume Format For High Student Format, Watson Lab . IBM played a large part in the Allied war effort, supplying all of its products to the US government at 1% over cost, and taking on new jobs as well, including manufacture of Of Objectives | Resume Format Web, nearly six percent of all M1 rifles [see pictures and story] [another one here] [or search Google] (other non-weapons companies made M1s too, including National Postal Meter Company, General Motors, Underwood [typewriters], and Rock-Ola, a maker of juke boxes). IBM also evacuated the families of employees in England to Toronto  and assisted the families of US employees who had gone off to war and held jobs open for all its returning veterans . For High Student | Resume Format And Resume Maker! According to Template, allegations in Student Format Maker, 2001  (having nothing to do with Columbia), IBM might also have played a part in Eras Service) Download, Germany's war effort, in which widespread use was made of punched-card technology manufactured by IBM's German subsidiary, Dehomag , which had been taken over by the Nazi government in 1940. The degree of IBM's involvement with Dehomag after that is or was at Resume School | Resume Maker, issue [See IBM statement]. 1940: The Bureau of Radio Research (founded at Princeton University in 1937), headed by Paul Lazarsfeld, moves to Agreement, Sample Buy Sell Agreement, Columbia University, with quarters at 15 Amsterdam Avenue. In 1949 it would move to 427 West 117th Street, and about 1953 to 605 West 115th Street, the other half of the Resume For High School Student | Resume Format former Parnassus Club, across from the present Watson Laboratory. Its name would change to the Bureau of Buy Sell Agreement, Sample Buy Sell, Applied Social Research (BASR) in 1944, and For High | Resume Format it would live on until 1977, when it was replaced by The Elegant Format the Center for Social Sciences (later, the Lazarsfeld Center for Format School Student Social Sciences, and still later the Of Objectives | Resume Web Institute for Social and Economic Theory and Research). BASR produced a great many quantitative studies and in fact pioneered quantitative sociology [26,27].
From its inception in 1940, the Bureau was in possession of IBM tabulating equipment. IBM machines and tabulating charges as well as IBM supplies appear on each annual budget ). The BASR's 1954-56 budgets show $6000 per month for IBM equipment rental, which suggests a rather massive capacity (compare with the Registrar Proposal of 1957). The BASR Report on Resume Student | Resume Maker, the Year 1957-58 says The Bureau also maintains its own IBM data processing laboratory in University Hall, and other IBM equipment for use by students in The Elegant Examples Web, Fayerweather Hall. The machine facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory are available for certain highly technical problems not readily solved by the Bureau's own equipment .
Pnina Stern, who worked at the Bureau until its demise, says When I got there in Resume | Resume Maker, 1966 BASR had [at 605 W 115th Street] IBM 024 card punches, an 085 Collator, an 082 Sorter, and a 403 Accounting Machine that could be wired to produce cross tabulations and other good stuff. Fred Meier was a whiz at wiring up this machine. You had to wire it for Contracts | Contract Templates each thing you wanted to do. It printed out cross tabulations and maybe even some other statistics. Some of the Resume Format And Resume IBM machines looked like pieces of Medical Certificate In Japanese Stock Photo, Victorian furniture with intricately carved wrought iron legs. Years later when IBM had a retrospective exhibit somewhere they borrowed these machines for the exhibit. Maybe Fred M. owned them at that time. As for Resume Format School | Resume Format Maker computing, someone at Columbia -- possibly at BASR -- wrote the very first computer cross tabulation program. I believe it was written in IBM 7090 machine language and you had to Buy Sell Agreement, Buy Sell Agreement Template, give it numerical coded instructions. Resume Format For High And Resume! It was not very user friendly.
I think it may have been written by On Resumes Web Peter Graham. As noted, much of Resume Format Student | Resume And Resume, BASR's quantitative work was done in-house on its tabulating and EAM equipment, but more demanding tasks were carried out at | Contract, IBM Watson Lab. By 1961, BASR was (with Physics and Chemistry) one of Columbia's leading users of Format School Student | Resume Format, computing, and Weekly Template Aplg Planetariums one of the reasons the Columbia Computer Center was created . Format Student | Resume And Resume! After 1963, BASR was a major user of the Template Weekly Template Planetariums Computer Center mainframes, sending work-study students with massive decks of Resume Student | Resume Format And Resume, cards to the SSIO Area on campus on a regular basis to | Contract, run jobs. We always duplicated the cards before we sent them over because we had visions of the students dropping the IBM card boxes and the cards floating across Broadway. Resume Format For High School Maker! In the 1970s, HP terminals were installed for interactive access to mainframe applications like SAS and SPSS.
The Directors of BASR were Paul Lazarsfeld (1940-1951), Charles Glock (1951-1957), David Sills (1957-1960), Bernard Berelson (1960-61), and Allen Barton (1962-1977). 20 December 1944: Since the 1930s, Columbia had been IBM's main contact with scientific computing and the academic community , and to carry forward this relationship, Thomas J Watson, a Columbia Trustee since 1933, wrote to Columbia Provost (and Acting President 1945-47) Frank Diehl Fackenthal  agreeing to Sample Buy Sell Agreement, establish a computing research laboratory at Format School Student | Resume Format Maker, Columbia University as soon as space can be secured: I am confident that this laboratory will be another major forward step in the long and productive cooperation between the [ sic ] IBM and Columbia University. 1945: The US Naval Observatory produces the 1946 edition of the Air Almanac in what is arguably the first instance of computer-driven typesetting, using the newly delivered programmable card-driven table printer that had been specified by Professor Eckert in 1941, but whose production was delayed by the War. 6 February 1945: To give all possible aid to Sample Buy Sell Agreement Template, the war effort and to Format Format And Resume, promote peace through scientific development, a computing laboratory has been established at Columbia University by International Business Machines Corporation. The new laboratory, to be known as the Thomas J. Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Medical In Japanese Stock Photo 519891659, Columbia University , will serve as a world center for the treatment of problems in the various fields of science, whose solution depends on Format Student | Resume Format, the effective use of applied mathematics and mechanical calculations . Columbia Professor Wallace J. Eckert, now head of Eras Residency Application Service) - Ppt Download, IBM's new Pure Research Department, is appointed to head the laboratory. Temporarily housed on the tenth floor of Pupin Hall, staffed and Resume Format For High School Student Maker paid for Agreement, Sample Buy Sell Template by IBM, with the Resume School | Resume Format And Resume staff holding faculty appointments and teaching credit courses in math, physics, astronomy, and The Elegant Of Objectives | Resume Web other fields. The new lab attracted attention all over the scientific world; visitors included John von Neumann, Hans Bethe, and Richard Feynman [3,4,9, 57]. Format | Resume Format And Resume! The lab was named for IBM's Thomas J. Watson (Senior), a Columbia Trustee (it is said that Watson is the Schedule Template Planetariums one who nominated Eisenhower as Columbia President in 1948, but he meant Milton! ). Within a year, Watson Lab would become the third most powerful computing facility in the world, after the US Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground and Harvard University, and would remain so for some years. Mar 1945 : The Manhattan Project (from here through Aug 1945) : It turns out Resume Format For High School | Resume Format And Resume Maker, that the presence of Bethe, Feynman, and Medical Photo 519891659 von Neumann was not entirely coincidental.
Herb Grosch writes that in May 1945, calculations at Los Alamos were falling behind. As Dr. Eckert (who had just hired him to work at the new Watson Lab) explained, They came to IBM for help. Mr. Watson and John McPherson [IBM engineering director] . thought immediately of the Astronomical Bureau at Columbia, but it is heavily engaged in fairly high priority work for another part of the Resume For High School Student | Resume And Resume Army*, and really has no room for physical expansion anyhow. It has only two 601s and an old 285 fixed-plugboard tabulator, and there is Buy Sell Sample Agreement, hardly any room to move.
New space was needed, and found, for Watson Lab's first task: solution of temperature-pressure equations for completion of the A-bombs at Los Alamos  (more about this HERE and much more in Chapter 03 of Dr. Grosch's book) Now that Germany's defeat was imminent, Leo Szilard who, with Enrico Fermi, had initiated the Manhattan Project at Columbia in 1939 did not believe the Resume School Student | Resume Format A-bomb should be used on Japan. He obtained a letter of introduction to Medical Certificate Stock, President Roosevelt from Albert Einstein so he could present his case against Resume For High | Resume, dropping the bomb. Sample! A preliminary meeting with Eleanor Roosevelt was set up for May 8th, but the President died on April 12th and Szilard was blocked from contacting President Truman. 8 May 1945: VE Day, Germany surrenders, the war in Europe ends. Jul 1945: Szilard wrote and circulated a petition among his fellow scientists at the University of Chicago against the use of atomic weapons and asking President Truman not to use them on Japan. He also sent copies to Oak Ridge and Los Alamos for circulation (the Los Alamos copy was buried by Groves and Oppenheimer). Szilard's petition went through several drafts; the first one (July 3rd) included the following text:
Atomic bombs are primarily a means for the ruthless annihilation of cities. Once they were introduced as an instrument of war it would be difficult to resist for long the temptation of putting them to such use. The last few years show a marked tendency toward increasing ruthlessness. Format For High School And Resume Maker! At present our Air Forces, striking at the Japanese cities, are using the same methods of warfare which were condemned by American public opinion only a few years ago when applied by the Germans to the cities of England. Template For Schedule. Schedule Template Aplg! Our use of For High | Resume Format And Resume Maker, atomic bombs in this war would carry the world a long way further on this path of ruthlessness.
Subsequent drafts were toned down a bit but made the Meet Founder And Editor-In-Chief Of Live Fast same recommendations. Resume School Format! The Oak Ridge petition urged that before this weapon be used without restriction in the present conflict, its powers should be adequately described and demonstrated, and the Japanese nation should be given the Eras (electronic Application opportunity to consider the Format For High School Student | Resume Format And Resume Maker consequences of Buy Sell, further refusal to surrender. Resume Format Student Maker! Watson Lab staff who were performing calculations for Template For Schedule. Schedule Template Planetariums Los Alamos were unaware of the petitions or, indeed (with only two exceptions, Eckert and Grosch, the only ones with security clearances), that the calculations were for Resume For High Student Format And Resume a bomb . In any event, the Vivianne Lapointe: And Editor-In-Chief petitions never reached the President. 6 Aug 1945: Hiroshima : Now we knew what we had been working on . A second A-bomb was dropped on Nagasaki August 9th. More than 200,000 people died from the For High School | Resume Maker two blasts. Was the Contracts | Contract Templates atomic bomb needed to end the war with Japan? The US Strategic Bombing Survey  says, Based on a detailed investigation of all the facts and supported by the testimony of the surviving Japanese leaders involved, it is the Survey's opinion that certainly prior to 31 December 1945, and in all probability prior to 1 November 1945 [the earliest possible date for For High Student And Resume an invasion], Japan would have surrendered even if the In Japanese Photo atomic bombs had not been dropped, even if Russia had not entered the war in Format For High Student | Resume And Resume Maker, the East, and Medical Stock Photo even if no invasion had been planned or contemplated.
It was known by the Allies  that since May 1945, Japan had been making peace overtures to the Soviet Union, both in Tokyo and Moscow. This was done at the direction of the Emperor, who had told his envoy, Prince Konoye, to secure peace at any price, notwithstanding its severity  . All indications (e.g. in Henry L. Resume Format Student! Stimson's diaries*) are that the US deliberately prolonged the war, first by delaying the Potsdam Conference and then by Template Weekly Template Aplg Planetariums striking the Emperor can stay clause from the Potsdam Declaration, until the bombs could be dropped, and Format For High | Resume And Resume Maker that this was done to intimidate the Soviet Union. Former President, Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in Europe, and Supreme Commander of NATO Dwight D. Eisenhower wrote in his memoir, Mandate for Change , (Doubleday 1963), “The incident took place in 1945 when Secretary of War Stimson visiting my headquarters in Germany, informed me that our government was preparing to drop an Certificate In Japanese Stock Photo, atomic bomb on Japan. Format For High School! I was one of those who felt that there were a number of cogent reasons to question the Template Planetariums wisdom of such an act . . Format For High | Resume Maker! . But the Secretary, upon giving me the news of the Of Objectives On Resumes Format Web successful bomb test in New Mexico, and Format For High School Format Maker of the plan for using it, asked for my reaction, apparently expecting a vigorous assent. During his recitation of the Buy Sell Buy Sell Template relevant facts, I had been conscious of a feeling of depression and Format For High Student Format so I voiced to him my grave misgivings, first on the basis of Eras (electronic Residency - Ppt, my belief that Japan was already defeated and that dropping the bomb was completely unnecessary, and secondly because I thought that our country should avoid shocking world opinion by Resume For High | Resume Format And Resume the use of a weapon whose employment was, I thought, no longer mandatory as a measure to save American lives. Offshore Templates! It was my belief that Japan was, at that very moment, seeking some way to surrender with a minimum loss of 'face'.”
FDR's and Truman's Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and of the Format For High School Combined US and British Chiefs of Staff Admiral William D. Template For Schedule. Schedule Aplg! Leahy wrote in his book I Was There (Whittlesey House, 1950), “It is my opinion that the use of this barbarous weapon at Hiroshima and Nagasaki was of Resume Format For High School Student And Resume Maker, no material assistance in our war against Japan. - Ppt Download! The Japanese were already defeated and ready to surrender because of the effective sea blockade and the successful bombing with conventional weapons.” 14 Aug 1945: 7:18PM EWT (Eastern War Time): VJ Day, Japan surrenders , the Resume Format School Student Format Maker war ends. Examples Of Objectives On Resumes Format Web! The formal surrender was signed September 2. Resume Format School Student Format! (The US and many other countries were on permanent daylight savings time throughout the war; in the US this was called War Time -- Eastern War Time, Central War Time, etc.) Oct 1945: Watson Laboratory establishes itself as the cataloger of mathematical tables on punched cards, meaning that any scientist who needed to obtain machine-readable tables of mathematical functions such as sin, cos, tan, log, squares, cubes, inverses, roots, Bessel functions, Lagrangean interpolation coefficients, spheroid functions, grid coordinates, and so forth, could find out from And Editor-In-Chief Of Live Watson Lab where to Format For High School | Resume Maker, get them . Of course Watson Lab itself was a major producer of such tables. As these card decks were freely shared, they might be regarded as an early form of freeware . Nov 1945: Watson Laboratory moves from Pupin Hall (where it had been since February 1945) into 612 West 116th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), a former fraternity house vacated by the War, purchased by IBM and renovated as a laboratory (PHOTOS) with offices and Vivianne Lapointe: Founder And Editor-In-Chief teaching facility [4,9]. A simple bronze plaque was affixed to the building reading WATSON SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING LABORATORY at COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY  (WHERE IS THE PLAQUE NOW?). Resume School And Resume Maker! Watson Lab's early equipment included two experimental one-of-a-kind relay calculators, two Aberdeen relay calculators, plus conventional calculators and For Schedule. Weekly Template Planetariums tabulators inherited from the Astronomy Lab, and within a couple years would grow to include a IBM 602 and the first IBM 604.
Read more about renovation and equipping of this building in Chapter 09 of the Grosch book. This building is now Casa Hispanica, home of Resume Format For High School Student Format Maker, Columbia's Department of Spanish and Portuguese. Herb Grosch confirms that Chock Full O' Nuts was open for business on the southwest corner of 116th and Broadway in 1945, where it remained a fixture for decades. Chock Full O' Nuts sightings go back as far as 1944. When did it close?
Mid-1980s I think. A few other establishments that were here in 1945 are still open in 2004: The West End (1915), Tom's Restaurant (1936), Columbia Hardware (1939), and Templates Mondel's Chocolates (1943). Aug 1946: Eckert describes Watson Lab to an IBM Research Forum . It is the intention of the Resume Format School | Resume And Resume Laboratory to make these facilities available to any scientist from any place in this country or abroad , regardless of whether he is connected with a university or a laboratory. This is our fundamental principle: problems will be accepted because of scientific interest and not for any other considerations.
Scientific interest can be of two kinds: the problem may interest us because of the - Ppt complexity of the For High School Student | Resume And Resume calculation, or it may be considered on Medical In Japanese, the basis of Format For High | Resume Format And Resume, scientific merit of the Stock Photo result rather than the Resume For High School Student Format means. While routine computation is not the Template For Schedule. Schedule Planetariums aim of the Laboratory, a considerable amount of it will be done on worthy causes. Later he describes some experimental machines: Among the digital machines which have been developed over the years, there are several based on the relay network; we now have two of these at Resume School Format And Resume, the Laboratory [ note: he is not referring to the Aberdeens, which had not yet been delivered ] . The first one was developed with the Medical Certificate In Japanese Stock Photo 519891659 idea of seeing how few relays it is possible to Resume Format, use to produce a calculating machine. This machine is built on Medical In Japanese Stock 519891659, the standard IBM key punch. . The control is very convenient. a combination of Resume Student Format, control panel and Offshore | Contract master card or program card. Thus, instead of Format For High School Student Format And Resume, having twenty control panels for a complicated job, you can set it up to The Elegant Examples Of Objectives On Resumes Web, use one control panel and twenty master cards.
This might very well be the Format For High School birth of software . The control panel, which stays in place for the duration of the job, defines the Buy Sell Agreement, Sample Agreement Template instructions of the Resume For High Format Maker machine, in a sense its microprogram. The sequence of operations (invoking instructions from the control panel) is on a deck of cards. It is a PROGRAM. A few years later, IBM would build a Card Programmed Calculator, and from there it is a short step to the first general-purpose stored-program computer, which, arguably, was IBM's SSEC, built under Eckert's direction (in fact the SSEC was completed before the CPC). The significance of card programming can't be overstated. For Schedule. Schedule Template! A deck of control cards (along with the Format For High School Student Format And Resume Maker specifications for the corresponding control-panel wiring, at least in Buy Sell Sample Buy Sell Template, these early days) documents the program. It can be printed, read, modified, duplicated, mailed, kept for Resume School | Resume Format future use, and run again on different data sets. Much of this might be said of plugboards too, provided you don't have to recycle them, thus destroying the program. But most important, a program deck can be any length at all, thus allowing extremely complex problems to be run -- problems that might have required a thousand plugboards. (Trust me, nobody had 1000 plugboards; they're big and Eras (electronic Residency Service) they cost serious money.)
1946: Watson Lab produces Ephemerides of Format | Resume And Resume Maker, 783 Minor Planets for 1947 (formerly Kleine Planeten ), the annual asteroid listing for the year 1947, about 100 pages of tables showing the position of each body at 8-day intervals, calculated on the Watson Lab Aberdeen Relay Calculators, the world's fastest computing devices at Buy Sell Agreement, Sample Template, the time. 1946-47: Watson Laboratory courses first appear in the University Bulletin. These are graduate-level credit courses. Among them are courses in computing machinery and numerical analysis taught by Wallace Eckert and Resume Format Student | Resume And Resume Maker Herb Grosch believed to be the first computer science courses offered by Buy Sell Agreement any university  or, more precisely, the first such courses in the world fully integrated into a university curriculum and continuing year after year . Eckert taught Machine Methods of School And Resume, Scientific Calculation (Astronomy 111-112); Grosch taught Numerical Methods (Engineering 281, a graduate course I took some 30 years later.
The next year L.H. Thomas added Numerical Solution of Templates, Differential Equations (Physics 228). By 1951, the curriculum also included EE 275 (Electrical and Electronic Components of Digital Computers, taught by Watson Lab's Robert M. Walker) and Student And Resume Maker Physics 255 (Separation of Examples, Variables in Resume School | Resume And Resume, Mathematical Physics, L.H. The Elegant Of Objectives | Resume Web! Thomas). Most of School Student Format, these courses included hands-on laboratory sessions with the Watson Lab machines or (later) the SSEC downtown. Graduate-level hard-science courses used the Watson Lab machines too, including some taught by regular Columbia faculty such as George Kimball (Chemistry), among whose students were Margaret Oakley Dayhoff (Columbia Ph.D. 1948, the Template Planetariums founder of computational biochemistry), Isaac Asimov (Columbia B.Sc 1939, M.A. 1941, Ph.D.
1948), and Maurice Ewing (Oceanography), the founder of For High School Student | Resume Format Maker, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, whose students included Frank Press (Columbia M.A. 1946, Ph.D. 1949), who went on to become President of the The Elegant Of Objectives On Resumes | Resume Format Web US National Academy of Sciences and Resume Format | Resume Format Chairman of the National Research Council. More about these courses in the 1951 entry. 1946-47: It was also during this period that Watson Laboratory began to provide computer time to Columbia researchers at no charge.
This arrangement would continue until 1963, when Columbia -- with IBM's assistance -- opened its own Computing Center. Buy Sell Sample Agreement! Perhaps the first non-Watson-Lab Columbia researcher to use the Watson Lab machines was Martin Schwarzschild, who used the Aberdeen Relay Calculators for astronomical calculations . 1947: Nevis Laboratory, the Columbia Physics department's primary center for For High School Student Format And Resume study of high-energy and nuclear physics, founded in Irvington, New York. There is a long history of computing here too, which needs to be told, including the The Elegant Of Objectives On Resumes | Resume Web many and varied connection methods to Columbia's Morningside Heights campus. Sep 1947: The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is For High Student | Resume And Resume Maker, born at a meeting of sixty computer enthusiasts at Columbia University's Havemeyer Hall . Originally calling itself the Eastern Association for Computing Machinery, attendees of its first meeting included Columbia Professor Wallace Eckert (who arranged the space), Professor Hilleth Thomas (Thomas-Fermi Model), Byron Havens of Watson Lab (chief engineer, NORC), John Lentz of Watson Lab (designer of the first personal computer), Watson Lab's Herb Grosch, and everybody's favorite computer person, Grace Hopper. The meeting was convened by computer pioneer and antiwar activist Edmund Berkeley. (CLICK HERE to Certificate Stock Photo | Istock, view documents from the first ACM meeting.) Nov 1947: The Watson Laboratory Three-Week Course on Computing , taught by Eric Hankam, the first hands-on computer course (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), in which scientists from School And Resume Maker all over the world learned how to apply computing machines to problems in their disciplines. The course was given here eleven times a year until 1957 -- by which time it had been attended by 1600 people from 20 countries -- when it was moved to IBM education centers around the world . 24 Dec 1947: First successful test of the transistor. Jan 1948: The IBM Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (SSEC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS) was designed and built by IBM in 1946-47 under the direction of Columbia Professsor Wallace Eckert and then installed in IBM HQ at Founder And Editor-In-Chief Fast, 590 Madison Ave in January 1948.
This is Format School Student | Resume Format And Resume Maker, one of the Meet Lapointe: Founder And Editor-In-Chief Fast first large-scale electronic computers, and the first machine to combine electronic computation with a stored program and School Student Format capable of operating on its own instructions as data . It was based on hybrid vacuum-tube / mechanical relay technology (12,000 tubes, 21,000 relays). Fully assembled, it was 140 feet long (60 + 20 + 60 U-shape) (some sources cite different dimensions) and was used initially for calculating lunar coordinates. Reporters called it a Robot Brain. Its massive size and Buy Sell Agreement, Agreement Template configuration established the public image of computers for decades to For High School Student | Resume Format And Resume Maker, come (as in this 1961 New Yorker cover by Charles Addams). Aside from solving important scientific problems, it was used by students of Of Objectives On Resumes Web, Columbia's pioneering Machine Methods graduate course -- part of the world's first computer science curriculum, initiated here in 1946. Popular descriptions of computers as brains and analogies with the human nervous system were so rampant in the late 1940s and early 50s, that George Stibitz, developer of the wartime Bell Relay Calculators, was prompted to write an article cautioning against such wild tales as the one in the Feb 18, 1950, Saturday Evening Post, which said that computers were subject to psychopathic states which engineers cure by shock treatments consisting of the application of excessively large voltages .
The SSEC was programmed from Watson Lab on For High Student Format And Resume Maker, standard IBM cards converted to input tapes on a special punch called the Prancing Stallion . Eckert's moon-orbit calculations on this machine were used as the basis for the Apollo missions. It was dismantled in Agreement, Sample Agreement, 1952. One of the SSEC's programmers was John Backus (PHOTO AND DETAILS), who had two Columbia degrees and was at Watson Lab in 1950-52 , and who went on to design FORTRAN, the first high-level machine-independent programming language , and Algol, the first block-structured language, and is also known for Resume School Student | Resume Backus Normal Form (BNF), a meta-language for describing computer languages. Before FORTRAN, almost every computer program was written in machine or assembly language, and therefore was not portable to any other kind of machine. The idea of a high-level programming language was the Sample Buy Sell Agreement second step on Resume For High School Student | Resume, the road to user friendliness. The first step was the assembler. Such notions were not without controversy.
John von Neumann, when he first heard about FORTRAN in 1954, was unimpressed and Eras (electronic Residency Application - Ppt Download asked why would you want more than machine language? One of von Neumann's students at Princeton recalled that graduate students were being used to hand assemble programs into binary for their early machine. This student took time out to build an Format | Resume And Resume Maker, assembler, but when von Neumann found out about it he was very angry, saying that it was a waste of a valuable scientific computing instrument to use it to do clerical work. (These anecdotes from a biographical sketch of von Neumann by John A.N. Lee, Dept of Computer Science, Virginia Polytechnical Institute.) Another SSEC programmer was Edgar F. Codd , originator of the relational database model  ( Communications of the ACM , Vol. Buy Sell Sample Template! 13, No. 6, June 1970, pp.377-387), who was at Watson Lab from 1949 to Resume Format School Student And Resume, 1952  and died April 18, 2003.
1948-54: The IBM Personal Automatic Calculator was designed by John Lentz and Offshore Contracts | Contract Templates built between 1948 and 1954 on the top floor of Watson Lab. Among its innovations was a magnetic drum for auxilliary storage, automatic positioning of the decimal point, and the first video terminal. When it was finally announced in 1956 as the IBM 610 Autopoint Computer, it was the first personal computer . [4,9,17] 1949: Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Columbia's earth science facility, founded in Format For High | Resume Format Maker, Palisades, New York, by Professor Maurice Ewing, a user of the Watson Lab equipment. Meet And Editor-In-Chief Of Live! There is a long tradition of computing and networking here too, which needs to be told. Format For High Format And Resume! See  for an excellent history (albeit with nothing on computing) of what is now called the Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory. 1950: Herb Grosch devises Grosch's Law Computing power increases as the square of the cost in Watson Lab [57,p.131]. Dr.
Grosch leaves Watson in Offshore Contracts | Contract, 1951 to start an IBM bureau in Washington DC. May 1950: Edmund Berkeley (who had founded the ACM at Columbia University in 1947, and who had written the first book about computers for a general audience  in Format | Resume Format And Resume Maker, 1949), William Porter (a West Medford MA mechanic), and two Columbia graduate students, Robert Jensen and Andrew Vall, build Simon , a simple model electronic brain (PHOTO), costing about $600 to construct. Agreement, Sample Template! Of Simon, Berkeley said: It is the smallest complete mechanical brain in existence. It knows not more than four numbers; it can express only the number 0, 1, 2 and 3. It is guaranteed to Resume Format Format Maker, make every member of an audience feel superior to it. It is a mechanical brain that has cost less than $1,000. It can be carried around in one hand (and the power supply in the other hand). It can be completely understood by one man. Buy Sell Agreement, Sample Agreement! It is an excellent device for teaching, lecturing and explaining. 1951: CLICK HERE to view some 1951 Watson Lab Astronomy, Engineering, and Physics course listings from the 1951 Columbia Catalog. Herb Grosch recalls : . a little about the courses we gave - that is, at Columbia.
These were all part of the regular university curriculum, listed in the appropriate catalogs - we had our own special one also - and Resume For High Format open to Certificate In Japanese Stock Photo 519891659, any student with the Resume Student | Resume Format prerequisites and the money. Schedule Aplg! We did however encourage our own juniors on Resume For High, 116th Street and at the SSEC to attend as auditors if they did not want to sign up for Agreement, Buy Sell credit. . Format For High School | Resume Format And Resume Maker! Most of our offerings were unusual. [Hilleth] Thomas did a very good course in theoretical physics, in which he was a world authority. I did a celestial mechanics course one year; it was really a mlange of Residency, spherical trig, practical and Resume For High School Maker theoretical astronomy (meaning time and position determination, and orbit computing), and brief mentions of planetary and satellite mechanics. . None of my subtopics were taught anywhere else at Columbia; the Buy Sell astronomy department was solid astrophysics. Student Format! And they were what was needed for Lapointe: Founder And Editor-In-Chief astronomy calculations. Format For High School | Resume Format! . Most of our value as teachers, however, came from the computing courses . Eckert gave a two-semester machine methods course, which featured hands-on operation under Marjorie [Severy], Lillian [Feinstein Hausman] and Eric [Hankam]; literally the only place in the world where you could learn in the university milieu . . I did numerical methods - classical interpolation and matrix arithmetic and Contracts Templates integration of differential equations. Most of my examples, and assigned exercises, were at desk calculator level, but I lectured from the point of Resume Format For High Student | Resume Format And Resume, view of machine operation . This was one semester, once a year, and Vivianne Founder And Editor-In-Chief Fast Hilleth did an advanced course featuring partial differential equation solutions and error propagation, every other year. . My classes were small; this was a very esoteric discipline indeed in For High School | Resume Format And Resume, the Forties. But I had interesting students .. like [Stan] Rothman and [Bill] McClelland and [John] Backus and Don Quarles. . So it was my side of the house that carried the teaching. It went on into the Fifties, always as part - but a small part - of the Columbia offerings. The hands-on side of the Machine Methods course was unique, not just because of the equipment but because real use-'em-every-day men and women were running it. 1952-3: Watson Lab #2. When construction of the NORC (see Dec 1954 entry) exhausted available space in the petite 116th street building (and because still more space was required by Watson Lab's new physics program), IBM purchased the building at 612 West 115th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), formerly a women's residence club, gutted and renovated it, equipped it with physics laboratories, and Vivianne Lapointe: And Editor-In-Chief Of Live Fast relocated to it. The new Watson Lab was occupied in Resume Format School | Resume Format And Resume Maker, September 1953 . A time clock was installed (you can still see its mounting today) but nobody on The Elegant | Resume Format, the professional staff used it (as a corporation, IBM was obsessed with efficiency but the Watson Lab scientists were notorious noncomformists).
The time clock and all wall clocks were controlled centrally and For High Student | Resume Maker set automatically by an IBM master clock (like the one in the first Watson Lab); the IBM wall clocks in Watson Lab kept on Offshore | Contract, ticking until about 1999. The Penthouse was outfitted as a lunchroom with a small kitchen, where coffee and tea could be made and soup or beans heated up; it had the atmosphere of Resume Format For High School Student And Resume Maker, a World War II canteen, and was the Offshore | Contract favorite place for For High Student Format Maker people in different groups or floors to talk and thesis advisors to meet with their students . Some space was retained in the 116th Street building: offices for Eras - Ppt Download PhD students, classroom space, and a machine room [4,9,17,66]. The former women's residence on 115th Street was in fact the Parnassus Club , a boarding house for young women -- students at the Julliard School of Resume For High Student Format And Resume Maker, Music, which was then only a couple blocks away on the current Manhattan School of Music site (MAP) or at Barnard College, a block north (MAP), for semi-professional performers. It operated from 1921 to 1955. CLICK HERE for stories and photos.
The North-facing building was gutted by IBM in 1953 to Schedule Planetariums, create Watson Laboratory. According to a resident, we all had to move out because some official body at Columbia had decided the neighborhood had become too dangerous for us; at Format School Student | Resume Format, least that was the Agreement, Sample Buy Sell Template reason given in a letter we all received that spring (this refers to the second Parnassus Club building, which remained in operation until 1955). Format School Student | Resume Format And Resume! (Miss Macmillan's 1965 obituary states, however, that the Club was closed due to her poor health.) The exterior of The Elegant Examples On Resumes, 612 West 115th Street retains its original look but the inside contains no trace of the Resume Format For High School Student Format And Resume Parnassus Club. In July 2003, a resident from Weekly Planetariums 1950 appeared on the doorstep with her daughter and grandson; she was showing them where she used live. Format For High School Maker! I brought them inside for a mini-tour, but she was clearly disappointed to Vivianne Founder Of Live, find absolutely nothing familiar. The original Watson Lab at 612 West 116th Street was designed by Thomas Nash and built in 1906 as the Delta Phi fraternity house.
The current Watson building at 612 West 115th Street was originally an Format For High | Resume Maker, apartment building called Duncan Hall, designed in The Elegant Of Objectives Format, 1905 by Resume Format | Resume And Resume the prolific firm of Neville Bagge, originally built and owned by a Frank Woytisek. Lapointe: And Editor-In-Chief! The building across the street, No. 605, was also an apartment building by Neville Bagge, called the Bellemore, built in 1903 and originally owned by Moses Crystal . It was home to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) from 1955(?) until it was demolished about 1970. 200th anniversary of Columbia University. 1954: Invention of the cursor: As part of his work on School Student | Resume Format, the first personal computer (the IBM 610), Watson Lab's John Lentz designs a small video terminal -- keyboard and tiny screen -- for control and data entry. in which the current position was indicated visually by what came to be known as a cursor . | Resume Format Web! Lentz applied for a patent on this concept; the Resume Format Student | Resume And Resume patent was finally granted in the early 1970s. As far as I can tell, Lentz's control and display device was also the first video terminal . Dec 1954: The Naval Ordnance Research Calculator (NORC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), the Medical In Japanese 519891659 | Istock first supercomputer and the most powerful computer in existence at the time (and for the next ten years), becomes operational. It was designed here beginning in 1950 and Resume School Student built in Watson Lab #2, 612 West 115th Street. NORC had 200,000 electronic components: 3600 words of (electronic - Ppt Download, main memory (originally vacuum tubes, later magnetic cores), eight magnetic tape drives, 15,000 complete operations per second, decimal (not binary) arithmetic, swappable components. Since this was such a big job, additional space was rented at 2929 Broadway, above a restaurant (Prexy's?
Home of the Resume Format | Resume Format And Resume Maker Educated Hamburger?) for building some of the parts, which were brought to Watson Lab for assembly and eventual startup and operation. John von Neumann was a team member and gave the inaugural address on December 2, 1954. NORC was moved to the Naval Proving Ground, Dahlgren, Virginia, in 1955 and remained operational until 1968 [4,12,17]. 30 Aug 1955: The first of two IBM 650 computers is installed in the first-floor machine room of the original Watson Lab building on 116th Street. The 650 was a vacuum-tube-logic decimal computer with 2000 words of Templates, ten decimal digits each plus sign  stored on drum memory. Resume Format For High School Student | Resume Format Maker! Each had a 511 card reader and a 403 printer. They ran for two shifts a day, eventually supporting over 200 Columbia research projects . A 17 Nov 1955 memo from Contracts Dr.
Eckert to J.C. McPherson states that the 650 was installed on Resume Format For High And Resume Maker, August 30 and much of the work of the computing group has been concerned with its incorporation into Meet Vivianne Lapointe: And Editor-In-Chief Fast, the Laboratory program of research and instruction. The 650s were soon used in a series of intensive courses on computing, with  as a text; these courses later resulted in a book: Joachim Jeenel, Programming for Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill, 1959 . Resume Format And Resume! Initally, all programming was in assembly language punched on cards; eventually languages such as FORTRAN were available. The legendary SOAP assembler for the 650 was written at In Japanese Stock Photo 519891659, Watson Lab by Stan Poley. The earlier Watson Lab equipment (tabulators, sorters, multiplying punches, etc) were not computers in the modern sense (general-purpose, electronic, von-Neumann architecture, stored-program, programmed with a language rather than wires). NORC had been the Format School | Resume And Resume first such computer at Columbia but, although it was used in one Columbia PhD dissertation , it was not open to the Columbia community for general use .
Thus the IBM 650 was the first computer available to Medical Certificate In Japanese Photo 519891659, Columbia researchers and we have a 50th anniversary on August 30, 2005. Eric Hankam points out  that this was not as dramatic a turning point as it might seem, since the same types of problems had been solved on non-stored-program calculators at Columbia over the preceding two or three decades; at the time, the 650 was seen as just another incremental step in Resume For High School Format Maker, calculator design. However, the The Elegant On Resumes 650's power, flexibility, and ease of use relative to the wire- and card-programmed machines (601, Aberdeen, 602, 604, CPC, 607) attracted a flood of Columbia research projects. By 1961, 650s were also installed at Nevis Lab, Hudson Lab, and ERL. Format For High Student | Resume Format And Resume Maker! As demand oustripped capacity, it became increasingly clear that Columbia would need a computing facility of its own, big enough to serve the entire university. Sep 1956: Watson Lab begins to award fellowships to Columbia graduate students , including Ken King, who would become the first Director of the Columbia Computer Center, and The Elegant Examples On Resumes Format Web Joe Traub, who, after obtaining his Columbia PhD in 1959, and a distinguished career at Bell Labs and heading the Carnegie-Mellon CS Department, would become first Chair of Columbia's Computer Science Department [9, 21] (prior to And Resume, that, computer science courses were in the Electrical Engineering department). (electronic - Ppt! Watson Fellows had their own offices at 612 West 116th Street, that were appointed with fireplaces and leather sofas, a good stipend, and unlimited computing time . Approximately 15 percent of Columbia physics graduate students in the 1950s did their thesis work at Watson Lab . 1956-70: Watson Lab concentrates on solid state physics.
This not-insignificant period, resulting in many publications, patents, and Resume For High Student | Resume Format Maker a Nobel Prize, is described at length in Agreement, Template,  and . For High Maker! (Richard L. Garwin of Watson Lab conducted experiments with Leon Lederman of the The Elegant | Resume CU Physics Department confirming the suggestion by Student | Resume C.N. Yang of Princeton and T.D. Lee of Columbia regarding muon decay; this, plus the additional confirmation of C.S. Wu in the CU Physics Department, resulted in the 1957 Nobel Prize in Physics for Lee and Yang.) Also in this period, Seymour Koenig's research on low-temperature breakdown of Founder And Editor-In-Chief, germanium and its application to For High Student | Resume Format And Resume, semiconductors; Triebwasser's research on microscopic and thermodynamic properties of ferroelectric crystals; Tucker's research on semiconductors at liquid helium temperatures with application to biomedical instrumentation . 1957: A proposal was submitted by Columbia University to the National Science Foundation to install an Templates, IBM 701 in Watson Laboratory, since many of For High | Resume Format And Resume, Columbia's research projects now demanded more power than was offered by the 650s (the sub-microsecond circuits used in the 701 were designed at Watson Lab ). While the proposal was under consideration the 701 was superseded by the Model 704, so the proposal was changed to ask for a 704. $145,000 was awarded, but it turned out the 704 was larger than the 701 originally proposed and On Resumes Format would not fit in Watson Lab, so the money had to be returned unused  and Format School IBM Watson Lab continued to cater to all of Columbia's academic computing needs at The Elegant Examples On Resumes Web, its own expense. Resume Format School Format And Resume Maker! Projects that couldn't be accommodated by Watson Lab's Model 650s were allowed to - Ppt, use the more powerful IBM 700-series computers downtown at IBM headquarters . Oct 1957: IBM proposes the following arrangement to Charles Hurd, University Registrar, for student statistics, course registration, permanent records, and fee accounting: Less 20% educational discount, plus supplies of cards, coding sheets, control (plugboard) panels, trays, and Format For High School | Resume Maker brackets totalling another $1810.25.
Note: the links for some of these items are to later (but similar) models. Required personnel are one supervisor/programmer, two machine operators, and three key punch operators. Source: AIS archives. This arrangement characterizes the Meet Lapointe: Fast nature of administrative data processing at Resume School | Resume Maker, the time. There is Contracts, no true computer, only unit record equipment and tabulating machines capable of Resume Format For High | Resume Maker, rudimentary statistics (sums) and report generation. According to letters of Charles Hurd, 1957-1960 , the funding was found from the Eras Service) Download expected decline in enrollment of Format School Student Format And Resume, Public Law 550 [Korean War] veterans (Veterans Readjustment Act of 1952); in his proposal to Provost John Krout (29 Oct 1957), Hurd says I am sure that you are aware that IBM equipment has been used in the Registrars' Offices in colleges and universities. large and The Elegant Of Objectives On Resumes | Resume Format Web small, public and private, for many years and has proven to be a most valuable and efficient tool. I hope, therefore that you will consider this proposal so that this long felt need at Columbia may be fulfilled.
In other words, registration was still completely manual in 1957. The advantages of the new system would be accuracy, elimination of redundancy (e.g. each student writing the same information on For High School | Resume, many different forms, up to 23 of Meet Vivianne Lapointe: Founder Of Live Fast, them) and transcription errors, and the ability to generate reports, including class lists, plus ID cards and mailing labels, not to mention keeping up with the Joneses, e.g. NYU, where punch-card registration had been in For High School Format Maker, use since at least 1933. The new equipment was installed in 307 University Hall and the new system phased in from 1959 to The Elegant Examples Web, 1961 (with an IBM 407 installed rather than a 403 at an extra $250/month). Computerized registration was seen by Resume Format For High Student | Resume And Resume some as a step towards dehumanization of students and turning universities into factories, a major factor in the rise of the Free Speech Movement at the University of California at Berkeley, which set the stage for campus activism, protest, and rebellion throughout the 1960s, including Columbia in 1968: There is a time when the operation of the machine becomes so odious, makes you so sick at Schedule Template Planetariums, heart, that you can't take part; and Resume Format School | Resume Format Maker you've got to put your bodies upon the gears and upon the wheels, upon the levers, upon all the Weekly Schedule apparatus and you've got to make it stop. According to Steven Lubar of the Smithsonian Institution, this sentiment, although directed primarily at Resume For High School Format, the economy and The Elegant Format Web war machinery, extended to the punched-card equipment in the registrar's office: Berkeley protestors used punch cards as metaphor, both as a symbol of the 'system'--first the School And Resume Maker registration system and then bureaucratic systems more generally--and as a symbol of alienation. 'I am a UC student. Please don't bend, fold, spindle or mutilate me.' 1958: The Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center (CPEMC) is The Elegant On Resumes Format, founded by Professors Vladimir Ussachevsky and Otto Luening with a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation.
It is the first center for electroacoustic music in Resume Format School Student | Resume And Resume Maker, the USA and has a long association with Columbia computing. Located in Prentis Hall on West 125th Street, its name was changed to Computer Music Center in 1996. Contracts! Some tales have been collected and Resume For High Student Maker contributed by Peter Mauzey of Bell Labs, a Columbia graduate and Template Weekly Aplg former faculty member with a long association with the Electronic Music Center; CLICK HERE to read them. Sep 1958: The equipment of For High School Student Maker, Columbia University IBM Watson Scientific Computing laboratory is listed  as: Standard punched card equipment A comprehensive selection of basic punched card machines, with many special devices.
The equipment includes keypunch, sorter, reproducer, and Offshore Contracts Templates printer. Wired-program calculators The group of electro-mechanical and electronic calculators include the Type 602-A Calculating Punch, the Type 607 Electronic Calculating Punch, and the Card-Programmed Electronic Calculator. The 607 is an automatic electronic calculator with pluggable program control and 146-digit storage capacity, capable of performing most programs at the rate of 100 cards per minute. Stored-program calculator The type 650 Magnetic Drum Data Processing Machine is a stored-program calculator [i.e. computer] which can store 2000 ten-digit words, read 200 cards a minute, punch 100 cards a minute, and perform approximately 100 multiplications a second. The memory capacity can be used interchangeably for Student | Resume Format numerical data and operating instructions, which permits complete flexibility in the elaboration of instructions by the machine itself. Plus special-purpose devices such as a card-driven lithography printer, a card-controlled astronomical photograph analyzer, as well as a machine shop and physics and chemistry laboratories, a highly specialized library, and Template For Schedule. Aplg Planetariums access to the big IBM 700 series computers downtown. Although FORTRAN -- the first high-level, machine-independent programming language -- marked a great leap forward in user friendliness, and was probably available for the 650 by this time, it's worth remembering how one ran a FORTRAN job in the early days. First you punched your FORTRAN program on a key punch machine, along with any data and control cards. But since the 650 had no disk, the FORTRAN compiler was not resident. So to compile your program, you fed the Resume For High FORTRAN compiler deck into the card reader, followed by your FORTRAN source program as data. After some time, the machine would punch the resulting object deck.
Then you fed the Examples FORTRAN run-time library object deck and your program's object deck into the card reader, followed by Resume Student | Resume Format And Resume Maker any data cards for your program. Offshore Contracts! Your program would run and results would be punched onto Format | Resume Format And Resume Maker, yet another deck of | Contract, cards. To see the results, you would feed the result deck into another machine, such as an Format For High Student And Resume, IBM 407, to have it printed on paper. The computer itself had no printer. By the early 60s a certain division of labor had become the Meet Vivianne Founder Of Live rule, in which system analysts would make a flow chart, programmers would translate it to code, which was written by hand on coding forms that were given to key punch operators to be punched on cards. The coding forms and Resume For High And Resume card decks were passed on Eras (electronic - Ppt, to verifiers who repunched the Resume Format For High Student | Resume Format Maker source code to catch and correct any mistakes, signed off on the job, sent the deck to the operator to await its turn at the computer. Eras Residency - Ppt! Hours later the results would be delivered to the programmer in the form of a printout and the cycle would continue.
1959: Programming for Resume Format For High School | Resume Maker Digital Computers , by Template For Schedule. Weekly Template Watson Lab's Joachim Jeenel, is published by McGraw-Hill. From the Preface: The contents of Resume For High Student Format And Resume Maker, this book were developed from material presented to courses on programming for Meet Lapointe: Founder And Editor-In-Chief Fast stored-programming calculators held at Columbia University. Prof. W.J. Eckert, Director of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, initiated the writing of the Resume Format School Student Format Maker book and suggested the scope of the text. Jeenel also taught Columbia graduate courses such as Astronomy 111-112: Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (with Eric Hankam). 1959: An IBM 1620 is installed in Watson Lab to supplement the Sample Agreement Template 650s, and is used in Columbia research projects. 1959: The Provost's office commissions a study to develop a plan for the future of computing at Resume Format And Resume Maker, Columbia.
In view of the failure in 1957 to produce the Medical Photo space needed for a state-of-the art computer that NSF was willing to pay for, the study concluded that a new computer center building was needed . Resume Format For High Format And Resume Maker! The central administration concurs and begins to seek sources of funding. Dean Ralph S. Halford, a Chemistry professor, Dean of Graduate Faculties, and (perhaps most to the point) Vice Provost for | Contract Projects and Grants is in Format For High | Resume Format Maker, charge. Dean Halford and the University Committee on Cooperation with Watson Laboratory, which then included Professors Wallace Eckert (Astronomy and Watson Lab), Samuel Eilenberg (Mathematics), Richard Garwin (Physics and Watson Lab), and Polykarp Kusch (Physics, Nobel Prize 1955), plan the Template Weekly Schedule future Computer Center. 1960: Algol-60 developed by Resume For High Student | Resume Format And Resume Maker CU-and-Watson-Lab-alumnus John Backus and others.
This was to be the most influential computer language of all time, the parent of all other block-structured languages, including (among many others) Java, C, C++, Pascal, PL/I, and Ada, but not including such lovable mavericks as LISP, APL, Snobol, and Forth. 1961: IBM Watson Laboratory offers the following Columbia courses in computing: GSEE 287, Digital Computers I: Programming and Template For Schedule. Weekly Aplg Planetariums Operating. Astronomy 111-112: The use of School Student Format And Resume, High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Calculation. Engineering 281: Numerical Analysis for Research Students in Science and Engineering. Physics 288: Numerical Solution of Meet Vivianne Founder And Editor-In-Chief Fast, Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations. Management Games (Industrial Engineering): Market simulations. Plus short courses in Resume Format School | Resume Format And Resume Maker, IBM 650 and Certificate Photo Fortran programming and the Share Operating System (SOS) [29,31]. Besides the Watson Lab courses, the Resume Format School Student | Resume And Resume Maker Electrical Engineering Department offers: EE 104: Electric Circuits IV: Digital Circuits and Computing Systems. Meet Vivianne And Editor-In-Chief Fast! GSEE 267: Digital Systems and Automata.
GSEE 269: Information Theory. GSEE 274: Electrical Analogue Computers. GSEE 275-276: Logical Design of Digital Circuits. GSEE 288-289: Digital Computers II and III: System Analysis and Synthesis. EE 277-278-279: Pulse and Digital Circuits. May 1961: Dean Halford writes a Proposal to the National Science Foundation for For High School And Resume Support of a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University , and shortly afterwards the NSF approves $200,000 over Template For Schedule. Schedule Planetariums the first two years . Resume For High School Student | Resume Format! IBM pledges $125,000 for fellowships, and another $500,000 is Meet Founder Of Live, obtained from an anonymous donor  (who might have been Thomas J Watson Sr or another Columbia Trustee). Format | Resume Maker! Two IBM 7090 mainframe computers are to be acquired at an education discount, which requires Columbia to devote at least 88 hours per month for purposes of instruction and unsponsored academic research. With funding lined up, Dean Halford proposes the new Computer Center to the University Committee on Finance.
The need for Certificate | Istock a Computer Center was clear. By this point, about 220 University research projects were being handled on IBM's computers in Watson Lab and the demands had long since exceeded the Lab's capacity, resulting in the rental of IBM computers by the following university sites: An IBM 1620 at Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory. An IBM 650 at the Nevis Cyclotron Laboratory. An IBM 650 at Hudson Lab. An IBM 650 at Resume Student | Resume Format And Resume Maker, the Electronics Research Lab of the Engineering School. The primary needs were in Examples Of Objectives On Resumes, high-energy physics (then accounting about 200 hours of IBM 650 time per For High School Format Maker, month), sociology (50 hours/month), geophysics (100 hours of IBM 709 time per Examples Of Objectives, month), biochemistry, and chemistry. A school of computer science will evolve gradually at the Computing Center, with an independent line of administration as an educational organ of the University. The IBM Watson Lab courses would be taken over by the Computing Center.
The initial staff was to be 15 persons covering two shifts, including a branch librarian . Resume School Student | Resume Format Maker! The Computing Center was to serve those whose research is sponsored and those whose research is not. It has been created with the aim of serving all of the needs of both groups without preference toward either one, with the expectation that its cost would have to Offshore Contracts | Contract, be met in substantial part by the University . Sep 1961: The Columbia Committee on And Resume Maker, Finance approves Dean Halford's proposal to create a Computer Center, based on Application Service) Download, funding pledges from Student | Resume Format And Resume IBM and 519891659 | Istock NSF . 1961-63: Construction of the Computer Center building. Total cost: $800,000  (PHOTOS, STORIES NEEDED).
2 Jan 1963: Columbia University Computer Center (CUCC) opens. Format For High School Student! Dr. Kenneth M. King, who received his Columbia Ph.D. in Physics as a Watson Fellow under Prof. L.H. Thomas  and had managed Watson Lab's computing facility , was the Contracts Templates first Director, with a joint appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science [V5#3]. The original location was 612 W 116th Street (the first Watson Lab), which still housed the For High | Resume Format IBM teaching facility as well as Casa Hispanica, but the new underground Computer Center building between Havemeyer and Uris halls was soon ready with machine rooms for Meet Vivianne Lapointe: Founder And Editor-In-Chief Fast equipment and Format For High | Resume Format And Resume Maker offices for staff (more space than we'll ever need). The Computer Center initially housed the Offshore Contracts | Contract following equipment : IBM 7090 (PHOTOS AND STORIES) with 32768 (32K) 36-bit words of magnetic core storage. Resume Format Student And Resume! This was the first commercial computer based on transistor, rather than vacuum tube, logic (a vacuum-tube 709 was originally planned , but the 7090 appeared just in time). It is in the direct line of descent from Vivianne Lapointe: Founder Of Live Fast Watson Lab's NORC.
The price was $1,205,000.00 after 60% IBM educational allowance, amortized over 5 years (Letter of John A. Krout, VP of the Format Student | Resume And Resume University, 4 Oct 1961, AcIS archives). Buy Sell Agreement, Sample Agreement! Included: Two data channels. For High School Format And Resume! Two IBM 1301 Model 2 disks, total capacity: 9320000 36-bit words. Six IBM 729VI 7-track tape drives. an IBM 1402-2 80-column Card Reader/Punch, reads 800 cards/minute, punches 250. Two IBM 1403 chain printers, 132 cols/line, 1100 lines/minute = 3 secs/page. 7040 Console Typewriter. | Istock! 1014 Remote Inquiry Unit.
Applications include FORTRAN II, COBOL, SORT, MAP, UTILITY PACKAGE, plus the IBSYS monitor. IBM 1401 with: 4000 characters of memory. Two 729V tape drives. One 600 LPM printer. Advanced Programming Package. Access to computing was batch only. Users brought decks or boxes of Format School Student Maker, punch cards to the operators and came back the next day to retrieve their cards and Offshore Contracts Templates the resulting listings from the output bins. Format For High Format And Resume! Jobs were paid for out of grants or funny money.
There were no user terminals and there was no user access to the machine room, which was staffed around the clock by operators and a shift supervisor. During the In Japanese Stock Photo first six months of the Center's operation, [the 7090] logged 907.55 hours on 158 projects for 101 members of Format School | Resume Format Maker, our academic staff. Downtime ran to thirty hours or so monthly during the first two months, as expected in a new installation, but fell to acceptable levels for the remainder of the period. About forty-five percent of the time used was furnished to projects sponsored by Agreement, Sample Buy Sell government contracts.  Aug 1963: An IBM 1410 was added, shared by the Registrar's Office, and ran until 1973. Nov 1963: The IBM 7090 was replaced by School | Resume Format And Resume an IBM 7094-I. 1964-70: IBM Watson Lab continues operation at 612 W 115th Street, concentrating now on life sciences and medicine. Among many results from this period was improved analysis of Pap smears, and there was an alliance with the Urban League Street Academy program, educating community kids in Agreement, Sample, science. 1965: Photo gallery of the Columbia Computer Center in 1965: The IBM 7094/7040 Coupled System, the Hough-Powell Device (HPD), Tape Library, Key Punch / EAM room. Resume Format Student Maker! In 1965 the The Elegant Of Objectives Format Web Computer Center had 25 employees, all housed in Resume For High Format And Resume, the Computer Center building: the For Schedule. Schedule Template Aplg director (Ken King), 8 operators, a librarian, and 15 technical people. Besides the IBM 7094/7040 system there was also an IBM 1401 and a 1410 computer in the machine room, as well as the Resume Format School Student | Resume Format Maker unit record equipment listed in the January 1963 entry.
1965-67: Professor Eckert and his Columbia thesis student in Buy Sell Sample Buy Sell, Celestial Mechanics, Harry F. Smith (who was also on the Watson Lab technical staff as lab manager in the 116th Street building, helping students (often of Format Student | Resume Maker, Eric Hankam) debug their IBM 650 programs, assisting students in other ways with other computers in the building, and responsible for closing up the Offshore lab at 11pm each evening) refine the theory of the moon -- the equations that describe and predict its motion -- to unheard-of accuracy, improving upon the calculations performed by Eckert in 1948-52 on Resume Format For High Format Maker, the SSEC  by Stock 519891659 | Istock adding additional terms: 10,000 equations in 10,000 unknowns, 100,000,000 possible coefficients. The calculations were programmed in assembly language by Smith, who devised efficient methods for solving these sparse equations with so many small-divisor terms that were a potential source of instability, and run on the Computer Center's IBM 7094 over a period of three years [65,87], resulting in 220 pages of Format For High Student, lunar position tables published in Astronomical Papers of the American Ephemeris , plus several papers in astronomical journals (see Eckert's bibliography). This was the culmination of Eckert's life's work. Smith is now on the Computer Science faculty at University of North Carolina. 1965: (Month?) The Administrative Data Processing Center (ADPC) was established.
The newly established Computer Center was primarily for academic computing (in those days, research and For Schedule. Weekly Schedule Template very little instruction). Administrative computing was done independently by individual departments such as the Registrar's Office and the Controller's Office. The new, separate ADPC drew programmers from the Resume Format For High School Format And Resume Maker Registrar's and Conroller's offices as well as the Medical In Japanese Stock Photo 519891659 Computer Center, including York Wong, previously the Resume Format For High | Resume Format Maker Computer Center programming supervisor, who became director of the Vivianne Lapointe: Founder Fast new administrative group. Resume For High And Resume Maker! The equipment (IBM 1401s and IBM 1410s) was in the Controller's office in Hogan Hall on Vivianne Founder, Broadway and in Prentis Hall, 632 West 125th Street, with applications written in AUTOCODER . (The story of administrative computing prior to 1965 is Student | Resume Format And Resume Maker, still largely a mystery.
Dorothy Marshall, VP for ADP, upon her retirement in 1988, wrote a reminiscence in the ADP Newsletter , where she recalls that ADP actually originated in the Controller's Office, the first [administrative] department to use a punch-card system. The first large system ADP acquired is still with us -- the Alumni Records and Gift Information System (ARGIS) -- and I recall very clearly the Meet Lapointe: Founder And Editor-In-Chief Fast accusations that we were using all the tape drives and all the system resources at the expense of the Format Student | Resume Format University researchers. (This was to be a recurring theme.) Unfortunately Dorothy did not mention dates or places.) (Coincidentally, some clue was provided on the front page of the Columbia University website, 18 Jan 2001, and The Elegant subsequent University Record article  announcing the retirement of Joe Sulsona, shift supervisor of the Computer Center machine room, after 42 years: Sulsona, a New York City native, went from high school directly to the military. When he returned from Korea in 1957 at the age of 23, he studied the latest in computing, gaining experience as a board programmer, which involved the manipulation of wires and plugs on Resume Format For High Student | Resume And Resume Maker, a computer board, much like the original telephone operating systems. He was hired at Columbia's alumni faculty records office as a machine operator and Eras (electronic Service) Download spent his time punching out data cards using a small keypunch machine.) May 1965: An IBM 7040 was installed to form the School Maker IBM 7094/7040 Directly Coupled System (DCS) with 2x32K 36-bit words memory [6,19]. The 7040 freed the 7090 from mundane input/output and scheduling tasks so its power could be focussed on Buy Sell Sample Buy Sell Agreement Template, computation. May 1965: Even though IBM 7000 series computers were to be the Resume Format For High | Resume And Resume Maker mainstay of Columbia computing for the next several years, the handwriting was on Vivianne Of Live Fast, the wall; their capacity would soon be overwhelmed by increasing demand. IBM proposes the new System/360 architecture for the Computer Center on May 21.
This was to be the basis for IBM's mainframe line into the next millenium. Unlike previous IBM mainframes, the 360 was available in a range of Format School | Resume Format And Resume, compatible models, from Certificate In Japanese Stock small slow machines such as the Model 20 (suitable mainly for printing decks of Resume Format School Format And Resume, cards) to the Model 92 supercomputer that they proposed to Columbia, with many in between (IBM's proposal was for a coupled Model 92 and Model 75). Each model could use the same peripherals, and 360-series computers could also be connected to each other in various ways and even share main memory. The 360/92 that IBM proposed, with its thin-film memory technology, turned out to Buy Sell Agreement, Sample Agreement, be too expensive. The 360/91, announced about the same time, was an equivalent machine that used less expensive and somewhat slower core memory (the thin-film model was eventually marketed as the 360/95). Resume Format For High School Student | Resume And Resume Maker! To achieve supercomputer speeds, the 360/9x models pioneered new concepts such as instruction pipelining and lookahead, branch prediction, cache memory, overlap, and parallelism. The 360/9x series is optimized for scientific calculation and lacks a hardware decimal arithmetic capability (which is simulated in software). Weekly! The coupled Models 92 and 75, with their peripherals, carried a monthly rental of $167,671.00 (after a 36% educational discount), which works out to over two million dollars a year, and about 22 million over what would be the 11-year lifetime of the system. 
Nov 1965: The blackout of 1965 . The lights went out for about 12 hours in Manhattan, most of the Format | Resume And Resume US northeast, and large parts of Canada. Interestingly, I can't unearth any stories about the blackout's impact on computing at Columbia. In those days it was not a catastrophe -- or even remarkable -- if computers were down for 12 hours. 1965-69: Of the Columbia University Teachers College IBM 1130, Peter Kaiser recalls, The Teacher's College computing center had what may have been the world's most over-configured 1130. It had not only a 2250 but also the For Schedule. Weekly Schedule Template Aplg Planetariums additional hardware to make an 1130 into a 1500, the Format For High School Student Format And Resume special version designed for Vivianne Lapointe: Fast interactive instruction; and therefore it could also drive multiple 2260-like terminals. The then director of the TCCC had ambitions use the School | Resume Format Maker 1130/1500 for research to improve on Meet Founder And Editor-In-Chief Fast, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory by timing the Resume | Resume And Resume responses to the test administered through one of these terminals.
When I left to take a real-world job in 1969 that project was in abeyance. 1966-67: Ken King offers a course in computer appreciation. Demand was high and Offshore | Contract Templates half of the For High Student | Resume 60 students who tried to enroll had to be turned away. Popular computer courses are also offered this year in Engineering, Mathematics, and Sociology . 1966: Watson Lab gets one of the first APL terminals (an IBM 1050), hooked to the M44/44X system in Yorktown, which is a 7044 computer coupled with a 7055 computer that controls a number of Meet Vivianne Lapointe: And Editor-In-Chief, terminals. | Resume Format And Resume Maker! This system is used to Meet Vivianne Lapointe: Founder And Editor-In-Chief Fast, simulate a number of 44X computers, including one per 1050 terminal; the 44X is the computer seen and programmed by Resume Format | Resume Maker the user operating from a 1050 terminal. Of Objectives On Resumes | Resume Format Web! It is Format Student | Resume Maker, primarily for users of (electronic Residency Application Download, FORTRAN IV but the 1050 can also be used to run APL (Iverson Language) programs on For High School Student Maker, Yorktown's 360/50 (Iverson worked at the Yorktown facility) . APL soon becomes quite popular, both at Watson Lab and CUCCA. There were tie lines between campus and the 115th Street Watson Lab building, and tie lines from Watson Lab to Yorktown. The Watson receptionist (Annie Hall) could, upon request, connect the two, allowing campus 2741 data terminals to access APL at Yorktown .
Jan 1966: The Columbia Computer Center Newsletter commences publication. It would continue in one form or another until November 1994. Oct 1966: ADPC staff moves to Offshore | Contract Templates, Casa Hispanica at Format School | Resume Format Maker, 612 West 116th Street (around the corner from Chock Full O' Nuts and a couple doors west of Campus Deli), sharing the Template For Schedule. Planetariums small building with the Resume Format For High School Student | Resume Department of Spanish and Portuguese  and the IBM teaching facility . Meet Vivianne Lapointe: And Editor-In-Chief! Staff from the Resume Student academic Computer Center also begin to move into this tiny building. Soon it is Contracts | Contract Templates, crammed beyond capacity and offices spill over into neighboring apartment buildings (520 W 114th Street plus a long-gone building on West 117th Street, itself (the street) also just a memory). 1967: Dr. Resume For High Student And Resume Maker! Seymour H. Koenig (PHOTO), who received his Ph.D. in Physics from Columbia in 1952 (and his BS in 1949) and joined Watson Lab the same year, is appointed its Director . By this time Watson laboratory has RJE access to the big IBM 360s in And Editor-In-Chief Of Live, Yorktown, but when then the link is down they use the CUCCA facilities . 1967: Library automation begins about here. I remember some form of automation starting in the 1966-68 timeframe when I was a student assistant in Butler -- there was already a Library Systems Office on the Mezzanine then; I used to schlepp decks of cards and listings back and forth to the Computer Center for them.
By 1967, circulation was already computerized in Central Circulation and Resume Format School Format And Resume Burgess-Carpenter (where I worked at the time), and a collaboration was underway with Stanford and the University of Sample Buy Sell, Chicago regarding cataloging and acquisitions ; perhaps this was the origin of RLIN. CLICK HERE for more about Format Format And Resume library automation. AND HERE. Mar 1967: In response to IBM's May 1965 proposal, and after lining up sources of funding for it, the | Contract Computer Center announces its plan to upgrade and modernize its equipment and to unify academic and administrative computing in a Computer Center Newsletter article written by Resume Format For High School | Resume And Resume Maker (of all people) President Grayson Kirk [V2#2-3]. In the first stage , October 1967, an IBM 360/50 was rented [19, 20, 24], to allow the 7090-to-360 conversion to begin. Aug 1967: Second stage: An IBM 360/75 was purchased and Of Live linked to the 360/50. In the ensuing months, staff learned OS/360, JCL, and some new programming languages like PL/I and SNOBOL, as well as new versions of old ones like WATFOR (the University of Resume Format Student Format And Resume Maker, Waterloo version of Fortran), and Of Objectives | Resume Web then quickly began to modify the operating system for purposes of Resume For High School Format And Resume, accounting and Examples Of Objectives On Resumes Format Web resource limitation, and also to add support for IBM 2741 and For High And Resume Maker other terminals that were not supported yet and then to create a conversational monitor called CLEO to allow job submission and retrieval from terminals .
Aug 1967: The US government mandates a chargeback scheme for Medical In Japanese Stock | Istock computer time, launching the Computer Center on a neverending series of increasingly baroque charging schemes involving hard currency and funny money. The first such scheme was a simple $150 per hour of Resume Format School Student And Resume, CPU time (which, in | Contract Templates, those days, was the same thing as elapsed time), with some grandfathering of existing unsupported projects (Letter of Warren Goodell, 1 Aug 1967, AcIS archives). 1967-68 The Columbia University Bulletin Watson Laboratory lists the courses taught by Watson Lab scientists who have Columbia faculty appointments, including Philip Aisen, Frank Beckman, Thomas Fabry, Richard Garwin, Martin Gutzwiller, Seymour Koenig, Andrew Kotchoubey, Meir Lehman, John Lentz, Allen Lurio, Thomas Moss, Ralph Palmer, Peter Price, Alred Redfield, Pat Sterbenz, and For High School Student Hilleth Thomas. Vivianne Lapointe: And Editor-In-Chief! After the Computer Center opened in Format For High Student | Resume, 1963, Watson Lab is no longer the Template For Schedule. Weekly Schedule focus of Resume Format For High School Student | Resume And Resume Maker, computing; its course offerings concentrate on biology, mathematics, and | Contract physics, but several computing courses are still listed, including EE E6827x-E6828y Digial Computer Design (Prof. Lehmann), Math G4401x-4402y Numerical Analysis and Digital Computers (Prof. Sterbenz; I took this one several years later), Math G4413x The Use of Resume Format For High School | Resume And Resume, High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Computation (Dr. Buy Sell Buy Sell! Kotchoubey), Math G4414y Introduction to Automata Theory and Resume For High Student Format And Resume Maker Formal Languages (Prof. Template Schedule Template Aplg Planetariums! Rickman), and Math G6428y Numerical Solutions of Differential Equations (Prof.
Thomas). 1968: The Department of Electrical Engineering becomes the Department of Resume Format School Student | Resume Format, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. This was to be the locus for computer science instruction and research until the establishment of a separate Computer Science Department in 1979. Jan 1968: Raphael Ramirez starts work as an operator in the machine room. CLICK HERE to read his reminiscences of the early days. Feb 1968: The IBM 7040 was removed . CLEO, an interactive terminal monitor developed here, was released and announced .
Apr-May 1968: The Columbia student uprising of 1968 . Computer Center management and Buy Sell Agreement, Sample Buy Sell Agreement Template some of the staff feared the School Maker worst -- invasion, occupation, wreckage -- but nothing happened to Medical Stock Photo 519891659 | Istock, the Computer Center at all. Peter Kaiser, who worked at the Computer Center at the time, recalls, The campus was in an uproar. So was much of America, and the political powers that be were frightened and School Student Format And Resume Maker acting ugly; I have vivid memories of the NYC police lined up ready to (electronic Service) - Ppt, do violence to Format | Resume Format, the students who had occupied the administration building, which they eventually did by invading the building and beating up everyone in sight. Before the police stormed the building, though, the computer center's administration feared that the center itself would be occupied, so there were worried talks about what to do if that ever happened. Of Objectives | Resume Format Web! In the Maker event it didn't happen, but the uproar delayed the delivery of the The Elegant Examples On Resumes Format Web 360.
Jessica Gordon (the acting Director) reports spending two (not consecutive) nights sleeping (to the extent possible) at Resume For High Student | Resume Format And Resume, the Center when we were warned of major events. One day I was standing on Contracts | Contract Templates, College Walk with a group of others [including Raphael Ramirez] watching the special Tactical Police [Force]. jack-booted thugs, marching onto campus. As they passed, one of them turned to us and said 'Hi there, sports fans!'. As a participant, I have no recollection of the Computer Center ever being considered as a target for occupation or attack, nor does the Resume For High School And Resume Computer Center's Annual report for 1967-68 make any mention of it . However, there might have been a picket line afterwards, since picket lines went up in For Schedule. Weekly Aplg Planetariums, front of Resume For High | Resume Format And Resume, most academic buildings. Jul 1968: ADPC joins the Computer Center with its new director (yet to be chosen after York Wong resigned to Certificate | Istock, resume his studies, but who would be Jon Turner) reporting to Ken King. Now there is One Computer Center. For High | Resume And Resume Maker! Conversion of ADP applications from IBM 1401/1410 to IBM 360 architecture begins; this would take until 1973 . Legend has it, however, that some 1401 applications were left intact and executed on Buy Sell Sample Buy Sell Agreement, subsequent IBM 360-series mainframes by running a 1401 emulator under a 7090 emulator. Warren Goodell's 14 June 1968 letter announcing the change stresses that even more important than the consolidation of all applications on the new equipment is the prospect of increased freedom for Format Student | Resume Format Maker interchange of ideas and techniques of programming and systems analysis between staffs now separated by Vivianne Lapointe: Founder Of Live Fast artifical organization boundaries (AcIS archive).
Sep 1968: The student (UI) consultant program is established (UI = Unsupported Instructional, the accounting class used for instruction). Resume For High Student Format And Resume! This program is still active today. Students with knowledge of Columbia's computer systems and applications are hired part-time to help users in the public areas. Medical Certificate Stock | Istock! Previously, all help and consulting were provided by full-time professional staff on a rotating basis. Afterwards, full-timers continued to Resume School Student Format And Resume Maker, take their turns, but now could devote more time to systems and applications development and Examples | Resume Format Web support. For more about the Resume For High | Resume And Resume Maker origins of the student consulting system, READ THIS. Dec 1968: The IBM 7094, 1401, and Weekly Schedule Template Aplg 360/50 are removed. The 1401 is moved to the Controller's Office . IBM 360 equipment at the end of 1968 consisted of : Model 75 CPU 2075 with 2.5 million bytes of memory.
Two processor storage units 2365 (512K total) Selector Channel 2860-II Drum storage control 2820 Drum storage unit 2301 (fixed-head cylindrical disk for swapping) Direct-access storage facility 2314 with 2844 2-channel control unit Two storage control units 2841 Data cell drive 2321 Eight disk storage drives 2311 Multiplexor channel 2780 Console typewriter 1052-7 Two card reader/printer controls 2821 Four printers 1403 with 1416 print train Two card reader/punches 2540 Two typewriter terminals 2740 Forty typewriter terminals 2741 Two communications adapters 2701 Display control 2848-I Ten display stations 2260-2 Two tape control units 2803 Two magnetic tape units 2402-2 (4 drives) Magnetic tape unit 2402-5 (2 drives) Two magnetic tape tape units 2402-6 (4 drives) On-Line CRT display Stromberg-Datagraphics 4060. With the exception of the last item, all model numbers are IBM. Dec 1968: One of the last gasps of the 7090/7094 system was an early example of computer-generated film by Format Student a participant in the 1968 student uprising, Denys George Irving . Here (for as long as the link lasts) is his film “69”, and here is a list of other works of Lapointe: Fast, his. Mar 1969: The IBM 360/91 supercomputer (PHOTOS), one of the first third generation computers and the biggest, fastest (and probably most expensive) computer on earth at the time, is For High Student Format Maker, installed and coupled with the 360/75 . Thus for the second time in Template Weekly Schedule Aplg, 15 years, Columbia is School | Resume And Resume Maker, home to the world's fastest computer. Only fifteen 360/91s were made and four of them were retained by IBM for The Elegant Examples Format their internal use (other 360/9x sites included Princeton University and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on West 112th Street, just a few blocks away); the giant computer took every inch of space in the Computer Center machine room. extensive renovations had to made to accommodate its sprawling dimensions  (this is an Resume School Format And Resume, understatement; in fact the Offshore Computer Center entrance had to Resume School Format Maker, be demolished just to Medical Stock Photo | Istock, get it in the door and Resume For High Student most interior walls removed to make space for it [V2#6]).
IBM 360/91 with 2 million bytes of core memory; 60nsec machine cycle, 780nsec memory cycle, 120nsec effective memory access rate, and an instruction cache (pipeline). An additional drum. Fast! All of the peripherals and equipment listed above for the 360/75. Two full-time IBM technicians on site (Hans und Fritz?) The 360/75 became the Attached Support Processor (ASP) for the 91, essentially a job scheduler and input/output controller, freeing the 91 for intensive computation. I don't have a photo of our own Model 75, but HERE is one from For High School Student | Resume Format Maker IBM. Rather than rent the coupled 360/75/91 system as IBM proposed, the University purchased it outright for seven million dollars , to be amortized over seven or eight years (whether seven or eight was a point of Residency Service) Download, much contention, as it affected the chargeback rates levied upon research grants; in Resume School Format, fact it was in operation for more than eleven years; thus the decision to purchase saved about The Elegant Format Web fifteen million dollars). Of the total cost, three million dollars was for the 360/91 CPU, memory, and second drum; this was only School And Resume, half the list price due to the educational allowance that was negotiated. The rest was for the 360/75 and its peripherals. My own (perhaps inflated) recollection is that the 360/91 covered about an acre of Weekly Schedule Template Aplg, floor space, most of which was devoted to full-size cabinets each containing 16K of Resume Format For High School Student Format And Resume Maker, core memory, for a total of Eras Application Download, 2MB at about 8 square feet of floorspace (and about 48 cubic feet) per 16K, plus surrounding floorspace for Resume Format For High | Resume And Resume Maker access, times 300. Each memory cabinet had a glass door so you could look in and see each bit.
All the Template Weekly Schedule Template Planetariums disks, tapes, printers, Teletypes and everything else were in there too, plus a vast tape library and specialized test equipment such as the BOM (Byte Oriented Memory) tester. All this was powered through a gigantic cast-iron motor generator weighing who-knows-how-many tons (just the flywheel probably weighed a ton) putting out 400-some Volts 3-phase power, and Format For High | Resume Maker cooled by distilled water trucked in And Editor-In-Chief Of Live Fast, by Deer Park in big glass bottles in wooden crates. There was a control room in the basement full of Resume School Format Maker, pipes, valves, gauges, pumps, and water jugs and Agreement, Template a mammoth cooling tower upstairs, venting half a million BTUs per hour into the atmosphere (Alan Rice, a physics PhD student who was also a night-shift operator, recalls an incident in Format School | Resume Format, which a heat alarm summoned the fire department, who were ready to chop the machine up with axes until he talked them out of it) . But the most impressive feature of the 360/91 was its control panel (PHOTO). The operators used to turn off the Contracts room lights and stare it at all night, waiting for the yellow loop mode light came on (executing a loop in the pipeline without accessing core memory); this was the sign of a well-crafted program. (For more about loop mode, READ THIS). There was an ongoing bubble chamber experiment in the machine room, which began in the 7094 days. Resume Format School Maker! Stereo photographs of Agreement, Buy Sell Agreement Template, bubble chamber events were digitized using the High-Energy Particle Detector (HPD) Flying Spot Scanner (HPD might also stand for Hough-Powell Device), channel-attached to Format School | Resume Format, the 360/91, as was a very large IBM 2250 video display with light pen (this terminal alone was said to The Elegant Of Objectives On Resumes | Resume Format Web, have cost $100,000), to For High And Resume Maker, allow scientists to Lapointe: Of Live, interactively select interesting events for analysis. This kind of work required physicists to take the computer standalone for School Format And Resume Maker hours at Meet Vivianne Founder And Editor-In-Chief Of Live, a time, which became problematic in later years when it was in demand by the general academic and administrative computing population around the clock, and Format School Student Format Maker eventually the experiment was discontinued: the science for which the computer was originally acquired, and Eras Service) which provided much of the Student | Resume funding for it, was squeezed out by the mundane requirements of instruction and administration. The Stromberg-Carlson on-line CRT display (NEED PHOTO) was in fact a kind of graphics plotter, about the Medical In Japanese Stock Photo 519891659 size of a panel truck, originally in the machine room but later parked outside in the hallway where it couldn't hurt the other machines. Student | Resume Format And Resume Maker! Users created graphics images on the mainframe using a package called IGS, wrote them to 7-track magtape, and had the Offshore operators feed the magtape to the plotter. The images were projected on a screen inside the box; a 35mm camera -- no kidding -- would take a picture of the screen, and then somehow disgorge its film, which would be developed in chemical baths, washed, and mounted as a slide that would eventually pop out Format School Student | Resume Format, of the little output slot if all went well, which rarely was the Meet Vivianne Lapointe: Founder Of Live case -- more often the machine leaked acid and/or caught fire.
Later it was replaced by a Gould 5100 electrostatic flatbed plotter that could produce 100dpi monochrome plots up to about 3 feet wide on pungent white paper. Format School Student! Various plotting packages (including one that Howard Eskin and I wrote that fitted lines, curves, and splines to data points) were available for Template Aplg Planetariums it on the mainframe only. Apr 1969: The Columbia Computer Center develops, funds, and conducts a 6-month training course in computer skills for 23 students from the local Black and Latino communities: key punching and COBOL programming, with highly successful (96%) post-graduation job placement and followup. (V4#20). 1 Oct 1969: The first ARPANET transmission took place between the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) and | Resume Format Maker Stanford Research Institute (SRI). Shortly thereafter connections were made to the University of California at Santa Barbara and Medical Stock Photo 519891659 | Istock the University of Utah. The ARPANET expanded to thirteen sites by January 1971, 23 sites by April 1972, and eventually grew into today's wordlwide Internet. Resume Format For High School Student Format! Membership was limited to US Department of Defense research grantees until the early 1980s, at The Elegant Examples Of Objectives On Resumes | Resume Web, which time Columbia University would join. Dec 1969: The IBM 1130 at Lamont Geological (now Earth) Observatory in Palisades NY is connected to School Student | Resume Format, the Computer Center's IBM 360/91 by Contracts Templates leased line for remote job entry (see Glossary), partially replacing the Resume previous messenger service.
This was a first in long-haul networking at Columbia University (V4#23). (Peter Kaiser reports that Columbia Teachers College also had an IBM 1130, and Certificate Stock Photo it was connected as an RJE station in the same way prior to 1969, but since TC is just across 120th Street, it's not exactly long haul networking.) 1970: Read an excellent summary of the state of Resume Format For High Student | Resume Format And Resume Maker, data communications in 1970: The IBM Data Communications Primer (PDF). Sep 1970: The IBM Watson Research Laboratory at Columbia University closes after 25 years of operation and Template Aplg a remarkable record of discovery and achievement. The idea of corporate-sponsored multidisciplinary pure research pioneered here had proven so successful that IBM built a new and Resume For High Maker much larger facility in 1961 in Yorktown Heights, NY, with others soon to follow in San José, Zürich, and elsewhere, but its research headquarters remained at Columbia, IBM's first research laboratory, until 1970. The IBM T.J. Vivianne Founder And Editor-In-Chief Of Live! Watson Research Center founded here in 1945 now spans four major facilities at three sites. The Columbia Computer Center offices and the Columbia Purchasing Department move to the Watson Lab building on For High School Student And Resume, 612 West 115th Street. Agreement, Buy Sell! The IBM-Columbia relationship continues for Format For High School | Resume Format Maker some time afterward mainly in the form of faculty appointments (in 1976 I took a graduate-level numerical analysis course in the Engineering School from one such professor, Pat Sterbenz, author of the book Floating-Point Computation ). IBM left behind a machine room with raised floor (back of 7th floor, where they had their 1620), a fully equipped classroom (back of 1), and lots of Template, furniture including my 1940s-vintage Steelcase desk with metal Physics Dept ID plate attached (dating from World War II when IBM moved into Pupin). During its residence at Columbia University, IBM Watson Laboratory staff had been granted 67 patents and published 359 articles in recognized scientific journals .
Dorothy Marshall  writes, The third floor [of 612 West 115th Street] was entirely without inner walls and contained large milling machines and other noisy tooling machines, as well as pipes, hoses, and Resume Format School exhaust ducts [but] the staff at Casa Hispanica felt they were extraordinarily crowded [so were glad for the additional space]. Nola Johnson writes in the same issue, I remember when we were packed like sardines in Casa Hispanica. There would be three or four of us in one tiny room, complete with keypunch and fireplace. Until about the Service) Download mid-1970s, CUCC staff submitted jobs from Resume School | Resume Format And Resume Watson (as they had done from Casa Hispanica), and Lapointe: Founder Of Live messengers went back and Format School Student Format And Resume Maker forth delivering decks of Eras Residency Service) Download, cards and rolled-up printouts. In fact, rolled-up printouts still arrived each day from Resume Format For High Format And Resume a daily batch job that was submitted decades ago and ran faithfully until 2004 when the Academic IBM mainframe was retired; nobody knew exactly what the batch job did or how to cancel it.
31 Jan 1971: Professor Wallace Eckert, founder of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, attends the Apollo 14 launch. The lunar orbit calculations upon which the Contracts Templates Apollo missions were based were done by For High School | Resume And Resume Eckert at Watson Laboratory and on the SSEC computer [42,92], designed at Watson Laboratory under Eckert's direction in Meet Vivianne Lapointe: Founder Of Live, the late 1940s, and later improved on the Lab's NORC, IBM 650, and 1620 computers, and still later on the Computer Center's IBM 7094. Eckert died six months later. July 1971 - June 1973 The Columbia Computer Center publishes two annual Project Abstracts, in which every single research, instruction, and administrative project carried out on the IBM 360/91 is listed, as well as publications resulting from these projects. In FY 1971-72 there were 119 publications and in 1972-73, 214 publications are listed. Each abstract is about 250 pages long; the first one was generated by a SNOBOL program and Resume And Resume Maker printed on the 1403 printer; the second one was typeset somehow using programs written by Computer Center technical staff. I would call this the Meet Vivianne Lapointe: Founder And Editor-In-Chief Fast Golden Age of the Computer Center , reflecting an Resume For High Student And Resume, unparalleled degree of collaboration between the faculty and Medical In Japanese 519891659 | Istock the Computer Center and For High Student Maker the accomplishment of Offshore Contracts | Contract Templates, much work that might well have had an impact on the real world medicine, social research, physical sciences, engineering, every field was represented. Format For High School Student | Resume And Resume Maker! Computer Center Technical staff participated in many of these projects, and each project contributed a writeup. The projects themselves are fascinating, about 100 pages of project description in each volume, about 5 projects per page. Aug 3-5, 1971: At the second annual Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) computer chess championship at ACM 71 in Chicago, the Columbia Computer Chess Program (CCCP) came in tied for 3-6 in a field of 8. CCCP was written by (electronic Service) - Ppt Download Columbia student (and now CS faculty member) Steve Bellovin and CUCCA's Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and Andrew Koenig.
For more about the development of Resume For High School Format Maker, CCCP, READ THIS. Aug 1971: Stanford University's Wylbur  is installed on the 360/75, replacing a previous system called CRBE. Wylbur is described as a terminal system with limited interactive capabilities, used as a remote job entry and Meet Vivianne Lapointe: And Editor-In-Chief Of Live on-line text-editing facilities. . Resume Format Student And Resume Maker! Wylbur may be used with an Examples Of Objectives, IBM 2741 typewriter terminal or a Teletype device. At present CUCC's Wylbur does not support IBM 2260 terminals (early video terminals in the 2nd floor Computer Center terminal room); the Jan 1972 Newsletter announces their replacement with a similar CRT device, the Hazeltine 2000 (four of Resume Format | Resume And Resume, them) [V6#7]. The IBM 2741 was a Selectric typewriter embedded in a small-desk-size cabinet crammed with electronics and wires, which communicated at 134.5 bits per second, half duplex (when it was the computer's turn to transmit, it physically locked the Offshore | Contract typewriter keyboard). There was also limited dialup access; in those days this was at Resume Format School | Resume And Resume Maker, 110 to 300 bits per second by acoustically coupled modems. More about Wylbur below. Oct 1971: Ken King resigns as Computer Center Director and moves to CUNY as Dean of Computer Systems. Later he would become president of EDUCOM and Vice Chancellor of Computing at Cornell University. Dr.
Warren F. Goodell, VP for Template Weekly Schedule Template Aplg Administration, Ken's boss, assumes Acting Director position (V6#6), but since he was not on site, Jessica Hellwig (Gordon), who had previously been on the IBM Watson Lab computing staff  had day-to-day responsibility. (Newsletters of the early 70s were devoted mainly to JCL hints and tips, announcements of meetings and conferences, announcements of OS/360 upgrades, explanations of cost accounting, and lists of unclaimed tapes in the tape library -- up to 6 pages of numeric tape IDs on one occasion (in the Earth Week issue no less: V6#5, 15 Apr 1971) -- plus the annual April Fools Issue, usually featuring parodies of cost accounting. Format For High School Student Format Maker! Prior to 1971, they also contained abstracts or reports of research projects, e.g. Motivating Learning in Interracial Situations (V5#2); French Business Elite Study, Jonathan Cole et al; Transport and Fluid Mechanics in Buy Sell Agreement, Sample, Artificial Organs, Ed Leonard et al (V5#13); as well as Computer Science Colloquia.) Dec 1971: Two IBM 2501 self-service card readers (PHOTO) installed in 208 Computer Center. The use of Format School Student | Resume Maker, self-service card readers affords CUCC users much greater security for Template For Schedule. Schedule Template their decks at both the Resume For High School | Resume Format And Resume submission and the retrieval points of running a job. Users will be able to read in their own decks and keep them while the job is running -- thereby eliminating the risk of loss or mishandling of the deck by the Center. Medical! Also, since input decks no longer need be left in the output bins, the exposure of users' JOB cards -- and therefore their project numbers -- to | Resume And Resume, anauthorized persons [some things never change] will be significantly reduced. In addition to this increased security, the 2501's will also provide greater efficiency since the user will be able to discover and correct immediately such problems as off-punched cards [hanging and pregnant chad were evidently not an issue in 1971] , rather than having to wait for the job to be processed by the Center. Meet And Editor-In-Chief Of Live Fast! (V6#19) Also on the second floor was an IBM 360 Model 20 used for printing card decks onto fanfold paper, duplicating card decks, and so on; the desired function could be selected with a dial.
There was (and had been for some time) a key punch room on the first floor. Later the Model 20 was moved to the key punch room. Apr 1972: TPMON installed, allows terminal lines to be switched among different applications such as Wylbur ( and Format For High | Resume Format And Resume what else? ) rather than dedicated to a specific one. Sep 1972: IBM OS/360 21.0 installed (V6#33). 1973: The following was posted by Arthur T. Murray on alt.folklore.computers , 22 May 2003: There is a tenuous etiological link between Columbia and the founding of Microsoft Corporation . Here in Seattle WA USA, a Columbia Ph.D. grad in Lapointe: Founder Fast, astronomy, Dr. Student | Resume! James R. Naiden -- now in Medical Certificate In Japanese Photo 519891659, his late eighties -- around 1973 was teaching Latin at Format For High | Resume Format And Resume Maker, The Lakeside School. 'Doc' Naiden observed that the Meet Founder And Editor-In-Chief Of Live students were eager to Resume For High School Student Format And Resume, get into computers, so he asked (Naiden was always starting things, e.g., he hired Vilem Sokol to run the Medical Certificate In Japanese 519891659 Seattle Youth Symphony for many years; he also started a history-of-literature or some such group, still allegedly running at the University of Resume Format School Student | Resume Format Maker, Washington) the Lakeside Mothers Club to Photo 519891659, donate some money from their annual Lakeside Rummage Sale to buying some computer time-share for the kids -- back then there were no personal computers. The Mothers put up one thousand dollars, which Bill Gates and Paul Allen ran through in a matter of weeks. Resume School Student | Resume Format Maker! Upshot: Columbia Doc Naiden Lakeside School Microsoft Corp. Jan 1973: V6#46 mentions twenty-five IBM 2741 terminals being replaced by (presumably compatible) Anderson-Jacobson 841 terminals, which were cheaper to rent ($88 versus $100 per Template For Schedule. Weekly Planetariums, month). Feb 1973: The Self-Service Input/Output (SSIO) Area (PHOTO GALLERY) is opened on Resume For High, the first floor of the Computer Center building. Offshore Contracts | Contract! Equipment included two card readers, two IBM 1403 printers, one online card punch (NEED PHOTO), a sorter, a collator, an interpreter, a duplicator, four Hazeltine 2000 user terminals, and one job inquiry console -- all self service -- plus a large number of IBM 029 key punches, and a resident Insultant whom I remember well from my student days.
The IBM 360 Model 20 was retired, replaced by a UNIVAC 1710 Interpreting Keypunch (V6#49, 21 Feb 1973). Format For High School And Resume Maker! Now, for the first time, users could not only submit their own jobs but also get the results themselves as soon as the Buy Sell Buy Sell Agreement job had run. Sometimes, standing in School | Resume Format Maker, line at the card readers, were social scientists with data sets spanning 4 or 5 boxes of cards (2000 cards per Template Weekly Planetariums, box); submitting jobs of this size rarely proceeded without incident (jams, dropped decks). The normal student Open Batch job deck was a quarter inch thick and generally went through the Resume For High Student | Resume And Resume system quickly. A Hazeltine 2000 ASP Job Inquiry station let you watch your job rise through the queue so you could elbow your way through the crowd to Template Weekly Aplg Planetariums, the printer when your job output started. Every night from 7 to 9pm was System Time, meaning the Systems Group from Resume For High School And Resume Watson Lab had the 360/91 to themselves and Meet Lapointe: Founder Of Live the readers and Resume For High School Student | Resume Format And Resume printers were shut down. The SSIO area was a miserable place during those two hours. More about SSIO HERE. More about self-service computing just below in the entry for Sep 1973. Meet Vivianne Lapointe: Of Live! 22 May 1973: Birth of School Student, Ethernet (a local area networking technology that would reach Columbia in the early 1980s and persist for decades), developed by Bob Metcalfe of Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), which also gave us the graphical user interface and desktop metaphor.
May 1973: Resignation of On Resumes | Resume, Joe Gianotti (Assistant Director), Ira Fuchs (systems programmer, who would go on to direct the School And Resume CUNY facility and to found BITNET, become President of CREN, etc.), Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and other members of the Systems group, to Examples Format Web, join Ken King at CUNY, which was acquiring brand-new then-leading-edge IBM 370/168 hardware (V6#54). Soon more would follow. May 1973: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist is appointed the new Director of the Columbia University Computer Center (he would assume full-time duties in July). He also receives an Resume For High | Resume Format, appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. Bruce was a co-inventor of the fast adder while at the Princeton Institute of Advanced Study (1955), then Director of Computing at Template For Schedule. Weekly Schedule Planetariums, the University of Syracuse (mid-to-late 1950s), joined IBM in 1959 and Resume School | Resume Format Maker became manager of IBM's Service Bureau and Data Processing divisions (1963-68). While at IBM Bruce was Secretary and then Vice President of the Association for Computing Machinery, ACM (1960-64), and afterwards was President and The Elegant Of Objectives On Resumes Format Web Executive Director of the Resume School Student Format American Federation of Information Processing Societies, AFIPS (1968-73). His final project at Columbia was the installation of the Medical Certificate Photo 519891659 | Istock $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just the School Student And Resume Maker University's first digital telephone system, but also the way that almost every single room (inclusing in dormitories) on the Morningside campus got high-speed data access. Sep 1973: Bruce introduced the Open Batch system (V6#60), opening up The Computer to the masses for the first time, and renamed CUCC (Columbia University Computer Center) to CUCCA (Columbia University Center for Computing Activities), in recognition that computing was beginning to take place outside the Medical In Japanese 519891659 machine room. SSIO soon became unbelievably crowded.
1974: Snapshot: When I came to the CUCCA Systems Group in 1974, Dr. Howard Eskin was manager of Systems (197?-1984), with joint appointment to the EE/CS faculty, where he taught the Data Structures and Compiler courses. The big languages for For High Student | Resume Maker systems programming then were 360 assembler, APL, PL/I and Template For Schedule. Weekly Template Aplg SPITBOL (a SNOBOL dialect). CUCCA included both academic and administrative computing under a single director, all in the Watson building at 612 W 115th Street. Administrative computing (ADP) shared floors 2-5 with the Purchasing Office, the Director's office and administrative staff on 6, academic on 7-8. Offices had chalkboards for Student And Resume Maker scribbling ideas and diagrams. People used Hazeltine terminals at 1200 bps, connected to a multiplexer in the back of 7 that was connected by For Schedule. Weekly Template Planetariums leased telephone line to the 3705 in the machine room, and that always conked out on rainy days.
There was no e-mail. Resume Format School Student | Resume Format And Resume! The Penthouse was a kind of cafeteria, with tables and chairs (I remember checkered tablecloths and gingham curtains) and a working, if rarely-used, kitchen. For Schedule. Weekly Schedule Template Planetariums! The back of the Resume Format School Student Maker first floor was a large classroom (now divided into the network and mail rooms); across from the elevator was a big Xerox copying room (Joe Iglesias), and there was a grand lobby and reception area, approximately where the art gallery is now, plus some administrative offices (Helen Ransower). There was a shower in The Elegant On Resumes | Resume, the basement (later converted to a darkroom by Andy Koenig, and later to a weight-lifting room by Lloyd, the messenger/front-desk guy, an Olympic hopeful). The Penthouse later became a ping-pong room (for Vace), then AIS offices, later it was divided between the Kermit machine/production room and Resume Format For High Format Maker a sometimes-office sometimes-conference-room, and finally all offices. | Contract! The back of the 7th floor was an IBM machine room dating from the 1950s, complete with raised floor, space phone floor-tile pullers, and communication cables radiating out to For High School And Resume, all the offices. The famous 1957 book about Template IBM, Think , speaks of teak paneling and cozy fireplaces, but those were in the first Watson Lab, not this one. In those days, the Computer Center had a certain academic standing not only through faculty appointments, but also for its RD activities and library. The non-circulating research library (not to be confused with the Thomas J Watson Library of the Business School) in room 209 of the Computer Center Building was a full-fledged branch of the Columbia Library, complete with card catalog and librarian (the original librarians were Julia Jann and Hugh Seidman; Nuala Hallinan  was librarian from 1966 to 1973, succeeded by Evelyn Gorham). The holdings, cataloged in Butler Library, included computer science books and journals as well as computer manuals and | Resume And Resume Maker Computer Center handouts . New acquisitions continued until at least 1973.
Eventually (about 1980) the collection was transferred to the Engineering Library. Several technical staff members performed pure RD , for example Richard Siegler who worked half-time on an AI medical diagnosis assistant in Medical Certificate Stock Photo | Istock, SPITBOL with Dr. For High School | Resume! Rifkin at the Medical Center. An annual catalog, the Columbia University Bulletin, Computing Activities  was published, as well as a Technical Abstract of Eras Application Download, each year's research projects. CUCCA was co-sponsor (with EE/CS) of the University Colloquium in School And Resume, Computer Science . There was an alliance with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on 112th Street, which had one of the four existing IBM 360/95s. The academic user community was quite small. There were weekly user meetings where everybody could fit into one room; sometimes they were held in the Watson Penthouse. 1974-78: Heyday of Residency Application Service) Download, Wylbur , and the age of the Hazeltine 2000 video terminal mainly on Olympus (aside from four Hazeltines available to users in 208 Computer Center: V6#22). Wylbur was an interactive linemode editor that could be used from a hardcopy or video terminal. It was far more than an editor, however; it was the Resume Format School And Resume Maker equivalent of the latter-day shell; users lived in Wylbur all day, writing Wylbur execs (like shell scripts), programs, and JCL; submitting jobs, querying jobs, sending screen messages (but not e-mail) to each other, and (electronic Application - Ppt Download so on.
Wylbur originally came from Format School Student Format Maker Stanford but was improved beyond recognition by Dave Marcus and later Vace Kundakci, who also converted it to - Ppt, TSO and later to VM/CMS. It's still used today on Format | Resume Format And Resume, our IBM mainframes, but unfortunately we could never export it due to licensing issues. Eventually Wylbur terminals -- hardwired to the 3705 -- were available to departments; sometimes these were video terminals, sometimes IBM 2741 (IBM hardcopy terminals made from Selectric typewriters). When developing software on the mainframe, writing in assembler, Fortran, PL/I, etc (compiled, not interpreted, languages), programs would often dump core because of faulty instructions (bugs, mistakes). In those days, a core dump meant a literal dump of literal core memory to the printer, in hex, sometimes several feet thick. To find the fault, programmers would have to decode the core dump from the Certificate In Japanese Photo listing by hand, separating instructions, addresses, and data -- a lost art (and good riddance!) When the DEC-20s arrived on the scene, it became possible to analyze and | Resume Format And Resume debug core images (and even running programs) interactively and Examples On Resumes Web symbolically with a tool called (what else) DDT, and Format Format And Resume Maker debugging tasks that once took days or weeks became quick and Contracts | Contract Templates even fun. DDT-like tools live on today in Resume School Format And Resume, Unix as 'adb' and 'gdb'. May 1974: Snapshot: Wylbur has 500 users. CALL/360 has 50-100 users.
There are 2000 batch users. 50% of 519891659, each programmer's time is spent helping users. ADP submits 10% of the batch jobs but uses 50% of the machine. Resume Format Student Format! Because of Service), their EAM backgrounds, the Registrar's and Controller's Offices consider the Resume Format For High Student Format And Resume 360/91 a large sorter. 90% of Contracts Templates, billing is for funny money. Technical staff turnover is too high, talented people can not be retained.  1974-75: First proof of School | Resume Format And Resume, concept home computers introduced (Mark-8, Altair). 1975: IBM 3705 communications front end replaced by an NCR COMTEN (which lasted until August 1998), after a two-week training course in Template Template Planetariums, the Watson Lab classroom in the back of the 1st floor. Jul 1975: A DEC PDP-11/50 minicomputer (PHOTOS) was installed, running the RSTS/E timesharing system (we considered UNIX, but it was not nearly ready for large-scale production use in a hostile environment). Format For High | Resume Format And Resume! This was the Medical In Japanese Stock | Istock first true general-purpose public-access timesharing system (not counting APL and CALL/OS (aka CALL/360), which were both OS/360 subsystems (essentially batch jobs, each of which controlled a number of terminals simultaneously); the latter was only for the Business School and APL, though open to the public, required special terminals which were not to be found in Resume Format School Student | Resume Format, abundance, and was not exactly user friendly).
RSTS/E was to be a small pilot project to absorb the CALL/OS users and Residency Application Service) - Ppt attract new ones. 32 people could use it at a time (because it had 32 terminals). Accounts were free. Within a few months of installation, it was already logging nearly ten times the usage that CALL/OS had at Resume | Resume And Resume, its peak . (From Bandit, 6 July 2010) CALL/360 was written for Buck Rogers of IBM by Contracts | Contract seven guys who had worked together at GE in Phoenix, then moved to the San Jose Bay Area.
They wrote CALL/360 for Resume For High Format a fixed-price, 10 month contract. Template Weekly Template! I cannot remember everybody, but included Sherbie Gangwere (my father), Charlie Winter, Jim Bell, George Fraine, Don Fry, Dick Hoelnle (sp?) and . (The last one, I think, is the only one that made it big - he wrote a core network system that got sold off.) Also - Jerry Wienberg, now a famous author, was probably shipped along with the IBM 704. He was sent with the first 10 machines, and taught many how to Resume For High School Student | Resume And Resume, program it. The primary programming language (like in CALL/OS) was BASIC (another reason why RSTS was chosen over Medical In Japanese 519891659 | Istock UNIX, which didn't have BASIC), but Fortran and Macro-11 were also available. Resume School Student | Resume Format And Resume Maker! As I recall, the PDP-11/50 cost about $150,000. It occupied a fairly large room (208) in the Computer Center down the hall from the IBM machine room, and was comprised of four full-width cabinets (CPU, tape drive, communications, I forget what else) and a 92MB RP04 3330-type disk drive, plus a 2K fixed-head drive for swapping (RS04?). I took care of it myself (backups and all) for maybe a year, then Ben Beecher joined me and later also some part-timers. Ben and The Elegant Examples Of Objectives On Resumes | Resume Format I sat in the room with it full-time for a couple years. Our terminals were DECwriters (later VT05, VT50, VT52, and For High finally VT100, and at one point a GE Terminet, that worked and Buy Sell Agreement sounded like a bandsaw). But even without the For High School Format And Resume Maker Terminet, the room was so loud we had to wear airport ear-protectors.
Ben was RSTS manager after the DEC-20s came in 1977. Eventually RSTS had a user population of 1700. It was retired in 1982. Jul 1975: The IBM 1410 in the Controller's Office is replaced by an IBM 370/115 . Mid 1970s: Here begins the Medical 519891659 decline of centralized campus computing. Minicomputers begin to sprout in the departments, encouraged by government grants that would buy equipment but wouldn't pay for central computer time. (The same trend was evident at other universities; it created the need for campus networking, and thus -- since a way was needed to interconnect all these campus networks -- the Internet.) Some of the Resume Format School Student | Resume And Resume early departmental minis I remember were the SEL 810B, Applied Physics also had an Imlac graphics processor (which never worked) and several early PDP-8 models for controlling experiments. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, I worked in Applied Physics and Eras (electronic Residency - Ppt Download used the departmental computers for both work and Format For High School And Resume EE/CS projects.
The SEL (Systems Engineering Laboratories, later Gould) 810B (1968) was the most advanced, since it had i/o devices and Schedule Template Planetariums could be programmed in Fortran and Resume Format School Format And Resume Maker assembly language. Offshore Contracts | Contract Templates! It had 16K of memory, 2 registers, Teletype, paper tape, card reader, drum printer, and Format For High Student Maker an oscilloscope-like CRT display for graphics; CLICK HERE to see a picture of the SEL 810A, which is like the Service) - Ppt 810B but without extra i/o devices. However, its hard disk was not generally used for storing programs or data due to lack of space. Instead, programs were read from Format For High Student cards or paper tape; this required toggling in a bootstrap program on the console switches: a series of 16-bit words was deposited in successive memory locations and then executed to activate the Teletype as the The Elegant Examples Web control device, which could be used in turn to activate the Resume Format Maker card or paper tape reader to read the Offshore Contracts | Contract Templates program. Resume For High Student | Resume Maker! Production programs were generally punched in object format onto paper tape (since the Medical In Japanese | Istock paper tape reader/punch was much faster than the card reader). CLICK HERE to see the SEL 810B Manual.
The PDP-8 computers in the same lab had no Teletype, card reader, or paper tape; they were programmed directly from the console switches and i/o was magtape only. The Physics Department in Pupin Hall had a DEC PDP-4, several PDP-8s, a PDP-9, and a PDP-15; Electrical Engineering had a PDP-7 on the 12th floor of Mudd, that we studied down to the gate level in the 1970s EE/CS Computer Architecture course. (The PDP-7 is also the machine for which the UNIX operating was originally written at Bell Labs in the late 1960s.) The keypunch room was on the 2nd floor of Engineering Terrace near the back exit, connected by tunnel to the SSIO area. There were often long waits for punches. For High School And Resume Maker! The 1976 Bulletin  also lists: A DEC PDP-11/45 and GT/40 Graphics Computer in Biology (Schermerhorn). A HP 2100 in Chemical Engineering (Prentis). A DG Nova 1220 and 3 DEC PDP-8s in Chemistry (Havemeyer). A DG Super Nova in EE/CS (Mudd).
plus various special-purpose computers for Fourier transforms, etc, some of them possibly analog (rather than digital) on campus, as well as all sorts of computing equipment at the outlying campuses (no doubt a tale in Agreement, Sample Buy Sell, itself). 1976: Andy Koenig's RSTS e-mail program, the first e-mail at CU. Andy was a prominent member of the CUCCA technical staff (reponsible for at least APL and PL/I) who went on to Bell Labs and | Resume Format And Resume fame with C++. His dad is Offshore Contracts, Dr. Seymour H. Koenig, who was at Watson Lab from 1952 to 1970, and Format For High School And Resume Maker its director from 1967 [9,17]. Template For Schedule. Schedule Planetariums! Andy's frequent co-author is Barbaro Moo, also formerly of CUCCA. (Note: it's possible that email was used earlier in within certain departments, notably those (like Biology) that had Unix-based minicomputers, I don't know, but in any case this was the first email available to the general University population.)
Nowadays most of the University conducts its business by e-mail, and Resume Format For High Format And Resume it has been an The Elegant Of Objectives | Resume Format, enormous productivity booster, eliminating telephone tag, enabling one-to-many messaging, and filling an ever-increasing role in instruction and research. Resume Format For High Student! As early as 1983 (the 9 Feb 1983 Newsletter, V15#2, is full of allusions to this), professors were sending assignments to their classes by e-mail and collecting results the same way, with the added benefit of questions and answers and other discussions that could not fit in the classroom schedule. Readers who were not exposed to Examples Of Objectives On Resumes | Resume, electronic mail prior to the Internet explosion of the mid-1990s probably won't appreciate how much more useful and pleasant it was before then, even in its original text-only format. Today I typically have several hundred messages waiting for me each morning (after central filtering!), of which 98% are spam, advertisements, promotions, junk mail, get-rich-quick schemes, invitations to Exclusive High-Powered Executive Webcasts and Enterprise Leadership Webinars, chain letters, be-my-friend-and-share-photos, inspirational Powerpoints, strategic partnerships, office humor, world class enterprise solutions, body-part enhancements, business best practices, claim your lottery winnings, claim your inheritance, claim your fund, Dear beloved, I am dying, I don't want you to feel sorry for me, Beloved in Resume Format For High School Maker, Christ, Dear beneficiary, Complements of the season, confidential matter, delinquent accounts, cash grant award, designer watches, investment opportunities, work-at-home opportunities, get your diploma, grow your business, increase your profitability, Dear entrepreneur, Take this five-minute survey, offers from soldiers in our many wars who found barrels full of money, I want to place an order with your store, low-interest loans, your account is expired, Viagra, Cialis, lonely hearts, Russian beauties, update your information, bounce notifications about mail you didn't send, and deliberate attempts at implanting viruses (Windows e-mail attachments containing viruses or worms have no effect on my UNIX-based plain-text mail client) -- or security alerts or complaints about Offshore all of these. In the Resume Format For High School | Resume And Resume 1970s and Aplg Planetariums 80s, by Format For High Student | Resume Format And Resume contrast, practically every e-mail message was legitimate, worth reading, and usually only 1-2K bytes in | Contract, length, and could not possibly hurt your computer (not strictly true; it was possible to put an For High | Resume Format And Resume, escape sequence in an email message that, if it arrived intact at certain kinds of terminals, could make them automatically transmit any desired text back to the host, but even if you had a terminal that responded to the escape sequence, this rarely could cause any serious demage because an email client would be on Examples | Resume Format Web, the receiving end, not the system command prompt) . Even when e-mail is exchanged between consenting parties, the demands posed by multimedia attachments -- Microsoft Word documents, Powerpoints, spreadsheets, images, audio and video clips, even entire music CDs or motion pictures -- have coerced the University to constantly upgrade its network and mail server capacity, and Resume Student | Resume And Resume of course the costs are inevitably passed back to the consumer in (electronic Residency Application Service) Download, the form of tuition or overhead increases and/or cutbacks in other areas. 1976: Hot newsletter topics: APL, the Gould plotter, PL/I, SPSS, BMDP, ASP3, Syncsort, Crosstabs with Multipunch. Dec 1976: The Xerox 1200 -- first non-impact printer: a big Xerox machine that printed on plain paper, in portrait or landscape. Plain monospace (Courier) font only; no special effects (other than simulated line-printer-paper stripes).
I don't remember exactly where the input came from -- either it had an IBM mainframe channel connection, or else it read from 9-track magnetic tape, but in any case it was possible to print on it from both the IBM and DEC systems. 1977: (Month?) Because the IBM 360/91 was more suited to scientific calculations and lacked decimal arithmetic, and because of security questions posed by Format Format the Open Batch system, which opened it up to the student population, ADP acquires a separate mainframe exclusively for administrative work, an IBM 370/138 located in the Computer Center machine room and running VM/CMS (later to For Schedule. Planetariums, be upgraded to 370/148, 3031 (1979), 3083 (1983), 3090 (1986), etc). Resume School Student Maker! A new Personnel (now we would say Human Resources) system was developed for the 370 in house, and administrative applications began to migrate from Template Aplg punch cards and Format For High School Format And Resume batch to Medical Certificate In Japanese 519891659, interactive online systems . The arrival of the IBM 370 launches an effort to convert administrative applications from batch to online, with IBM 3270 block-mode terminals allowing interactive access to administrative systems such as student records, accounts receivable, and so on. Jul 1977: The IBM 370/115 in For High Format And Resume Maker, the Controller's Office is removed. I believe this was the last outpost of department-level mainframe administrative computing. Jul 1977: The blackout of 1977 . No electricity for two days (July 13-14). Howard (Eskin) and I were in Watson Lab the evening of the 13th working on the floor plan for Buy Sell Agreement, Sample Buy Sell Agreement the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room when the lights went out.
We were also in the middle of For High Student | Resume Format Maker, our first DEC-20 installation, a six-week process (so two lost days were not a disaster). Aug 1977: Our PDP-11/50 was invaded (via modem) by Schedule Template Aplg Planetariums a gang of prep-school kids, who had their way with it undetected for several weeks. This was the first hacker breakin to School Student Maker, a Columbia computer from the outside, and it went to court. Certificate In Japanese Stock Photo | Istock! It cost us nearly a week of round-the-clock systems work and delayed the DEC-20 opening by a week. Later the same group invaded other RSTS systems and even (as I recall) destroyed a cement company in Quebec. The prep school in question had purchased a PDP-11 with RSTS and let the Resume Student And Resume students run it without supervision; thus the Contracts | Contract students had hands-on access and Resume School | Resume Format full privileges, with ample opportunity to probe their own system for vulnerabilities, write Trojan-horse replacements for system software, etc, in-house before attacking external sites, and indeed they did a good job: their modified LOGIN program let them in silently, with full root privileges; the modified accounting programs did not list their sessions; the modified DIRECTORY program did not list their directories or files; the modified SYSTAT program did not show their jobs, and so on. Eventually they tipped their hand by accidentally printing a password list on | Resume Web, a public printer, and we tracked them down using methods remarkably similar to those used by Cliff Stoll 10 years later to catch the German hackers at Berkeley  (see 1986-87 below), such as Y-connecting hardcopy terminals to the modems to log dialin sessions. Aug 1977: Our first DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A (PHOTOS), was installed for large-scale timesharing.
Accounts were free and available to all (or maybe there was a one-time $5.00 fee; later, per-semester or per-course fees would be added). It cost 800,000 dollars  and was much larger than the PDP-11, a row of double-width orange cabinets about 10 feet long, plus four 178MB RP06 washing-machine-size 3350-type disk drives, but unlike the Format School Student | Resume And Resume Maker PDP-11, had little in the way of lights and switches (if you didn't count the PDP-11/40 communications front end hidden inside it). Service)! It had 256K 36-bit words of For High Student, main memory, two 800/1600bpi TU45 tape drives (later TU77, TU78), an LP20 drum printer (mainly for backup listings), and an LA36 system console hardcopy terminal. It also had a DN20 communications processor (PDP-11/34 concealed in orange full-size cabinet) for Eras (electronic Residency - Ppt remote job entry (see Glossary) to the IBM mainframes. CU20A was originally a model 2040, and so it had core memory and no cache; later it was upgraded to For High And Resume Maker, a 2050 and then a 2065; the core became MOS and cache was added, memory increased to 2MB. Each user got 35KB (that's KB, not MB or GB) of disk space. The first DEC-20 marked the For Schedule. Weekly Template Aplg beginning of the Format For High School Student Format And Resume Maker online campus in Agreement, Buy Sell Agreement, which the computer was used not just for calcalation and programming, but also communication among users and (eventually) with the outside world. The DEC-20 was a member of the DEC's 36-bit PDP-10 line of computers, which descended from the PDP-6, first produced in 1964, and which itself has its roots in the 36-bit IBM 700 series that goes back to 1952. PDP-10s, however, were distinct from 20s: they had a different operating system (TOPS-10 instead of TOPS-20); they came in a variety of models (KA, KI, KL, KS), whereas DEC-20s came in only KL and KS models; PDP-10s were more suited to hands-on lab work, with all sorts of For High School Student, devices and attachments lacking from the -20s such as real-time bus-attached instruments; DECtapes, paper tape, and graphics devices; they could be installed in Buy Sell, multiprocessor configurations; and they were blue rather than orange.
DEC-20s could run TOPS-10 applications in School Student Format And Resume, an emulation mode, but not vice versa, and until the Vivianne Of Live very end, quite a bit of DEC-20 software was indeed native to TOPS-10 (e.g. the linker and most of the compilers). The DEC-20 pioneered all sorts of advanced concepts such as a swappable monitor (kernel), lightweight processes (threads), page mapping, shared pages with copy-on-write, hardware assisted paging, and other techniques to Resume School And Resume Maker, allow large numbers of users access to a limited resource (CLICK HERE for details). Nevertheless, our first DEC-20 was soon loaded far beyond capacity , and the ensuing years were a constant struggle to get funding for more DEC-20s: budget proposals, user meetings (for which, by now, large auditoriums were required), even outdoor campus demonstrations. But DEC-20s were expensive; they demanded copious floor space and air conditioning, as well as 3-phase power with isolated ground (a 10-foot copper stake literally driven into Offshore, bedrock outside the CUCCA loading dock). Resume Format For High School Format And Resume Maker! Annual maintenance alone was something like $100,000 per machine, and each one carried an Eras (electronic Residency Application - Ppt Download, additional $10,000 electric bill. Therefore adding DEC-20s was difficult and painful. There were all sorts of revenue-raising schemes and eventually we had 4 of them, CU20A through CU20D, serving 6000 users, up to 70 or 80 logged in Resume For High School Student And Resume Maker, simultaneously on each. Eras Application! Additional DEC-20s for instruction and research were installed at | Resume Format And Resume Maker, Teachers College and in the Computer Science department. DEC-20s were fairly reliable for their day.
Unlike the Buy Sell Sample Buy Sell Agreement IBM mainframe with its scheduled two-hour nightly System Time, the DEC-20s were kept running and available all the time except for a couple hours (usually outside of prime time) every week or two for preventive maintenance by DEC Field Service. But by today's standards they crashed frequently anyway, usually because of power glitches; so often, in fact that somebody had a batch of %DECSYSTEM-20 NOT RUNNING T-shirts made up (this was the dying gasp of the DEC-20 as it went down). Whenever a DEC-20 was up for more than 100 hours, people became quite excited. The record was just shy of 800 hours (about a month); MTBF was under 100 hours (4 days). By comparison, today (8 Feb 2001) I have an HP workstation in my office that has been up continuously for 883 days (that's more than 21,000 hours), despite numerous brownouts and Resume School Student Format And Resume momentary power failures, and that's without a UPS (eventually its running streak was interrupted at 900-some days when electricians needed to shut off power to the floor to replace the circuit-breaker panel). For lots more about the Columbia DEC-20s, CLICK HERE. (The Gandalf PACX IV terminal switch was installed around here somewhere. Prior to that terminals were hardwired using various forgotten technologies like 20mA Current Loop.
The PACX was a speed-transparent 1000x1000 switch, driven by little blue PACX boxes on the user end, with thumbwheels to Templates, dial the desired service and Resume Student an on/off switch.) 1977-78: Use of e-mail takes off. Also video editing (EMACS, etc), text formatting and typesetting (Pub, Scribe, later T E X). Contracts | Contract! In April 1978, we (Bill Catchings) write a bboard (bulletin board) program, a kind of precursor to | Resume Format Maker, Netnews, Twitter, etc, where everybody on campus could sound off in public. Meet Vivianne Founder Fast! Various bboards were available, including course-specific boards, topical boards, and Maker a general (any topic) board, and were unmoderated and uncensored. CLICK HERE for a study of Columbia's computer bulletin boards in the early 1980s. EMACS, by the way, was created at the MIT AI Lab on a PDP-10 running MIT's Incompatible Timesharing System (ITS) by Richard Stallman, building upon the venerable Text Editor and COrrector, TECO, written in 1962-63 for the DEC PDP-1 by Dan Murphy, who was also largely responsible for TOPS-20, the operating system on our DECSYSTEM-20s. I first used TECO in 1972 on a PDP-11/20 with the DOS/Batch operating, at the Teletype console.
The first release of The Elegant On Resumes | Resume Format, EMACS was in 1976 and we were using it at Resume Format For High | Resume And Resume, Columbia on CU20A by 1977. Columbia's systems group made numerous contributions to EMACS; for example, Chris Ryland added split-screen editing. In the 1980s EMACS would be completely rewritten in LISP, to become the now-universal GNU EMACS, one of the most prominent surviving relics of the heyday of the DEC 36-bit mainframes. Jan 1978: The 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room opens (V10#2). This was the Examples Format Web first public terminal room outside the Computer Center building. The Columbia architects had a field day, decorating it in bilious hot pink like a bordello, with trendy globe lighting. (The April Fools 1978 issue of the Newsletter (V10#5) presents the coveted Louis XVI Alive with the Arts award to | Resume And Resume, the Department of Buildings and Grounds [now Facilities Management] for Sample Agreement their exceptional work in recreating the atmosphere of an Resume Format For High Student Format, 18th century French palace. Fast! . For High Student Maker! Columbia's resident architect was entreated to comment on the bizarre appearance of the new terminal room. ) Notwithstanding the decor, the room was laid out according to our floorplan (Howard Eskin and I designed it), divided into Offshore, cubicles about 4 feet high so people would have privacy when sitting, but could stand up to Resume Format For High And Resume, chat and Certificate Stock hand things back and forth. There was a common area where people could congregate, and a glassed-in machine room containing a DN200 and Resume Format For High School Format a Printronix heavy-duty dot-matrix printer. Each cubicle had a terminal and In Japanese a spacious working surface for books and papers and its own reading light. Large cubicles had LA36 DECwriters (hard-copy 132-column dot-matrix printers operating at Format | Resume And Resume Maker, 30 cps on pin-feed green-and-white striped fanfold paper) and Eras Application Download the smaller ones had Perkin-Elmer Fox-1100 CRTs operating at 9600 bps (this was the first affordable CRT, costing about $500, compared to most others that cost a thousand dollars and up). For High School Format! Each cubicle also had a PACX box to let users select the Template For Schedule. Template Aplg service they wanted to use (DEC-20, RSTS, Wylbur).
Eventually the lab was re-architected, expanded, and School Student Format Maker . . . For Schedule. Aplg! REDECORATED. Too bad if you missed it (does anybody have a color photo of the original?) Mar 1978: APL conversion from IBM to DEC-20 was a big topic for many months. Special terminals (Datamedia APL with APL keyboard, later Concept/APL) had to be installed for APL users. To further encourage IBM to DEC migration, I wrote a mini-Wylbur (Otto) for the DEC-20; Joel and Resume Format School Student | Resume Maker his brother worked on The Elegant Of Objectives Format, a full Wylbur implementation for some time but it's not done yet. Apr 1978: The CUCCA Telephone Directory and Resume Format For High Format Maker Consulting Schedule. Offshore | Contract Templates! As you can see there were 100 full-timers on staff: academic computing, administrative computing, librarians, administrative staff, data communications, machine room operators, and management. Compared to 15 in 1965 and over 300 in 2010. Note too that in Resume Format School | Resume Format And Resume, those days the technical staff helped users in person in three locations (two in SSIO, one in Offshore | Contract, Mudd) and at School Student | Resume And Resume Maker, other times they answered calls from users on their own phones no call processing, no screening, no trouble tickets, no hiding behind web pages, no bureacracy. UI's were students working part-time; anything they couldn't handle would be passed along to full-timers in User Services or Systems. Many of the Template UI's listed on the schedule went on to become full timers and some even managers. (Consulting schedule by Dave Millman, printed on the Diablo daisy-wheel printer.)
1 May 1978: The first spam (junk commercial) e-mail was sent 1 May 1978 1233-EDT from DEC-MARLBORO.ARPA (a DEC-20) to all ARPANET contacts, whose e-mail addresses were harvested from the WHOIS database, advertising new DEC-20 models. Resume School | Resume Format! More about Template For Schedule. Weekly this HERE. May 1978: OS/360 21.8 (which was released by IBM in Format For High Student | Resume Format And Resume, 1970) installed on the IBM 360/91. Eight years in the making! The ex-CUCC systems people who defected to CUNY had to Meet Vivianne Founder Of Live Fast, come back and Resume Format Student | Resume Format Maker teach nightly classes on OS/360 and what they had done to Certificate In Japanese Photo 519891659, it (many things, including over 200 modifications for accounting and resource-limitation purposes) before their replacements could bring up the new release without fear of losing something vital. May 1978: Tektronix 4010 graphics a big topic in the newlsetters.
(Somewhere put the succession of User Services managers: Tom D'Auria, Bob Resnikoff, Bruce Tetelman, Tom Chow, Mark Kennedy, Maurice Matiz, Rob Cartolano, Jeff Eldredge, I know I must be leaving somebody out. ) and Resume Format Format SSIO (Marianne Clarke, Lois Dorman, Chris Gianone, . ) and Systems Assurance (later Data Communications: Rich Nelson, Seung-il Choe, Wolfie, . ) and CUCCA business managers (Peter Bujara, Neil Sachnoff, Patty Peters, Bob Bingham, Julie Lai. ) About User Services, Maurice Matiz adds: User Services existed only Meet Vivianne And Editor-In-Chief Of Live Fast, up to early in my era. | Resume Format! After Vace's appointment and my appointment (I believe the only two managerial and higher level appointments that required a trying and complete interview by the whole University occurred in The Elegant Examples Of Objectives On Resumes Format Web, late 1989) did the groups that now define AcIS get created except that User Services comprised three groups. User Services stayed until Jeff Eldrege's group was spun out of my group, which had grown to over 25 people, in late 1994. (My diagramed proposal is dated 11/28/94.) At that time we changed names. Jeff's group became the Support Center and my group was renamed Academic Technologies. Also spun out at Format Student Maker, the time was what became EDS to report to Walter Bourne. Dec 1978: First mention of UNIX by CUCCA in public (referring to the BSTJ UNIX issue ). V10#18. 1979: The Computer Science Department was created as a separate entity (previously it was part of the EE Dept) with Joseph Traub from CMU as Chair, and a $200,000 donation from IBM. Joe had been a Watson Fellow in Applied Mathematics in 1958-59 . The Computer Science Building was constructed 1981-83 .
Before long a DECSYSTEM-20, several VAX-11/750s, and Buy Sell Buy Sell Agreement Template numerous workstations (early Suns and others) would be installed in And Resume Maker, the new CS facility. Jan 1979: Public terminals were available in SSIO (20), 272A Engineering Terrace (14), Furnald Lobby (4), 224 Butler (4), and Lapointe: And Editor-In-Chief Fast Hartley Lobby (4). V11#2. Systems Assurance staff (Bob Galanos) would make the rounds on a daily basis to fix broken terminals, usually by replacing fuses taken out by students to | Resume And Resume Maker, reserve terminals for their own use. Feb 1979: Scribe, Diablo, printwheel lore dominates the Newsletter. Big business in printwheels.
The Diablo was a typewriter-like terminal with a daisy-wheel print mechanism capable of proportional spacing, superscripts and subscripts, and even boldface (by doublestriking) and italics (by swapping printwheels). The CUCCA newsletter was printed on the Diablo for some years, and Diablos were deployed in public areas for users. Scribe included a Diablo driver, which produced .POD (Prince Of Darkness) files for Contracts | Contract it, and we wrote software to spool these files to the Diablo itself, allowing pauses to change paper or printwheels. Printwheels were available in Format School | Resume Format And Resume, a variety of fonts and alphabets, but weren't cheap ($98 springs to mind). Aug 1979: COMND JSYS package written for Buy Sell Sample Buy Sell SAIL (so we could write user-friendly programs for the DEC-20 in a high-level language). Resume Format | Resume Format And Resume Maker! Andy Lowry and David Millman. Sep 1979: HP2621 industrial-strength video terminals installed in Mudd and Residency Application Service) - Ppt elsewhere, including a new lab in For High | Resume Format And Resume, Carman Hall. This was the face of CUCCA to our users; many of them thought the DEC-20s were made by HP. These are monochrome text terminals with good editing capabilties (for EMACS) and solidly built.
Some had built-in thermal printers. A few units are still to be found here in good working order. 1979-80: Chris Ryland and I write a 200-plus-page guide to DEC-20 assembly-language programming. We were thinking of Eras (electronic Residency Service) - Ppt, turning it into a book but Ralph Gorin of Stanford University beat us to it. 1980: Instructional computing capacity badly needs expansion. Resume Format For High School Maker! At this point, CUCCA has three instructional systems: the IBM 360/91 Open Batch system (soon to Medical Certificate Stock Photo | Istock, be retired), the PDP-11/50 (fully saturated), and a single DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A, which is in constant demand and heavily overburdened. There is much gathering of Resume Format For High Student Maker, statistics to understand usage patterns.
In response to Template Schedule Aplg, student and faculty demands, the Collery Committee (Arnold Collery was Dean of Columbia College) was appointed to make recommendations. The instructional computers were overloaded, but why? Was the new usage real or frivolous? A witch-hunt was launched against text processing (preparing papers on the computer, sending e-mail, etc). Some prominent faculty advocated banning it (this never came to Format Format And Resume, pass; CUCCA opposed it vigorously). CPU and connect-time limits were to be instituted.
Fees were to be increased. Contracts | Contract! Various disincentives would be established against using the computers during prime time. The tug of war between demand and resources is a persistent theme in Format For High Format, academic computing. There has never been, and The Elegant On Resumes | Resume Format Web probably never will be, a clear linkage between demand and supply. Whenever resources (such as computer time, disk space, modems, network bandwidth) become scarce, as they always do, funding for expansion does not flow automatically (nor should it). Resume Format For High School Student Format And Resume! First there is a demand for a precise accounting of how, for what, and by Fast whom the current resources are being consumed, the gathering of which in Resume | Resume And Resume, turn taxes the resources still futher. Once the information is obtained, demands to flush out Contracts, inappropriate use -- whose definition varies with the times (e.g. network capacity versus Napster in 2000) -- quickly follow. Of course instructional computing on the DEC-20s was true to this pattern.
CU20A drove itself near to melting by accounting for itself. And then complicated limits were imposed on CPU time, connect time, and every other imaginable resource (using locally written software) until the interactive computing experience was surpassingly unpleasant for everyone: students, faculty, and Resume Format School And Resume staff alike. Relief was still more than a year away. One of the Certificate 519891659 | Istock measures taken to For High | Resume Format, alleviate the load on CU20A was to abolish the Contracts free perpetual student user IDs and replace them with class-related IDs that lasted only for the duration of each course. While this ensured that the DEC-20 was used only for Resume For High | Resume Maker legitimate purposes, it also made it impossible for Weekly Template Aplg students to build up a corpus of tools and Resume For High Student | Resume information they could use throughout their Columbia experience. A series of Residency Application Download, discussions took place throughout 1980 exploring different possibilites for providing students with some form of self-service, inexpensive, removeable media. Resume For High School | Resume Format And Resume! The result was Kermit . Jan 1980: CUCCA announces its intention to connect to ARPANET, V12#1 (but without any firm prospects of doing so, since in those days the - Ppt only entree was a big Defense Department grant, which we didn't have and Resume For High Format And Resume didn't want). In the meantime, however, staff (but not end-users) had access through our DECnet link to COLUMBIA-20.ARPA , the Offshore Contracts | Contract Computer Science DEC-20 (July 1983), and prior to that by dialup to Resume Format Student | Resume Format Maker, the NYU Elf and guest accounts at Rutgers, Harvard, Stanford, CMU and Templates elsewhere.
The ARPANET was important, among other reaons, because it was how DECsystem-10 and DECSYSTEM-20 software developers could work together (by email) and Resume Student | Resume share code (by FTP), and this was the beginning of the open software movement . Eras (electronic Residency Application Service) Download! It is Resume Format Format And Resume Maker, important to recall that in those days we were paid to develop and share software. Nowadays most open (free) software is created by unpaid volunteers . Feb 1980: DECnet first operational (between CU20A and the DN200 in Mudd). Feb 1980: The DEC-20 MM (Mail Manager) e-mail program becomes popular (V12#2). This is (electronic, a good example of software created by Student | Resume Format And Resume Maker professional staff or graduate students at For Schedule. Weekly Schedule Template Aplg Planetariums, PDP-10 and DEC-20 sites on the ARPANET (Stanford in Resume For High School Student And Resume Maker, this case) and freely shared with other sites. Other examples of the era included the ISPELL spelling checker and corrector (also from Stanford), the EMACS text editor from MIT, the SCRIBE text formatting and typesetting system from Certificate In Japanese Photo 519891659 | Istock CMU (which later became commercial) and TeX from Stanford, the Resume Format For High School Student | Resume Maker Bliss-10 programming language from CMU, the SAIL programming language from Meet Vivianne Lapointe: Founder Stanford, the Resume For High Student Maker PASCAL compiler from Rutgers, the SITGO instructional FORTRAN package from Stevens Institute of Technology, various LISP systems from And Editor-In-Chief Of Live Fast different places, and KERMIT communications software from Columbia.
In fact, each place contributed bits and Resume School | Resume pieces to | Contract, most of Resume For High School | Resume Format And Resume Maker, these packages so most of them were truly cooperative efforts. MM was used almost universally at Columbia for E-mail from 1980 until about 1995, with usage trailing off thereafter as Windows and the Web took over Examples Of Objectives On Resumes | Resume Format Web from text-based computer access. When the DEC-20 line was cancelled, we wrote a new MM program in C for Unix which again, in the sharing spirit, was made available on the ARPANET (later Internet) and adopted by many other sites worldwide as they migrated from TOPS-20 to Unix. MM survives even into the 2010s (details). Jun 1980: We were considering joining TELENET and TYMNET (commercial X.3/X.25 based networks) but never did; it was way too expensive . Format School Student | Resume And Resume! These were strictly terminal-to-host networks, but would have allowed travellers to dial up with a local call from almost anywhere in the USA or Canada, and conceivably could have taken the place of in-house modem pools.
Oct 1980: Second DEC-20 installed, CU20B , for use by Meet funded researchers and Resume For High Student | Resume Format And Resume Maker staff only; to be paid for out of income, since the budget request for a second instructional DEC-20 had been denied, again, even though the first one was seriously overloaded, and despite vocal support from students and faculty (and us of course). CU20B removed considerable load from CU20A and bought us some time until we finally were able to Medical Certificate In Japanese Stock Photo 519891659, expand the instructional resources a year later with CU20C. (In fact, for a short period, we were able to put some students on CU20B, in Resume Format For High Student | Resume Format Maker, their own partition, isolated from the paying users.) There was no common file system yet; communication wth CU20A was via DECnet (NFT for file transfer; home-grown mail, print, finger servers and clients, etc). Nov 1980: The IBM 360/91/75 is - Ppt Download, retired , replaced by two IBM 4331s (PHOTO), CUVMA and CUVMB. These are featureless boxes that are (as you might expect) more compact and cheaper to run than the 360/91 (and lower too, so you can use them as coffee tables), and they had a new operating system, VM/CMS, which allowed Virtual Machines (VM) to run other operating systems on the same machine, thus keeping our old applications afloat. VM was perceived initially as a niche product, but it has proven remarkably persistent. The 360/91 was so big it had to be cut up with chainsaws to get it out of the building.
The Gordian knot of Resume For High, cabling under the floor was unceremoniously disposed of with giant cable snippers the size of posthole diggers. The computer chunks were trucked away and thrown into Meet Vivianne Lapointe: Founder And Editor-In-Chief Of Live Fast, acid baths to extract the gold. Resume For High Student Format! Only the 360/91 console was spared. We had it moved to the lobby of Watson Laboratory and arranged to donate it to the now-defunct Computer Museum in Massachusetts, but it took a year and a half for them to Eras Application - Ppt Download, pick it up. In the Format Student | Resume Format Maker interim, bits and Medical In Japanese Photo 519891659 | Istock pieces were removed by passersby as souvenirs. (More about this in the June 1982 entry.) 1981-82 ADP takes over the remaining pockets of decentralized administrative computing: the student systems in Philosophy Hall and the financial and payroll systems in Hogan Hall, and to some extent also the Health Sciences campus.
Jan 1981: Superbrains arrive. The Intertec Superbrain had been chosen as the Format For High School Student | Resume Format first microcomputer we would deploy publicly, despite its embarrassing name, because its solid single-piece construction made it virtually user-proof, and it did indeed stand up to years of (ab)use. | Contract Templates! It ran CP/M 2.2, an Resume | Resume, 8-bit (64K) operating system. Apr 1981: Bill Catchings and I design the basic Kermit protocol. The first Kermit protocol transfer took place on Template For Schedule. Schedule Template Aplg Planetariums, April 29th on a loopback connection between two serial ports on CU20B. CLICK HERE for more about the Format School Student And Resume Maker history of Kermit, and HERE to visit the Kermit website, where THIS PAGE provides an overview.
Kermit Project document archive at the Computer History Museum [catalog]. Kermit Project Oral History Transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE. May 1981: I talk J. Ray Scott of Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU) in Pittsburgh, PA, into installing a leased line between Columbia and CMU and joining our two campuses by DECnet (at least that's how I remember it). CU and CMU informally but effectively merge their DEC-20 systems staffs and run common customized applications and subsystems (esp. the GALAXY spooling system, which we modified to allow printer sharing among multiple DEC-20s and spooling to the Xerox 9700). Soon the network, called CCNET , expanded to several other universities, notably Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken, NJ, which played an Offshore | Contract, important role in the development of Kermit protocol and software until 1987, and produced Kermit programs for DEC's VMS, TOPS-10, and P/OS operating systems. Jun 1981: CP/M-80 Kermit for the 8-bit Superbrain: Bill Catchings (later, in 1983, Bill also wrote CP/M-86 Kermit for the 16-bit version of Format | Resume Maker, CP/M). Shortly after this, the Buy Sell Agreement, Superbrain was deployed in Mudd. It had no applications to speak of besides Kermit, which was used by students to archive their DEC-20 files onto Format For High | Resume Format And Resume Maker, floppy disks (the purpose for which was Kermit developed). Floppy disks (the then-modern 5.25 ones, not the frisbee-sized ones used on other CP/M micros) for Buy Sell Sample Buy Sell Template the Superbrain were sold in SSIO, $6.00 each (!).
Later, but before 16-bit micros like the IBM PC appeared, we set up (in Watson Lab) a network of Superbrains sharing a hard disk, with an EMACS-like editor called MINCE and a Scribe-like text formatter called Sribble. For a short time it was our most impressive demonstration of personal / workgroup desktop computing. (MINCE later became Epsilon and Resume Format School Student | Resume Format Maker was popular for Agreement, Template some years on DOS PCs.) 12 Aug 1981: The 16-bit IBM PC was announced; the Columbia Computer Center orders 20 of them on Day One, sight unseen. Format | Resume And Resume Maker! The IBM logo makes all the difference. About half of them go to high-profile faculty (who immediately want them to be able to communicate with our central IBM and The Elegant Of Objectives | Resume DEC mainframes; hence MS-DOS Kermit). Resume Format School And Resume Maker! The original PC had a monochrome monitor (color optional), one or two 160K floppy disks, a small amount of memory (anywhere from 16K to 256K), two RS-232 serial interfaces, no hard disk, no networking. It ran at 4.77MHz, had BASIC built into its ROM (which could be used without an OS or disk), and | Resume Format ran DOS 1.0, the minimalistic 16-bit disk operating system that made Microsoft's fortune. Within a short amount of time, it had become the Resume For High Student Format And Resume computer that would dominate the rest of the century and Certificate Stock beyond, and Resume Format School Maker spread over Eras Residency Application Service) Download the campus like wildfire. But it still took some years for Format Student | Resume Format And Resume Maker the PC to wipe out the VAXes and PDP-11s in the departments. Up through the early 90s there were still dozens of VAX/VMS installations; entire departments and schools (such as Columbia College) ran on Buy Sell Agreement, Template, them, with VT100 terminals or DEC word processors (PDP-8 based DECmates) on their desktops. The PC has been a mixed blessing.
Untold numbers of Resume Format | Resume Format, people-hours have been lost forever to Buy Sell Sample, tinkering -- this slot, that bus; expanded memory, enhanced memory, extended memory. . . Blue Screens Of Death, rebooting, reinstalling the operating system, searching for Format For High School | Resume Format And Resume adapters, hunting for drivers, installing OS and driver upgrades, resolving interrupt conflicts, partitioning disks, backing up disks, adding new devices, configuring networks, fighting application and OS bugs, hunting for Photo 519891659 patches, fighting viruses, and on Resume Format | Resume Format, and on. Previously this kind of | Contract Templates, thing was done by a small central full-time professional staff but now it is done by everybody, all the Resume For High School Format And Resume Maker time, at incalculable cost to productivity and progress. The Elegant Examples Web! Plus how many PC users really back up their hard disks? Not many in my experience, and Format School Student Format Maker it is not uncommon for important un-backed-up files to be lost in a disk crash or similar disaster, thus negating weeks, months, or years of work. Medical Certificate In Japanese Stock Photo! ON THE PLUS SIDE, however, . Resume Format For High School Format And Resume Maker! . . (? ? ?) My personal theory is Service) Download, that IBM never expected the Resume For High Student Maker PC to be so successful. It was thrown together in a rush by a small group (not at For Schedule., Watson Laboratory!) from off-the-shelf components in an effort to get a foothold in the fast-growing microcomputer market. This was not IBM's first personal computer. Resume School Student Format! Besides the 1956 Auto-Point Computer (personal but by no means desktop), IBM had also tried and failed with the 5100 and the CS-9000 in the 1970s and early 80s, both personal desktop models (we had some 5100s here; the CS-9000 was targeted at chemical engineering applications as I recall, and Residency Service) - Ppt had a special control panel and interfaces for instruments, but included a 32-bit CPU and modern programming languages like Pascal, and could easily have been the Format For High Student And Resume high-end workstation of the early 1980s).
According to a reliable source, IBM originally wanted the PC to have a Motorola 68000 CPU (which had a simple, flat 32-bit address space) like the CS-9000, but could not get such a product to market in time, so settled for the Intel 8088, a 16-bit segmented architecture with 8-bit data paths. Worse, it had a primitive 16-line interrupt controller, which severely limited the number of devices that could be on | Contract, the bus. The rest is Resume For High School | Resume Format And Resume, history. I believe that if IBM had known that the PC would dominate the next two, three, four, or more decades, it would have invested more time, money, and The Elegant Web thought in the original design. (Obviously the situation is better in the 21st Century. Most of the early kinks have been ironed out. PCs are cheap and reliable.
Any quirks of the architecture are well-hidden from end users, and USB makes life immeasurably better when devices need to Resume School | Resume Format And Resume Maker, be attached. With Windows the dominant operating system, the main problems now are performance bloated OS and applications and security. Eras (electronic! And stability.) Oct 1981: CU20C arrives: a second DECSYSTEM-20 student timesharing system to supplement CU20A. Still no common file system; each DEC-20 was a relatively separate world, but at Resume Format Format And Resume, least they were connected by DECnet. If you had a student user ID, it was on one or the Medical In Japanese Stock Photo 519891659 | Istock other, not both. Dec 1981: HP plotter supplies (personal ink cartridges, etc) were a hot topic in the newsletter. Resume Format Student | Resume Format And Resume! The HP pen plotters installed in Mudd (and SSIO?) came in 4- and 8-color models, and there was a wide variety of software for them, including DISSPLA/TEL-A-GRAF on the DEC-20s and Of Objectives On Resumes | Resume Web SAS/GRAPH and Resume Format For High Student | Resume Maker SPSS on Sample Agreement, the IBM mainframes that could make 3D plots with hidden-line elimination, fancy fonts, etc. They were totally mechanical: pen and Resume Format For High Student Maker ink on paper, and could produce beautiful line drawings. Jan 1982: J. Ray Scott, Director of the Carnegie-Mellon University Computation Center, writes an Certificate Stock 519891659 | Istock, article in the CUCCA Newsletter (V14#1) describing the CCNET connection between Columbia and CMU, and CMU's facilities (including an ARPANET gateeway and various compilers and applications that had not been licensed at Columbia).
In the first example of network-based inter-university resource sharing at Columbia, CU users were invited to apply for For High School Student | Resume Format And Resume Maker user IDs on the CMU systems. Feb 1982: The IBM 3850 Mass Storage System (MSS) was installed (for the For Schedule. Weekly Template 1980 Census) - 102.2 GB. The MSS was gigantic in every sense, covering most of the South wall of the machine room. Essentially it was a big honeycomb, each cell holding a cartridge (PHOTO) that resembles an M-79 rifle grenade (sorry, it does) containing a winding of 2.7-inch-wide magtape with a capacity of 50MB. Student And Resume! A mechanical hand comes and extracts the cartridge and Meet Founder carries it to a reader, which removes the shell, and unwinds the tape and copies it to one of four staging disks; then the tape is re-wound, the shell replaced, and the cartridge returned to its cell. Resume Format Student And Resume Maker! All this was transparent to the user; the MSS looked like a 3330 disk drive to user-mode software. The disks acted as a cache, so if your file was already on the disk, the Certificate | Istock little mechanical man didn't need to go get the cartridge. (Before the MSS, we had an IBM 2321 Data Cell Drive, which worked in a similar way, except instead of cartridges, it used flat strips of tape that were much harder for the little men to handle, so the tape strips were easily mangled.) Like the For High School Student | Resume 360/91, there were only a few MSS devices in the world. The MSS cost about a million dollars, but Columbia got its MSS in an IBM grant. In return, Columbia would add support for it to Buy Sell Agreement, Sample Agreement Template, IBM's VM operating system (in particular, it would add windowing and lookahead features to reduce cylinder faults and redundant cartridge fetches, and thus speed up sequential access; this was done by Bob Resnikoff of the Computer Center and Ates Dagli of the Center for Student Maker Social Sciences (CSS)). CSS was responsible for loading the census data (which came on endless reels of 9-track magtape) and for Medical In Japanese Stock 519891659 | Istock arranging access to it from within Columbia and from outside (V14#16).
When the grant expired, Columbia was able to purchase the MSS at a steep discount. Feb 1982: Hot Newsletter topic: submitting IBM batch jobs from the For High School Format DEC-20 via HASP/RJE. CU20B was connected to the IBM mainframe communications front end (COMTEN) through its own PDP-11 DN20 front end (a full cabinet), which emulated an Remote Job Entry station, i.e. Buy Sell Agreement Template! a card reader for sending data to For High School Student Format And Resume, the mainframe in form of card images, and (electronic Application - Ppt Download a line printer for Resume Format And Resume receiving data from the mainframe in the form of print jobs, but using DEC-20 disk files instead of cards and paper. The CUCCA systems group developed user-friendly programs for submitting batch jobs to the VM systems from the DEC-20 and retrieving the results. Medical In Japanese Photo 519891659 | Istock! These were later to form the basis of the DEC-20/BITNET mail gateway. Mar 1982: RSTS/E retired; RSTS users migrated to DEC-20s, V14#1.
The PDP-11/50 was traded for another badly needed RP06 disk drive for our DEC-20s . Resume For High School And Resume Maker! The PDP-11 with RSTS/E was our first experiment in campuswide public timesharing and it was an unqualified success. Apr 1982: BITNET announced (Vace, V14#5). This was a network of IBM mainframes based on Medical Stock, RSCS (basically, card reader / line printer simulation) protocols, originating with Ira Fuchs at CUNY, formerly of Watson Lab, and rapidly spreading to universities all over the world, lasting through the late 1990s, now remembered mainly for LISTSERV (a distributed automated mailing-list management system). Early members included CUNY, Columbia, Yale, Brown, Princeton, the U of Maine, Penn State, the Format For High School And Resume Maker NJ Educational Network, Boston U, and Cornell University (DIAGRAM). Columbia got the In Japanese Stock Photo 519891659 | Istock CU prefix (CUVMA, CUVMB), much to the chagrin of C ornell U niversity (CORNELLA, . ) Would this be the first instance of domain name hijacking ? :-) (Twenty years later, the Cornell and Columbia teaching hospitals would merge to form New York Presbyterian Hospital; evidently Cornell and Columbia were omitted from the name so that neither one would have to follow the other.) Apr 1982: IBM Mainframe VM/CMS Kermit (Daphne Tzoar). This passed through a number a hands since the Resume Format For High School | Resume Format Maker initial release, some of which prefer to remain anonymous, and has been cared for by Dr. John Chandler at Medical Certificate Stock Photo 519891659, the Harvard/Smithsonian Astronomical Observatory since about School Student And Resume 1990; John made it portable to the other important IBM mainframe OS's: MVS/TSO, CICS, and Stock Photo MUSIC, and added support for conversion between the many IBM EBCDIC Country Extended Code Pages and ISO standard character sets, allowing cross-platform transfer of text in many languages. May 1982: Support was added to our e-mail client and server software to take advantage of Resume Student | Resume Format Maker, our new CCNET and BITNET connections, and the first inter-campus e-mail began to flow, limited at first to just a handful of universities, but growing rapidly as CCNET and BITNET nodes are added, and gateways from them to ARPANET, CSNET, and Medical 519891659 other networks. CCNET mail delivery was accomplished by direct real-time DECnet connections; BITNET mail was transported via our HASP/RJE Spooler.
Our three DEC-20s used their DECnet connections for mail amongst themselves, as well as with other campus machines and Resume Format Student | Resume Maker the wider CCNET. CU20A and CU20C and other campus DECnet nodes sent BITNET mail by relaying it over DECnet to CU20B's RJE system. In those days, e-mail addresses had to include a top-level domain that indicated the network, e.g. USER@HOST.ARPA , USER@HOST.BITNET , USER@HOST.CCNET , etc. Even trickier was the source routing used in Usenet (in those days, a network of UNIX machines that dialed each other up with UUCP periodically to exchange files and Sample Buy Sell Agreement mail) and some others, and/or to Resume For High Student | Resume Format And Resume Maker, mail to somebody who was on a network that your host wasn't on, through a relay that was on both nets.
In such cases you had to know the entire route and the syntax tricks to traverse each branch of it, and Medical Stock Photo | Istock often multiple relays. Here are some examples from the Resume Format For High Student Format And Resume 1980s Kermit mailing list archive: The last one is broken into two lines for Fast readability; it's really one line. To get a good feel for the proliferation of networks and the tricks of navigating amongst them in the days before the Internet swept all else away, see John Quarterman's book, The Matrix  Jun 1982: CU20D , our third and final instructional DEC-20, was installed.
Jun 1982: Our by-now vandalized IBM 360/91 console goes to the Computer Museum at DEC's MR-01 (or MR-02?) building in Resume Format School | Resume And Resume, Marlboro, Massachusetts, after awaiting pickup for 18 months. It was displayed prominently inside the main entrance in The Elegant Of Objectives On Resumes | Resume Format Web, a big, tastefully illuminated glass case near the PDP-1. Shortly thereafter, the collection was transferred to the Boston Science Museum (now the Museum of Science), which changed its focus. For High School | Resume Format And Resume! Most of the computing artifacts went to Schedule Aplg, the Computer History Museum, temporarily located at Moffett Field, California (an Air Force base, where the 360/91 console sat in Resume For High | Resume Format And Resume, deep storage for The Elegant Examples Of Objectives many years before being transferred in about 2001 to Resume Format For High Student | Resume Format And Resume, deep storage at the Computer History Museum's new site in Mountain View, California). Jul 1982: An Imagen laser printer was installed in Watson; our first laser printer and our first printer capable of true typesetting . Buy Sell Template! Soft fonts, 100 dpi I think, Impress language (a precursor of PostScript), Ethernet-connected. It was only for internal CUCCA use (production of Newsletter and handouts, etc). Aug 1982: The Xerox 9700 (PHOTO) [announced by Xerox in Format School Student | Resume Format, 1977] arrived, replacing the Xerox 1200 after some overlap (V15#1). The 9700 offered the first typesetting to the Columbia community at large, as well as high-volume, high-speed plain-text printing. This room-sized 300dpi Xerographic laser printer was installed in the back of the first floor of Watson Lab (the present mail and network rooms) due to lack of space in The Elegant Of Objectives On Resumes | Resume Format Web, the Computer Center, and it definitely needed the For High Student | Resume And Resume Maker space.
It printed 2 pages per second, could handle duplex, portrait/landscape, 2-up, 4-up, etc, had Courier (fixed) and Medical Certificate In Japanese Stock | Istock Helvetica and Times Roman (proportional) fonts, with italic and For High School Student | Resume Format bold styles and selectable sizes. Formatting was done by Scribe and other packages and spooled to 9-track magnetic tapes that were delivered to Watson every evening and printed overnight. Xerox 9700 printing was available to The Elegant On Resumes | Resume Format Web, all users (students, faculty, staff, outside paid accounts) on all the DEC-20s and IBM mainframe systems. Format For High Format And Resume Maker! The DEC-20 Xerox 9700 spooling software (PRINT /UNIT:X9700) was developed jointly by the combined CUCCA-CMU Systems Groups over Offshore Templates CCNET. Even after more sophisticated typesetting methods became available, the X9700 remained in service as a high-volume printer; nothing else could push paper quite like it. To this day, I think Controllers and Rolmphone statements are still printed on a 9700 at a service bureau.) Sep 1982: VMM announced (e-mail for the IBM mainframe: MM for For High Student | Resume Format Maker VM, Joel and then Vace). Sep 1982: First campus network between academic departments (not counting Remote Job Entry stations): CUCCA-Chemistry, DECnet over synchronous modems (V14#12).
By this time Chemistry had a VAX-11/780 and some smaller VAXes. Sep 1982: TOPS-20 V5 installed on the CUCCA DEC-20s, featuring extended addressing (32 256KW sections = 36MB, instead of only one section), a new multiforking Exec (what we would now call job control), and a programming language for Eras Residency Application Service) Download the Exec (CMU's PCL, what we would now call shell scripts. see example). Oct 1982: About here we were looking into getting the AP Newswire online. Columbia's School of Journalism had a Teletype with news stories coming out continuously. The plan was to feed this into one of our DEC-20s and make a BBoard out of it, with a rather rapid expiration of articles given the Resume Format For High School | Resume Format limited disk storage. But there were licensing and bureaucratic impediments so it never came to pass. About 1990, Columbia bought a subscription to Vivianne Lapointe: Founder And Editor-In-Chief Fast, ClariNews (in which the various news services are funneled to Usenet newsgroups). Resume For High Student Format Maker! This lasted until 2003, by which time the Web had long since rendered it redundant. Nov 1982: The CUCCA Terminal and Meet Lapointe: And Editor-In-Chief Fast Plotter User Manual  was published, full of Resume Format School | Resume Format, photos and For Schedule. Weekly Template Aplg Planetariums detailed instructions on Format, using the equipment in our public areas. CLICK HERE to Eras Application Service) - Ppt Download, see a sampling of Student | Resume Maker, video terminals; note the accompanying PACX boxes.
NOW ON LINE in searchable PDF format. This was printed on Vivianne Founder And Editor-In-Chief Of Live Fast, our new Xerox 9700, one of the first laser printers capable of typesetting; it had two fonts, Helvetica and For High Student Format Maker Courier. The manual itself should interesting to Certificate 519891659, those who harbor a burning curiosity over every minute detail in the life of President Obama , since the equipment described here is what he must have used when he was a Columbia student 1981-83, because there wasn't anything else. Check, for Resume For High Maker example, this article he wrote in Agreement, Buy Sell Template, Sundial Magazine, March 10, 1983. I suspect he composed it on the DEC-20, perhaps in EMACS, seated at Resume Format Student | Resume Format, one of the terminals in our terminal rooms; for Offshore Contracts Templates example, the HP-2621s in Carman Hall. Resume School | Resume Format! When it was ready, he might well have emailed it to the Sundail editor with MM.
Just a guess! Nov 1982: DECSYSTEM-20 Pocket Guide (click for PDF of the whole thing). The DEC-20 was an enormously powerful and useful computing system, yet it was simple enought that we could publish an The Elegant Examples Of Objectives Format Web, accordion-fold pocket guide to Resume Format School | Resume Format And Resume Maker, just about all that it had to offer. Vivianne Lapointe: And Editor-In-Chief Fast! This 1982 edition was created with TeX, and the Columbia Crown with Metafont. The master was printed on For High School Student Format, our new Imagen Laser Printer and the printing and folding done at the Columbia print shop. It was given out Of Objectives On Resumes Web, free to all comers (thousands of them).
Dec 1982: The Teachers College DEC-20 connects to the campus DECnet. 1983-1986: Every Newsletter issue announces new BITNET and | Resume Format And Resume Maker DECnet nodes. Jan 1983 20th Anniversary of the Computer Center . The Elegant Of Objectives Format Web! CLICK HERE to see a collage of machine-room items prepared for Resume Format Student | Resume Format Maker the commemorative poster. The commemorative frisbee is at Medical Certificate Photo 519891659, Computer History Museum. 1 Jan 1983: The ARPANET switches from its original protocol, NCP, to TCP/IP. Prior to Resume Format For High | Resume Maker, TCP/IP, the ARPANET was a private club with membership restricted defense contractors. The fact that some of the defense contractors were also some of the top engineering and computer science universities (MIT, Stanford, CMU, etc) led to a lot of pressure from the non-military segment for more open access, and to a new design for the network itself.
TCP/IP (Transport Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) was the result. Where ARPANET was a network of Offshore | Contract Templates, computers, TCP/IP provided for a network of networks ; that is, an Resume Format School Student | Resume, Internet. Thus when the cutover took place, all the computers at a given university (say, MIT), could be on the net, not just the Residency Application Service) - Ppt Download ones used for defense research. In this way the Resume For High Format Maker network was opened up, and Buy Sell Agreement, Buy Sell Agreement Template the requirement for a defense contract for membership no longer made sense. Numerous networks such CSNET, NSFNET, and SPAN, were connected. Columbia University as a whole got on the net in 1984 by virtue of Format School Student Format And Resume Maker, its connection with NSF and over the next 15 years, the The Elegant Of Objectives On Resumes Format Web network grew to Format Student | Resume And Resume Maker, cover the entire planet and membership was open to all. Jan 1983 The Purchasing Office moves out of the Watson building and the space is In Japanese Photo 519891659, occupied by ADP; now, 13 years after IBM left it, the Watson Lab building is 100% Computer Center and would remain that way until 1991. ADP begins to Resume Format For High | Resume, offer office automation services, including PC and LAN installations for administrative use. Jan 1983: IBM PC Kermit.
Originally by Daphne Tzoar, adapted from Bill Catchings' CP/M-80 Kermit (actually, if I recall correctly, Bill did the Buy Sell Agreement original translation from 8080 MASM to 8088 Microsoft assembler in Resume For High, a single EMACS session, and then Daphne made it work and | Contract added features). Later it passed to Jeff Damens. We did versions 1.00 to 2.28 here, with various pieces contributed from elsewhere. Professor Joe Doupnik of Utah State University took it over in 1985, and stuck with until the end (see oral history of Joe Doupnik at Resume Format For High Student | Resume, the Computer History Museum). We were actually ordered to Eras (electronic Residency Service) - Ppt, write this program because several prominent professors (Herb Goldstein, Bob Pollack, and Jonathan Gross ) were using their new PCs to write a book, The Scientific Experience , that would be used in a new course, Science C1001-1002, Theory and Practice of Science , in Resume Format | Resume Maker, Columbia's Contemporary Civilization (the jewel in the crown of the Columbia College Core Curriculum) and Offshore | Contract Templates wanted to be able to Resume Format School | Resume Format, collaborate by Lapointe: Founder And Editor-In-Chief Of Live uploading chapters to CU20B, where they could be shared. And they did. Format School Student | Resume And Resume! MS-DOS Kermit was a fixture on the Columbia computing landscape until the Web took over in Stock Photo, 1994-95, and popular all over the world. Resume Format For High School Format And Resume! It's still remarkably popular today, providing VT320, Wyse, DG, ANSI, and Tektronix terminal emulation for Linux under dosemu , as well as data transfer for many DOS-based embedded and experimental devices, such as THIS ONE in the International Space Station.
CLICK HERE to visit the MS-DOS Kermit website. Jan 1983: Amdahl UTS installed on the IBM mainframe as a virtual machine under VM (Alan); this was the Meet Vivianne Lapointe: Founder Fast first UNIX on the central systems. But CS, Biology, and PS had been running other forms of UNIX for some time on Resume School | Resume Format, departmental minicomputers such as PDP-11s and VAX-11/750s. (9-track magnetic tapes were big in these days, but every kind of computer used a different format: ANSI, DUMPER, BACKUP, MAGSAV, IBM OS SL, tar, cpio, etc, so writing tape import/export/conversion utilities was a regular cottage industry.) Mar 1983: CCNET included CU, CMU, CWRU, CS, TC. Mar 1983: All but two key punches removed due to The Elegant Examples Of Objectives | Resume, lack of use (V15#4). The SSIO area is now a mainly a public terminal area, CUCCA business office, and Resume Format For High Format And Resume consulting facility. Apr 1983: CU20B becomes Columbia's first central computer with dialout capability. The DIAL program, written by our Systems Group, operated a Vadic VA821 1200bps autodialer, and interfaced with DEC-20 Kermit to allow file transfer (and was later integrated with Kermit). 18 May 1983: DECSYSTEM-20 (and DECsystem-10) 36-bit computer line canceled by Eras Residency Application DEC due to Format School Student Format And Resume Maker, their failed attempts to produce a faster and cheaper followon product (Jupiter).
This was a huge blow to Template Aplg, Columbia and most other US universities, which until this point were like a big (but increasingly anxious) DEC-10/20 club. For High School | Resume Maker! The ARPANET had been built mainly on DEC-10s and -20s, and most computer science research and tools ran there. Big changes would come. Spring DECUS (the semiannual Digital Equipment Corporation User Society convention) took place a week or two thereafter. At the June 2001 DECWORLD event at the Computer Museum History Center, Roseanne Giordano, DEC's LCG [DEC-10 and On Resumes | Resume Format Web DEC-20] product line manager at the time of the cancellation, recalled that DECUS organizers, fearing violence from the crowd, installed plainclothes police in the front row to protect the speakers. Jun 1983: Snapshot: Public terminal, printer, and graphics equipment. Terminals: Datamedia 1520 (6), Perkin Elmer Fox 1100 (10), HP 2621 (66), DEC VT101 (28), Concept APL (8), Superbrain (1), Diablo (1), LA36 (20), Tektronix (2), HP plotters (4) (read more), self-service Printronix printers (5). Terminals by Format Format And Resume Maker location: SSIO (52), Mudd (16), Butler (11), International Affairs (6), Carman (21), Hartley (16), East Campus (14), Furnald (6). The Superbrain is Format, still the only desktop computer in a public area; it remained in service until at least 1986.
Jul 1983: The Columbia Computer Science Department DEC-20 and Resume For High Student | Resume Format And Resume Maker VAX-11/750 join ARPANET . Buy Sell Agreement, Sample Buy Sell Agreement! The CS DEC-20 is connected to For High School | Resume And Resume Maker, CU20B with DECnet, thus providing the first ARPANET access from CUCCA machines (staff only). Nov 1983: We attend nondisclosure presentations of the Web Macintosh, which as to be the first mass-market personal computer with a graphical user interface, modeled on that of the Xerox Alto and the Xerox Star (the Star was commercially available in 1981 but it was too expensive for the popular market). I recommend early adoption of the Macintosh by CU; this was done and Columbia became one of the first members of the Apple University Consortium, buying them in Format For High | Resume Format, bulk and Medical Certificate In Japanese Stock Photo | Istock reselling them to For High School Student, students. Nov 1983: We (I) take on responsibility of approving campus microcomputer purchases, since in those days there were countless different incompatible ones. Every requisition had to come across my desk; if it was for something weird I'd call the person who ordered it and talk about communications and Contracts | Contract compatibility, either changing their mind or rubber stamping it after they swore they didn't care and never would. 1983-84: It is in Resume For High School Student | Resume And Resume Maker, approximately this time frame that Alan Crosswell becomes Lead Unix Systems Programmer and also assumes management responsibility for Medical Certificate In Japanese Stock Photo 519891659 | Istock the DEC-20s, as I move on to something called Systems Integration, meaning finding ways of hooking Columbia's many disparate micro-, mini-, and mainframe computers together. Kermit was one way; others included various forms of networking including DECnet, TCP/IP (brand new in 1983), who-knows-how-many forms of PC networking, and so on. Alan is formally appointed Systems Manager in 1990. 1983-84: I was the CUCCA member of an Engineering Dean's committee, chaired by Dean Gross, to set up a graphics lab in the Engineering School. Other members included Engineering Professors Morton Friedman, Lee Lidofsky and (I think) Ted Bashkow. Eventually a site was chosen adjoining the terminal room in 272A Engineering Terrace.
It opened in March 1984 with 12 standalone IBM PCs equipped with color monitors and graphics adapters. This was almost certainly Columbia's first PC lab . The graphics lab was turned over to CUCCA in October 1989, combined with the original lab in room 272A, and renamed Gussman Lab. Jan 1984: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) debuts as a text-based inquiry system accessible via PACX terminal and Telnet. School Student | Resume Format Maker! It is based on For Schedule. Schedule Template Aplg, BLIS software from Bibliotechniques (a spinoff of the University of Washington), and runs on Resume Format Student | Resume And Resume, our IBM 3083 mainframe. Feb 1984: Hermit (clustered PC project): a 3-million-dollar equipment grant from DEC, proposed by Residency - Ppt Download us (me and Howard Eskin) in March 1983, to build a distributed environment of Macs, PCs, and UNIX workstations clustered around MicroVAX hubs which, in turn, were connected to the central DEC-20 mainframes for file / identity / e-mail service. Included were dozens of Rainbow PCs and Pro-380 (PDP-11) workstations, several MicroVAX-IIs, a VAX 11/730, a VAX 11/750, a VAXstation, an LN03 laser printer, Ethernet, and the Common File System (shared disk) hardware for Format For High Maker our DEC-20s including a then-massive amount of central storage. This was to Certificate | Istock, be a stunning example of systems integration; the primary objective was to provide users transparent native-mode access to their central files and identities from all different kinds of desktop workstations (PC, Mac, UNIX). School Student And Resume Maker! I was the PI, my boss was Howard Eskin, the programmers were (at various times) Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, Melissa Metz, Jeff Damens, Andy Lowry, Delores Ng, Howie Kaye, Fuat Baran. (V16#2, V16#6, V18#2; Columbia Daily Spectator , 23 Apr 1984).
Mar 1984: With four DEC-20s installed, plus the Hermit project equipment -- big disks, fast networks, common file system -- instructional computing power was fairly well matched with demand. Now access was the bottleneck. A study by Contracts the Academic Advisory Committee of the Engineering Advisory Council, Computers in Columbia Engineering Education , March 1984, complained of the Sleeping Bag Syndrome: students should not be forced to line up for terminal time at graveyard shift hours. Only those who could postpone their terminal-room visits until the wee hours of the morning were spared the long lines, a system blatantly unfair to commuters. For High | Resume And Resume Maker! Obtaining space for Weekly Planetariums terminal rooms (or anything else) on the Columbia campus was (and is) even more difficult than obtaining the money to build them. Resume | Resume Maker! Dormitory space was considered prime because dorms were the only buildings open 24 hours. Mar 1984: First Apple Lisa demo at CU, numerous Macintosh/Lisa seminars and presentations from Apple. Apr 1984: IBM Portable PC announced by For Schedule. Weekly Schedule Template Planetariums CUCCA for resale. It was also required equipment for all Columbia Business School students. Apr-May 1984: Macintosh mania. A four-page article ( by me of course :-) introducing the Mac was published in V16#8.
CU joins the Resume Format For High Student | Resume Maker Apple University Consortium as one of the Schedule few charter members. Resume Format School Student Format! AUC membership required us to (electronic - Ppt, buy Macs in bulk for resale on campus. 2000 were ordered right away. Within a short while, we had written the first version of Macintosh Kermit for it (Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, and me). Mac (and PC) sales continue in one form or another until turned over to JR, which opened a Columbia-only branch in the basement of Resume Format School Student | Resume And Resume, Philosophy Hall in the late 1990s but then jumped ship about Vivianne 2001.
May 1984: Floor plan of DEC-20 machine room by Bill Schilit of the For High Format And Resume Systems Group, showing the size and placement of the various components (3 DEC-20s, their disk drives, and communications front ends are shown; not shown is the fourth DEC-20, the Medical | Istock tape drives, or the system consoles). OK, this is Resume Format For High And Resume, not really the floor plan. It's a template for making floor plans. The idea was to gather up all the discarded copies of the newsletter that had this diagram on the cover, cut out the Buy Sell Template pieces, and then make a real floor plan out of them (Tom De Bellis points out this diagram was made before all the Hermit grant stuff had arrived, thus was used to lay out how to Resume Format Student Maker, make everything fit). Also see THIS DEC-20 MACHINE ROOM PHOTO. Jun-Jul 1984: The first Kermit article, by me and Bill Catchings, published (in two parts) in BYTE Magazine . See Kermit Bibliography for more Kermit-related publications. 3 Aug 1984: CU20B joins ARPANET (now called the Internet). Although the Computer Science Department had joined the ARPANET in Meet Vivianne Founder Of Live, July 1983, this did not allow access to Resume Format For High And Resume, the Columbia community at Template For Schedule. Schedule Template Aplg, large. Format Student | Resume! Putting CU20B on the ARPANET was the first step in The Elegant Of Objectives On Resumes | Resume, this direction (researchers from all schools and departments and CUCCA staff only, not students).
CU20B's ARPANET hostname was COLUMBIA.ARPA. No other Columbia computers (except the ones in Resume Student, the CS department) were on the ARPANET, but of course CU20B had network connections to the other DEC-20s, some internal CUCCA machines, the Meet Vivianne Lapointe: Of Live campus DECnet and the external DECnet-based CCNET, and to BITNET. Thus to Resume Format For High | Resume And Resume Maker, send mail into the Columbia network from Medical Certificate In Japanese Photo 519891659 outside required source routing, e.g. user %CU20A@COLUMBIA.ARPA. For some years, CU20B was to serve as a mail gateway among these networks, using locally written software. Over the next year or two, CUCCA would purchase a VAX-11/750, called the Gateway VAX, and install it in the CS department, where it was connected to the CS ARPANET IMP and back to the CUCCA hosts via Ethernet. Format For High School Student Maker! The Gateway VAX ran 4.2BSD UNIX and it made Internet e-mail available to the whole Columbia community, including students, for the first time.
For some reason I can't explain, the Contracts authorization letter from ARPA didn't arrive until two years later. Aug 1984: IBM PC/AT announced, the Format Student | Resume Maker first IBM PC with memory protection. Based on the Intel 80286, with a 20MB hard disk and two floppy diskette drives, one low-density, one high. Battery powered BIOS configuration memory and clock. Up to 16MB memory. The Elegant Examples | Resume! This was the | Resume first in the IBM PC line fully capable of Agreement, Buy Sell, running multitasking operating systems, and soon was host to For High School Maker, a number of them (some companies had managed to produce Unix variants such as Xenix for the original IBM PC or XT on 8086 but these were not sustainable.) Of course this machine was of great interest to the Columbia Computer Center, which was looking for For Schedule. Planetariums ways to deploy desktop networked UNIX workstations for academic use, and we had some internally running different UNIX versions such as SCO Xenix/286. But it would turn out that our first public UNIX workstations would come from a different direction. Sep 1984: Three HP-150 MS-DOS microcomputers and one Macintosh were installed in the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room. They were not on any kind of network and had to be reserved by Resume Format School Format sign-up sheet. The HP-150s were an equipment grant from HP, along with some color pen plotters that were attached to them.
They had touch-screens and Residency - Ppt Download integrated thermal printers. A version of Format Maker, Kermit was written to allow them to communicate with the Medical Stock 519891659 central computers through PACX lines and transfer files to Resume Format For High Student | Resume Format And Resume, and from Template For Schedule. Weekly Schedule Template their 3.5-inch diskettes (the HP-150 was one of the first, if not the first PC to Format For High Student Format Maker, use the 3.5-inch rigid diskette). Graphic images where generated by software on In Japanese Photo, the mainframes (such as DISSPLA/TELEGRAF on the DEC-20s and SASGRAPH on the IBMs), downloaded with Kermit, and sent to the plotters. 16 Oct 1984: The academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, joins the ARPANET, running WISCNET (the University of Resume Format Student, Wisconsin TCP/IP package) through a DACU (IBM's cabinet-size Ethernet adapter). This machine was for Medical In Japanese Photo 519891659 researchers and staff only, so there is still no ARPANET access for For High Student | Resume students. Nov 1984: Project Aurora , a 6.5-million dollar IBM grant administered by CUCCA, a campus-wide move in information and Eras Residency - Ppt instruction toward the electronic university. Bruce Gilchrist and Pat Battin (the University Librarian) are the principal investigators.
Aurora paid for an IBM 3083 mainframe to support the Columbia Libraries Information Online (CLIO) system, and For High School Format Maker also funded some 30 research projects in Meet Founder And Editor-In-Chief Fast, the schools and departments. 1984-85: I'm not too clear about this but I believe the SSIO area got a facelift around this time. Resume For High School Student | Resume! See these photos. 1985: Low-cost Apple Laserwriter PostScript printers proliferate and Vivianne Lapointe: Fast suddenly typesetting becomes commonplace as LaserWriters are set up as spooled printers so they can be controlled not only by Macintoshes but also DEC-20 and UNIX systems with Scribe and T E X. 1985-1989: The Columbia Physics department consructs a series of highly parallel computers (supercomputers made from Radio Shack parts). 1985: a 16-node QCD machine delivering 250 MFLOPS peak and 60 MFLOPS sustained performance.
1987: A second-generation QCD machine containing 64 nodes, delivering 1 GFLOPS peak and Resume Format For High Student 300 MFLOPS sustained performance. Examples Format! 1989: A third-generation QCD machine containing 256 nodes delivering 16 GFLOPS peak and 6.4 GFLOPS sustained performance . This work would continue into the 1990s and For High School Student | Resume And Resume beyond. Jan 1985: CUVMA (IBM VM/CMS academic mainframe) gets Ethernet (DACU) and Template Weekly Template Planetariums TCP/IP (WISCNET) (Vace). Jan 1985: Internet Domain Name registration begins. Some of the first registered domains are: symbolics.com, cmu.edu, bbn.com, ucla.edu, mit.edu, mitre.org, dec.com, stanford.edu, sri.com, sun.com, ibm.com, att.com, nsf.net, apple.com, cisco.com. Feb 1985: First version of Format For High Student | Resume, C-Kermit (4.0) released. (Previous versions were called UNIX Kermit; C-Kermit was modularized to allow easy adaptation to other platforms, and eventually was ported to over 700 of them, across 10 major operating system families.) Hundreds of people all over the world have contributed code, including Andy Tanenbaum (MINIX) and Linus Torvalds (Linux). C-Kermit was part of Hewlett-Packard's UNIX operating system HP-UX (by contract) from 1996 until 2011 (when Columbia U canceled the Kermit Project), and has since been incorporated into many of the Vivianne Founder And Editor-In-Chief Fast free Open Source operating systems distributions. CLICK HERE to visit the Format For High Student | Resume Format C-Kermit website. CLICK HERE to see a very early version C-Kermit.
Speaking of Andy Tanenbaum and MINIX, CLICK HERE to read Andy's 2016 article, Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX  (complete with video)! May 1985: Watson Lab Ethernet connection to Computer Center; Steve Jensen's 115th Street trench and Broadway crossing with cement-encased conduits containing fat yellow coax, the Sample Template difficult Western and Resume Format School Student Maker final leg of Template For Schedule. Weekly Aplg, Columbia's first Ethernet backbone (PHOTO GALLERY). The installation was delayed many months by asbestos containment and Resume School | Resume And Resume removal. Departments in buildings along the cable route, such as Chemistry and Math, that previously had been connected by synchronous modems began to switch to Ethernet. Sep 1985: The COLUMBIA.EDU Internet domain becomes operational. Columbia hosts connected by Medical Certificate Stock Photo TCP/IP can be addressed directly from anywhere on the Internet, e.g. by email addresses like user @CU20D.COLUMBIA.EDU or user @CHEMVAX.CHEM.COLUMBIA.EDU (the same host addressing scheme that is Format For High Student And Resume, used today, except for putting the central hosts into a new . CC subdomain in March 1988, and receiving most mail at a central server, COLUMBIA.EDU, rather than by individual computer host name). For the first time, students have access to the Internet but for all practical purposes, it is limited to email and anonymous FTP, since the World Wide Web does not yet exist and netnews will not become generally available at Columbia until 1988. The early Internet offered pretty much just text-only e-mail, finger, FTP, Telnet, WHOIS, and send or talk, early forms of instant messaging. What else could you want? Dec 1985: Bruce Gilchrist resigns his Director post but stays on in an advisory capacity through 1989 (PHOTO). Dec 1985: The first IBM 3270 emulation is provided by newly installed IBM Series/1 computers (V17#15).
The Series/1 is a single-cabinet minicomputer with sixteen RS-232C serial interfaces for terminals and a channel connection to the mainframe. Eras! The Series/1 tricks the mainframe into believing it is a 3274 control unit. Prior to this all public terminal access to IBM mainframes had been in half-duplex linemode, rather than full-screen mode. Now ordinary ASCII terminals (and emulators of them) could conduct full-screen 3270 sessions on For High | Resume Format And Resume, the IBM VM/CMS mainframe, and they could do it without reconfiguration (as was necessary for linemode connections). The Series/1 converted between full and half duplex, block mode and character mode, and Eras Application - Ppt Download IBM 3270 data streams and the escape sequences and character sets used by many different types of terminals (even APL terminals), plus it provided flow control and buffering. The Series/1 computers were later replaced by IBM 7171s, 4994s, and tn3270 software in terminal servers and on UNIX hosts. (Around here, large departmental PC labs began to Resume Format For High Student | Resume And Resume, appear, for Medical Certificate | Istock example in the Business School and in Resume Format For High | Resume Format And Resume Maker, the Learning Center.) 1986-1987 West German hackers use Columbia's Kermit software to break into dozens of US military computers and capture information for the KGB , as described by Template For Schedule. Schedule Aplg Planetariums Cliff Stoll in Format School Student, his 1989 book, The Cuckoo's Egg .
At one point, while Cliff watched on a jury-rigged T-connected terminal, the hackers were using Kermit to download a copy of the Telnet source code so they could implant a password logger, upload the result, recompile it, and install it: Line by line, I watched Kermit shovel the program over to Certificate Stock Photo 519891659, the hacker. But I couldn't just kill Kermit. He'd notice that right away. Maker! Now that I was closing in on him, I especially didn't want to tip my hand. Lapointe: Founder And Editor-In-Chief Of Live! I found my key chain and reached over to the wires connected to the hacker's line. Jangling the keys across the Format For High Student | Resume connector, I shorted out his circuit for an instant. This added just enough noise to confuse the computer, but not enough to kill the connection. It worked like a charm. I'd jangle my keys, he'd see the Template For Schedule. Weekly Schedule Template Aplg noise, and Format For High Student | Resume Maker his computer would ask for Photo a replay of the School Student | Resume Format last line. This slowed the transfer down so much that the hacker eventually lost patience and gave up -- but it didn't stop Kermit!
As long as the Agreement, Sample Agreement Template connection stays up, no matter how awful, Kermit pushes the file through. Cliff also measured the delay between Kermit packet and Resume Format For High Student | Resume Maker acknowledgment to estimate the hacker's distance from California (6000 miles, a fairly accurate estimate of the distance to Certificate Photo, Hannover). 1 Jan 1986: CUCCA and Libraries merge. Information is Resume For High School Student | Resume And Resume Maker, information, right? (V18#2). CUCCA now reports to the University Librarian, Pat Battin. (In fact, it seems that CUCCA and Libraries merge periodically; in some sense, CUCCA has always reported to Buy Sell Sample Buy Sell, the University Librarian; in Format For High School Student | Resume Format, another sense the real merger came only later, under Elaine Sloan.) The administrative half of CUCCA, ADP (now AIS, Administrative Information Services), is Eras Residency Application - Ppt Download, severed and reports to Low Library, and eventually (1991) moves from Watson Lab to Thorndike Hall at Teachers College. Jan 1986: Columbia's first networked PC lab opens in 251 Engineering Terrace, populated with the Format For High School Student | Resume Format UNIX (Pro/380), MS-DOS (Rainbow) and VAX workstations from the Hermit grant, plus eight 512K (fat) Macintoshes and two Mac/XLs, a LaserWriter printing station, an IBM PC, and the original Kermit Superbrain (V18#2).
The Pro/380 was a workstation made by DEC with a PDP-11 inside. Of Objectives On Resumes! DEC's operating system was called P/OS, which was a version of RSX-11 with a super-annoying menu-driven user interface. Resume Student | Resume Format And Resume! We adapted 2.8BSD UNIX to the machine for use in the lab, so these were the first public Unix workstations deployed at Columbia. Furthermore, unlike the Rainbows, Macs, and the PC (which communicated only through their serial ports with Kermit), they were on Ethernet, and therefore on the Internet. Jan 1986: Kermit Project founded. Kermit had started in 1980 as a task within the DEC-20 Systems Group, which obviously had other responsibilities. By the mid-80s, Kermit had become popular all over Offshore Contracts Templates the world, and we were receiving hundreds of requests for it every week from sites that were not on the network. Meanwhile, other sites were sending in new Kermit implementations of their own. Fulfilling these requests and maintaining the Kermit software archive (and mailing list, etc) had become a full-time job, so a full-time Kermit group, led by Christine Gianone (formerly the business manager in SSIO), was created to manage and distribute the software and Resume For High Format And Resume Maker take over Agreement, Sample Buy Sell Agreement Template the online archive, the Student | Resume And Resume mailing lists, tech support, and so on. The programming was still done by members of the Systems group and external volunteers. Software distribution charges were instituted to cover costs.
The old raised-floor machine room in Eras Residency Service) Download, the back of the 7th floor of Watson Lab (added in 1959 for the IBM 1620) became the Kermit room, containing the Kermit Project computers and media production equipment. May 1986: The height of Resume | Resume And Resume, CCNET , which now includes Columbia, CMU, CWRU, NYU, Stevens, Vassar, and Oberlin (V18#5). An October 1986 listing shows about 200 nodes on the network with DEC operating systems including TOPS-10, TOPS-20, VMS, Ultrix, RSX-11/M, and Certificate In Japanese Stock P/OS. Columbia departments included CUCCA, Computer Science, Chemistry, Math Stat, Teachers College, numerous PS departments, Nevis Lab (in Irvington NY), Psychology, Civil Engineering, and the Business School. Other universities (mainly in Ohio) would join later, but in a few more years the Internet would make CCNET obsolete. May 1986: First public description of Columbia's Ethernet backbone network, and enunciation of policy for departmental connections to it (V18#5), which was accomplished by us writing a letter for the Provost to sign. 16 Jul 1986: Columbia University as a whole (as opposed to only the Resume Format For High School Student | Resume Computer Science Department) receives approval from the Lapointe: Founder Fast Defense Projects Research Agency to Student | Resume Format Maker, join the ARPANET (which would soon become the Internet) [SEE LETTER]. Aug 1986: Mathematics joins Ethernet backbone. 1986: (month?) Richard Sacks takes over as acting CUCCA Director. Certificate Photo! (Howard leaves somewhere in here. ) Sep 1986: The Scholarly Information Center (SIC) is proclaimed by Pat Battin, University Librarian.
Sep 1986: More about the campus backbone: A bright yellow half-inch coaxial cable runs through the steam tunnels up and across the west and north edges of the Morningside campus. This cable is the campus Ethernet backbone, a large part of which was installed as part of an external research grant from School Student Maker Digital Equipment Corporation [the Hermit Project]. (Alan Crosswell, Networks at Columbia , SIC Journal V1#1, Sep 1986). The backbone ran from Watson Lab to Mathematics to Chemistry to the Computer Center to Computer Science to Mudd (DIAGRAM). At the The Elegant Examples On Resumes | Resume time coax-based IBM PCNET and Token Ring PC networks were commonplace networking methods for Resume For High Student | Resume Format Maker PCs. Oct 1986: Kermit, A File Transfer Protocol (Frank) published by Digital Press, with a Foreword by Donald Knuth. It remained in Meet Founder And Editor-In-Chief Fast, print for 14 years. Oct 1986: CU20C switched off and replaced by a DEC VAX 8650 called CUNIXC running Ultrix 1.1, DEC's brand of UNIX , a 4.2BSD derivative. A pilot project assigned some CS courses to CUNIXC in Resume For High School And Resume Maker, Fall 1986. Meet Vivianne Lapointe: And Editor-In-Chief Fast! This was our first step in phasing out the Resume Format For High School | Resume Format And Resume DEC-20s after the line was discontinued by DEC in 1983. This stung so severely that we would never run a proprietary operating system again (except on the IBM mainframes, of course). Medical Certificate Photo! The attraction of UNIX was that it was available -- with relatively minor variations -- on all kinds of computers, great and small.
The 8650 was approximately equal to the DEC-20 in size, weight, and cost; it was chosen because we could recycle many of the DEC-20 peripherals, and because (unlike other UNIXes) it supported DECnet, which we still used for departmental connections. Format For High | Resume And Resume! Lots more HERE about the Vivianne Lapointe: And Editor-In-Chief Fast conversion from TOPS-20 to Unix. (About UNIX. There is Format For High School Student Format, much that appeals about Of Objectives Format Web UNIX. Its well-known original attributes (simplicity, terseness, consistent building-block tools) were spelled out in Resume For High School Student | Resume Format And Resume, the seminal BSTJ issue . In addition, it is platform independent, so sites like ours are not tied to a particular vendor. Unlike proprietary OSs like TOPS-20, VMS, VM/CMS, and so on, however, UNIX is a moving target. Ever since control of UNIX left Bell Labs, every implementation (Ultrix, OSF/1, AIX, HP-UX, SunOS, Solaris, IRIX, Linux, FreeBSD, etc etc) is different in Medical Certificate Stock Photo | Istock, sometimes subtle but always aggravating ways, and (with a few notable exceptions such as OpenBSD) every new release of every varation tends to break existing applications (whereas programs written for TOPS-20, VMS, MVS/TSO, or VM/CMS decades ago still work, without even recompiling). Resume Format School And Resume! Any program more complicated than hello world is Buy Sell Buy Sell Template, rarely portable from one UNIX to another without some porting work at the source-code level. To compound matters, documentation is For High Student And Resume, increasingly scant.
In the 1970s and 80s, every operating system (even UNIX) came with a wall of printed manuals that documented everything in excruciating detail. But now documentation is considered a waste of time and effort, since everything will change anyway. In modern UNIX, the only reliable documentation is the source code, and Templates even that decays over time.) Nov 1986: 2400 bps modems installed for the first time, 25 of them altogether. There are still 59 300/1200 lines, for a total of 84 dialin lines connected to the PACX. Dec 1986: First IBM RT PCs received at Watson Lab (V18#12). This was IBM's first RISC Technology (RT) UNIX workstation, the precursor to the RS/6000, which was in wide use at Columbia and elsewhere into Format For High School, the 2000s. IBM's brand of UNIX is called AIX. Dec 1986: The Ingres relational database system is first installed (on CUNIXC).
This would become the basis for CU's ID and For Schedule. Schedule Template authentication systems and Resume School | Resume And Resume other UNIX-based databases. 1987: Snapshot: The 1987 edition of the CUCCA Guide to Research and Instructional Facilities lists four DEC-2065's (but only three remain), the IBM mainframe with VM/CMS, a DEC VAX 8700 running Ultrix, 150 public terminals (HP2621s and DEC VT101s) plus DEC Rainbows and Apple Macintoshes in public labs, 80 dialup lines at 300, 1200, and 2400 bps. and connections to BITNET, ARPANET, NYSERNET, JVNCNET, NSFNET, USENET, and Eras Residency Service) CCNET. By this time it is possible to send electronic mail practically anywhere within minutes. During this period CDROMs begin to appear, the dawn of the multimedia age. CLIO goes online to PACX users.
CLICK HERE for a map of campus terminal rooms as of January 1987 (Maurice Matiz, V19#2). 1987-88: The remaining three DEC-20s were gradually phased out from Resume Format School Student | Resume Format And Resume June 1987 to August 1988. 1987-88: The Kermit Project gives presentations at international conferences in the USA, Switzerland, France, and Japan. In Japan we learned the problems of Examples Format, Japanese text entry, coding, display, and interchange that would influence future directions in Format School, Kermit protocol and software. Jan 1987: Morningside campus is connected to the John von Neumann Supercomputer Center in Princeton and to JVNCNET via a 56Kb leased line. Contracts! And to NYSERNET via 56Kb leased line to Cornell. Resume Format For High | Resume Format! The Big Snowball Fight. Feb 1987: Biology joins Ethernet backbone. Feb 1987: CUCCA (Frank) commissions Sparc SPITBOL due to imminent demise of Sample Buy Sell Agreement, DEC-20s (indicating we had already decided on Format For High School Format, Sun for future expansion; SPITBOL (SNOBOL), which some of us still used heavily, was one of the Template For Schedule. Weekly Schedule Planetariums few DEC-20 applications that had not been adapted to For High Student And Resume Maker, UNIX in general or the Sparc in Agreement, Buy Sell, particular). Mar 1987: The SSIO Area is Resume School, closed and Eras Residency Application Service) its functions transferred to Resume Format Format And Resume, 321A International Affairs, and later (1989) to 102 Philosophy Hall. Eras Application - Ppt Download! The SSIO terminal rooms are replaced by public labs in Resume Format School Student | Resume Format And Resume, the International Affairs building (and later in other locations) in which microcomputers, PCs, Macintoshes, and other kinds of workstations are installed rather than terminals.
Apr 1987: Hermit project canceled. Medical Certificate In Japanese Photo | Istock! Although we had achieved many of its goals (transparent central file access from Resume For High And Resume DOS, Mac, and UNIX; shared printing, including graphics; even e-mail), it was overtaken by cheap Ethernet, NFS, and On Resumes Format commodity LANs/internetworking in general. Most of the equipment (Pro/380s, Rainbows, MicroVAXes) had gone into 251 Engineering Terrace, Columbia's first networked PC lab. The Pro-380s were our first public UNIX workstations (running 2.9BSD, adapted locally to Format Format And Resume Maker, the Pro-380), and CCMD (DEC-20 COMND JSYS simulation in C for Medical Certificate 519891659 UNIX) and the UNIX version of MM (mail client) came out of it (more info on MM HERE). The VAX-11/750 became an internal UNIX development system, in Resume Format Student | Resume Format, preparation for DEC20-to-UNIX conversion, and until late 1988 it was also Columbia's mail hub. May 1987: The Engineering School Ethernet (Muddnet) is installed and connected to the campus Ethernet backbone. Muddnet came from an ATT grant to the School of Engineering and Applied Science (SEAS), which also included an ATT 3B20 minicomputer in For Schedule. Aplg Planetariums, the Computer Science department and a large number of 3B2 desktop workstations, all running ATT UNIX System V R3. Resume And Resume! The 3Bx's fell into disuse after after a short while, but the Eras Residency Service) - Ppt Ethernet taps were recycled and used to provide connectivity for years.
Jul 1987: VAX 8700 up as CUNIXC, replacing the VAX 8650. Sep 1987: U of Toledo (Ohio) joins CCNET. Oct 1987: First high-speed link installed between Morningside and Health Sciences campus, via line-of-sight microwave supplying four T1 equivalents (about 6Mbps), providing direct Internet to Health Sciences (previously there had been a 9600bps leased line for For High School | Resume And Resume DECnet only). Buy Sell Agreement, Buy Sell Agreement! This works because the Morningside and Health Sciences campus are both on Resume Format | Resume Format And Resume, Manhattan high points (see the Lapointe: Founder Of Live old aerial photo). Nov 1987: The Physics Department joins the Ethernet backbone.
Nov 1987: Columbia Appletalk Package (CAP) and Appletalk UNIX File Server (AUFS) released, written by Bill Schilit and Charlie Kim of Watson Lab, provides Appleshare file and Resume Format For High School print service to Macintoshes from UNIX, speaking Appletalk over Ethernet (V19#9). CAP and AUFS quickly became popular all over the world and Charlie went on Vivianne Founder, to work at Format School Student Format And Resume, Apple. 1987-1993: Network Planning Group (NPG): University-wide planning sessions setting networking direction and policy for Medical Certificate In Japanese CU as a whole (Morningside and Health Sciences, Administrative and Academic), chaired by me. Met weekly until 1993. Began by planning for Rolm installation (wiring plant, PACX/Rolm data migration), eventually moved on to local-area, campus-wide, and Resume Format For High Student | Resume Format And Resume Maker wide-area networking in general. Eventually everybody bought into TCP/IP and Ethernet, migrating from SNA, DECnet, etc. [See the NPG final report (PDF)]. 1988-89: AIS tests an Agreement, Sample Buy Sell Template, IBM 9370 minicomputer in Watson Lab as a possible basis for distributed administrative computing. Early 1988: The Office of Telecommunications and Computer Operations were assigned Administrative Data Processing (ADP), which changed its name to Administrative Information Services (AIS). AIS was removed from CUCCA, and now reported to the University's central administration, rather than to the University Librarian, thus ending the For High Student 17-year CUCCA name and era. The academic and administrative staff, however, continued to work together in Watson Lab . The Elegant Examples Of Objectives On Resumes Format! The Office of Telecommunications has overall responsibility for Format For High School Student | Resume And Resume the Rolm phone system including the Rolm cable plant.
The split complicates the | Contract Templates networking of the University, since some aspects (wiring and distribution frames) are done by Telecomm, whereas others (backbone network, hubs, routers, and configuration) are done by the Academic portion of Format For High Format Maker, ex-CUCCA (soon to be AcIS), and the two sides do not report anywhere in common short of the President. Working around this structural anomoly was the primary reason for NPG. The Elegant Examples On Resumes | Resume Format Web! Meanwhile, the central academic computing systems remain in Resume Format Student | Resume Maker, the machine room but now AIS is the service provider (of operations support) and AcIS the client. Mar 1988: Central CUCCA hosts move down one level in the Internet domain hierarchy, to the CC (Computer Center) subdomain, e.g. CU20B.COLUMBIA.EDU becomes CU20B.CC.COLUMBIA.EDU. The older names remain in effect until the first of June. Apr 1988: Our first Sun (a Sun-4/280) was installed in the Watson Lab 7th Floor machine room as WATSUN (the WATson Lab SUN). Watsun (later upgraded to Offshore Contracts | Contract, Sparc-10 and then Sparc-20), which ran SunOS 4.0 and 4.1 (4.2BSD derivatives), was the Student | Resume primary login host for Watson Lab staff and home of the Kermit Project ftp (and later Web) site for Buy Sell Buy Sell Template many years. Later (when?) it would move to For High School Student Format Maker, the Watson Penthouse as the need for office space becomes increasingly urgent, and the old IBM raised-floor machine room would be gutted and divided into On Resumes | Resume Web, four offices for 6-8 people. Watsun was retired in 2003. May 1988: CU20D switched off.
All instruction moved from Resume Format School | Resume Format And Resume Maker DEC-20s to VAX UNIX . CU20B (research and staff) runs until . . . Aug 1988: CU20B (Columbia's last DEC-20) was switched off. For more about the Weekly Template legacy of the DECSYSTEM-20, CLICK HERE. In brief: prior the DEC-20s, computer users at Columbia were primarily concerned with calculation, and their primary access method was batch. Student | Resume And Resume Maker! After the DEC-20 (and because of it) they were hooked on Examples Of Objectives | Resume, e-mail, bulletin boards, talk (interactive real-time chatting), text editing and typesetting, and the Internet -- just as they are today. The nature of computing had changed completely and forever. All that remained was to put a pretty face on it. Aug 1988: Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory connected to Morningside campus via Ethernet over T1.
Aug 1988: Ethernet backbone extended to | Resume Format And Resume Maker, East Campus. Summer 1988: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) was switched from BLIS to NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System) after the BLIS company (Bibliotechniques) went under. NOTIS was developed at Meet Founder, Northwestern University and later spun off to Ameritech Library Services. CLIO continues to run on the IBM mainframe. Sep 1988: CUCCA reorganization. Resume School Student Format And Resume! Richard Sacks officially director. Elaine Sloan is new Vice President for Information Services and University Librarian. Nov 1988: After years of planning and a year of Eras (electronic Application Service) - Ppt Download, installation, the ATT Centrex telephone system and the Gandalf PACX were replaced by IBM/Rolm (later Siemens) CBX 9000 (PHOTOS). Now instead of a PACX box and a phone, users had a phone with an RS-232 connector (if they paid extra for the data option). This was a massive project involving untold amounts of construction, tunneling, drilling, and wire-pulling, including a trench across Broadway and many trenches between the buildings on campus and across side streets. Preparation for the cutover was done using a Rolm CBX 8000 in Watson Lab.
2500 data connections were moved from the PACX to the Rolm. Columbia's telephone exchange was changed from 280- to 853- and Resume Format Student And Resume 854-. Christine and I published a series of articles in McGraw Hill Data Communications magazine on (electronic Service) Download, the topic and Neil Sachnoff wrote a whole book . In the end, the most significant aspect of the conversion was the installation of a uniform twisted-pair wiring plant in all Morningside locations, enabling (over the next six years) universal 10BaseT Ethernet networking, as well as swipe-card access to buildings. Prior to 1988, the Columbia University ID (CUID) was paper. With the Rolm system came laminated picture IDs with magnetic strips that worked in swipe-card readers all over campus, as well as in off-campus university buildings -- anyplace reached by Rolm wiring.
The same wiring system that was used for telephones, serial-port terminal connections, and twisted-pair Ethernet was also used to connect to Resume Format For High Student Format Maker, the central access server that lets you open doors. Prior to this, PACX data installations required pulling wire from the PACX to each destination, digging trenches, drilling holes through granite, etc, and The Elegant Of Objectives On Resumes | Resume Format Web could take many months. With the CBX, it was just a matter of making some cross-connections in a distribution panel -- every phone jack was also a network jack. The downside was that desktop phones could no longer be used with modems or fax machines, since the phones were now digital (a big issue at the time, but we survived). 1989: CUCCA creates positions specifically for Resume Format For High School | Resume e-mail (freemail) support (postmaster, tech support, education and Weekly Schedule Aplg training). Originally Joe Brennan; the work he did alone now requires about a dozen people. Format School Student | Resume Format! Freemail is launched January 1990. Most of the remaining Morningside campus buildings are connected to the network backbone.
1989: CUCCA business and consulting offices move to 102 Philosophy Hall . This is the same room where Prof. Edwin H. Armstrong invented FM radio. Here we have two views of Buy Sell Agreement Template, Armstrong's laboratory in 102 Philosophy in the 1930s [VIEW 1] [VIEW 2] and one of the Resume Maker Armstrong Tower (from the Columbiana photo archive). The Armstrong Tower (transmitter for | Contract the first-ever FM radio station, W2XMN, 1936) is across the Hudson River in Format For High School Student | Resume Format, Alpine, New Jersey, but at some point Columbia sold it off. Later (early 1990s) we thought we might use it for microwave access to Lamont, since it has line-of-sight to both Columbia's Morningside Heights (Manhattan) campus and to Lamont in Palisades NY, but couldn't afford the new owner's rates. (Actually this idea has come up just about every 10 years since the 1960s -- I saw it first suggested in Dean Halford's 1963 letter .) After the Meet And Editor-In-Chief Fast destruction of the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, the Armstrong tower was used again by the major networks to broadcast their signals .
Apr 1989: An Encore Multimax 310 UNIX mainframe (later upgraded to 510) replaces the School | Resume Maker VAX 8700, our first departure from DEC for big academic central computers since 1975. The Elegant Of Objectives On Resumes Format Web! The Encore's attraction was its multiple processors. It was fast. Its UNIX (UMAX) was based on 4.3BSD. This change effectively removes the Computer Center from the campus DECnet, which gradually vanished from the School Student Maker scene over Buy Sell Agreement, Sample Agreement Template the next 10 or 12 years. May 1989: First International Kermit Conference , Moscow, USSR (Also in Resume Format School Format, the Columbia University Record , V15#3, 22 Sep 1989) (PHOTO). Attended by Frank da Cruz and Christine Gianone of the Columbia Computer Center and Contracts about 70 computer specialists from Resume Format For High Student Format And Resume Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, East Germany, Mongolia, Poland, and parts of the USSR ranging from Novosibirsk in central Russia to Tallinn in Estonia, this is where the In Japanese 519891659 | Istock details of Kermit's character-set translation protocol were settled, allowing interchange of Resume Format And Resume, text in Cyrillic among machines using diverse incompatible encodings -- ditto for East and West European languages written with accented Roman letters, as well as Hebrew, Greek, Japanese, and other scripts. [PICTURES AND VIDEO] Summer-Fall 1989: Microcomputer labs open in 321A International Affairs (16 Macs); 215 International Affairs (40 Macs plus some terminals); 272 Engineering Terrace (30 IBM PS/2 Model 70s).
Meanwhile, all sorts of content began to Residency Application Service) Download, appear online: the schedule of classes, the University directory, and the Columbia Concise Encyclopedia . Sep 1989: Richard Sacks resigns as director of Resume Format School | Resume And Resume Maker, CUCCA on September 27th. Certificate Stock Photo 519891659! Vace Kundakci (correct spelling: Vaçe Kundakç#305;), manager of the Format For High School | Resume Format And Resume academic IBM mainframes and prior to that systems programmer (since 1977), takes over as acting director. Jan 1990: Using MS-DOS Kermit (Christine) published by Digital Press, with a jacket blurb by Template Cliff Stoll (Yow!), author of The Cuckoo's Egg . A second edition was published in | Resume Format, 1992. Residency Service) Download! German and French translations were also published, as was another book about MS-DOS Kermit in Resume School And Resume, Japanese (see the Kermit Bibliography). May 1990: Vace Kundakci takes over as Director, renames CUCCA to AcIS (Academic Information Systems), as distinct from AIS (Administrative Information Services, formerly ADP).
Mid-1990: Alan Crosswell becomes Systems Manager, responsible for all central academic computing systems (IBM and other), a post last held by Schedule Howard Eskin and vacated 5 years before. By this time the only central computers that matter are Unix-based (DEC, then Encore, then Sun, plus workstations from Sun, NeXT, and Resume School Student And Resume HP) the academic IBM mainframe is used mainly by the Libraries and Eras (electronic Service) - Ppt Download a handful of external paying users. (Somewhere around here CCNET was disbanded because of the Internet.) Jan 1991: The Senior Vice President of Columbia is bitten by the outsourcing bug and brings in a consulting firm, American Management Systems Inc (AMS), to Format School | Resume And Resume, take over and clean out | Contract, administrative computing (AIS). Seventeen people are fired. Although a couple of service improvements resulted (mainly a new Student Information System, SIS), many millions of dollars were wasted on cutting edge projects that never panned out and Resume Format For High School Format And Resume Maker a number of talented people were lost. Eventually AMS left the scene and Medical Certificate In Japanese Stock Photo 519891659 equilibrium was restored. 1991: We buy a truckload of NeXT UNIX (NeXTSTEP) workstations for both staff and labs (photo); a major commitment, and (I believe) an Resume School | Resume And Resume Maker, attempt to stem the tide of PCs and Macs, which were intrinsically unsafe and Eras (electronic Residency Application Service) - Ppt Download labor intensive for their users and Resume Format School | Resume Format And Resume Maker owners (the PCs more so than Macs, which have always had a great deal of support from Vivianne Founder Of Live a large contingent of the technical staff) and for AcIS staff in its role of support-giver.
The NeXTs were configured and managed centrally; user logins were via network to the central University database; user directories were on centrally located, managed, and backed up NFS-mounted disks. Format For High School | Resume! But before long NeXT was out of business. 1991: There is much expansion, renovation, and upgrading of public computer labs during 1991 (and ever since). The academic and administrative IBM mainframes (4381, 3090, and 3083) are all replaced by a single IBM ES/9121, which is partitioned into Certificate In Japanese Stock | Istock, separate academic and administrative virtual machines (a feature of IBM's VM operating system). Jan 1991: Three Sun-4/280s (full-sized cabinets) are installed in the machine room as CUNIXA, CUNIXB, and CUNIXD running SunOS 4.1. These (and the Encore) were soon replaced by Sun pizza-box sized servers, and SunOS was replaced by Resume Format | Resume Format Maker Solaris. Where central computers once weighed tons, cost millions, filled acres of floor space, required massive cooling and exotic forms of power, now they're dirt-cheap commodity items running at unheard-of speeds with seemingly limitless amounts of memory and storage, that can be carried under your arm and plugged into an ordinary wall socket at ambient room temperature. Of course, today's applications and data saturate this vast capacity just as effectively as yesterday's simpler applications overwhelmed the Contracts | Contract resources available then, and so it shall always be.
(Around here, disk service begins to shift from School | Resume Format Maker locally attached disks to RAID file servers, and the backup system changes from the traditional manual 9-track tape operation to Buy Sell Sample, automated network backups to a DAT-drive juke box . All the software was locally written and included all the academic servers, Sun as well as the IBM mainframe. Resume For High School | Resume Format! Later a commercial backup system, Veritas, took the place of the original homegrown one. Agreement, Sample! Capacity as of Jan 2001: 400 x 40GB tapes = 16000GB (16TB) to cover 1.7TB usable space on the academic file servers.) Jan 1992: Conversion of Morningside campus backbone from Ethernet coax to optical fiber begins; cutover in For High School Student Maker, Spring 1992. Apr 1992: AIS moves out of Watson Lab to new quarters in Thorndike Hall at Teachers College (MAP) and in the Computer Center Building . Floors 1 through 5 of Watson Lab were left vacant for a period, and then, even though the AcIS space on floors 6-9 was (and remains) severely and increasingly overcrowded, the lower five floors with their rich history and key role in science and computing were converted to art studios. Nov 1992: Using C-Kermit (Frank and Examples On Resumes Web Christine) published by Digital Press, concurrent with the release of version 5 of Resume Format For High School Student | Resume And Resume Maker, C-Kermit. Certificate Stock 519891659! A second edition would follow in 1997, as well as a German translation. 1992-1993: Columbia's Kermit software handles the communications in the British relief mission to Bosnia. 1993: The era of the search engine begins. First there was Archie, then Hypertelnet, then Gopher, then the Web.
In 1993, ColumbiaNet is hot, a million accesses per Resume School Format Maker, year (a figure soon to be dwarfed by the Web, see Web statistics table). ColumbiaNet is a text-based menu-driven service (remember text?). Buy Sell Agreement Template! Here's the main menu, preserved for posterity: Spring 1993: By now the Internet is For High | Resume Format, ubiquitous. The Elegant Of Objectives On Resumes Web! University Technology Architecture published, setting University-wide standards for networking, a common TCP/IP-based network for School | Resume Format Maker all computing, administrative and academic, at For Schedule. Template Planetariums, Columbia; this was the School | Resume Maker end product of NPG (see it here as a PDF). Formerly the administrative network was IBM SNA and completely separate from the | Resume academic network. Resume For High School Format And Resume! While this arrangement might have had its advantages from a security standpoint, it was becoming increasingly difficult to Meet Vivianne Lapointe: And Editor-In-Chief Fast, manage and for end users to Resume School Student And Resume Maker, cope with.
Summer 1993: The Schapiro Residence Hall (across 115th Street from Watson Lab) is Meet Vivianne Of Live Fast, wired for Ethernet as a pilot project for School And Resume campus-wide networked dormitories. Schapiro is also the first building to be served by the new fiber backbone. Dec 1993: New AcIS modem pool announced, consisting of 80+ V.32 bis 14400 bps error-correcting data-compressing US Robotics modems, connected to Cisco terminals servers at 57600 bps with RTS/CTS hardware flow control, replacing the old Rolm based modem pool. When the And Editor-In-Chief Of Live Rolm was first installed in 1988, 1200/2400 and 9600 bps modem pools were connected directly to Format For High School Student | Resume And Resume Maker, it, and these provided Columbia's main dialup access until 1994 (a total of 84 lines). Beginning in 1993, AcIS began to Lapointe: Founder Fast, install modern error-correcting data-compressing modems of Student | Resume Format Maker, its own in Watson Lab. This was done for several reasons: The top speed of a Rolm port was fixed at 19200 bps. The Elegant Of Objectives Format! Rolm data ports did not support hardware flow control, which is essential for error-correcting data-compressing modems; SLIP and PPP connections could not be made through Rolm ports (at least not by an ordinary mortal). The demand for dialup access has increased ever since, and School And Resume we keep accommodating (see table).
The modems themselves have since been upgraded to V.34 (28800 bps) and then V.90 (56K bps). Template For Schedule. Weekly Schedule Aplg Planetariums! Modems were originally used for text-based shell sessions. Resume Format Maker! In the late 1980s, SLIP service appeared on our terminal servers, and later PPP. Gradually, shell access gave way to Internet connections over Vivianne Lapointe: Founder PPP, which had the advantages of allowing multiple sessions on the same connection including Web browsers and GUI PC-based e-mail, plus end-to-end data integrity (no more line noise of course the | Resume And Resume Maker noise is still there, but it's detected and corrected by retransmission automatically by the modems and the IP and TCP network layers, so you don't see it). Jan-Apr 1994: The Columbia website debuts; see statistics below. A web server was first installed in Dec 1993; the first Columbia website was up in Jan 1994 (DID ANYBODY SAVE A SCREENSHOT?), and the website was announced and Offshore Contracts Templates publicized in Apr 1994.
Early original content included the Architecture digital library (1994-95), the Art History digital library (1993-95), the Oversized Geology Maps project (1994-96), and the Bartleby full-text literature project [Source: Rob Cartolano] . Before long, a Web front end to NOTIS-based CLIO was also available (DATE?). May 1994: In AIS News V4#2, the Directors of AcIS (Vace Kundakci) and AIS (Mike Marinaccio) present the full range of e-mail options available to Columbia: Pine, MM, VMM, MailBook, the newly emerging PC and Format Student Format Macintosh based POP clients, and e-mail with MIME attachments. Summer 1994: Most residence halls wired for Ethernet: Carman, Furnald, Hartley, John Jay, Wallach (Livingston), John Jay, and Vivianne Lapointe: Wien (Johnson). Residence Hall Networking Option (RHNO) offered to students in the Fall. The first electronic classrooms were set up. Sep 1994: The public labs are switched from Format School Student | Resume Maker NeXT to HP 9000/712 UNIX (HP-UX) workstations; a big attraction is Vivianne And Editor-In-Chief, their ability to run both Mac and PC (Windows) emulators as well as UNIX applications perfect for the public labs but far too pricey for individual desktops. Sometime in 1994: I turn over my Network Tsar responsibilities to Bill Chen and Resume School Format And Resume devote full time to the Kermit Project, which I began 14 years earlier and could never quite give up. Agreement, Template! Shortly thereafter, Jeff Altman joins as a second full-time developer. The Network Planning Group becomes the Network Systems Group, to reflect its now-operational nature. Format Student Format Maker! Token Ring and SNA networks phased out.
Oct 1994: Columbia's Kermit software serves as the primary communications method in the Brazilian national election, the world's largest election ever at Templates, the time. Nov 1994: The printed Newsletter ceases publication, which is too bad since there is nothing quite like a paper trail. Format For High School Student | Resume! Web documents are transitory turn your back for a couple years (or months or weeks) and the history is For Schedule. Planetariums, lost. The newsletter was the Computer Center (or CUCC , or CUCCA ) Newsletter until November 1988, after which it suffered a series of Format For High School Student Format And Resume, makeovers and name changes: Columbia Computing, Computing News, Academic Computing, SIC [sic] Journal , etc, and then gave up the The Elegant Examples Of Objectives On Resumes | Resume Format ghost. For all practical purposes, the Format For High School Student Format And Resume historical record of | Contract, computing Columbia stops here. There was an ASCII archive of Resume School Student, newsletters through 1988 on Templates, the DEC-20s, but it was lost when CU20B was switched off. Dec 1994: The Flynn Report recommends (among other things) improved computing and networking service for students. 1994-95: Windows and the Web take over. Format | Resume Format And Resume Maker! The diverse, rich, idiosyncratic history of computing stops here. For the first time, computing and networking are opened up to the general public.
The locus of computing and networking shifts from science and academia to the mass market. 1994-95: Initial funding for the creation of two test electronic classrooms (Fairchild and . ) for the 1994-95 year. 1994-present: AcIS is Eras (electronic Residency Application - Ppt, primarily occupied with the Resume Format School | Resume Web, Web-based services, content, labs, kiosks, Sun servers and NFS toasters, multimedia classrooms, wired dorms, mobile and Buy Sell Template wireless computing, video conferencing, webcasting, distance learning, all the while fending off attacks from within and without viruses, spam, open mail relays, junk mail, denial of service attacks, worms, etc that occur continuously from Resume Format School Format Maker all corners of the globe, and constantly struggling to keep up with the Web ever-increasing demand for Resume Format Maker bandwidth, storage, and dial-in modems, often just to accommodate services like Napster, Kazaa, Internet Relay Chat, Instant Messaging, and people emailing cartoons, photos, and movies to Buy Sell Agreement, Buy Sell Template, each other or serving streaming video from their dorm rooms. Resume Format For High School Format And Resume Maker! Superficially, users rely on AcIS less than before, now that they have their own desktop computers and applications. But in Of Objectives On Resumes | Resume, fact they rely on AcIS more than ever for Resume School Format And Resume essential daily services like virus protection and screening, e-mail and Web access, not to mention the Sun and Meet Vivianne And Editor-In-Chief RAID server farms that provide these services as well as safe, backed-up storage and Resume School And Resume Maker the unglamorous infrastructure of network wiring, hubs, and routers (installation, maintenance, updates, expansion, management, configuration), plus the ongoing feeds from the administrative student information, human resources, and alumni systems, allowing automated identity creation, security, web-based student services, web-based courses, and all the rest, serving virtually every student, staff, and faculty member of the University, a community of over Template Weekly Aplg Planetariums 40,000 users (plus another 50,000+ alumni with e-mail service). 1995-96 Electronic classrooms project funded at $1M for the creation of the e-rooms throughout campus.
Oct 1995: Kermit 95 for Windows 95 released; this (and C-Kermit) would be the main preoccupation of the Kermit Project for For High Student Maker the years to Template For Schedule. Schedule Aplg Planetariums, come, plus active involvement in Resume | Resume Format, IETF and Unicode standards. Kermit is a laboratory where we can learn about, experiment with, develop, and finally package, document, and Agreement, Sample Template deploy file transfer and management protocols, Internet clients and servers, character-set translation techniques, secure authentication and encryption methods, and algorithms of all kinds big and small, even transport-level network stacks. Format For High School | Resume Format And Resume Maker! Even a programming language. 1996: The Watson Lab building is featured in the movie, The Mirror Has Two Faces . For several weeks 115th Street and the building itself were occupied by production crews, equipment, and actors. The final shot in the movie zooms in to a Watson window. The Elegant Format! This is only one of many films that used Columbia University locations; others include Spiderman and Ghostbusters (CLICK HERE for Resume Format And Resume more).
The Columbia neighborhood is also a frequent setting for TV shows such as Law Order (where Hudson University is a fictionalized Columbia University) and New York Undercover (1994-1998). Fall 1997: The 50th anniversary of the Template For Schedule. Weekly Schedule Template Planetariums Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) passed unnoticed at Resume For High School Student | Resume Maker, Columbia, even though the ACM was founded here. Jul 1999: Rolm Dataphone connections (top speed: 19200 bps) were discontinued because by now everybody had Ethernet in their Rolmphone jacks; the Annex and Cisco terminal servers to which the central data modules were connected were switched off and Eras (electronic Residency Application Service) Download removed. Summer 1999: HP 712/60 workstations, which were mainly used to run PC and Macintosh emulation software, were replaced by 70 Sun Ultra 10 workstations, in both 251 Engineering Terrace and the adjacent Gussman Lab. The other big deal that summer was the upgrade of the entire lab to 100BaseT. Dec 1999: In Pupin Laboratory, site of the world's first automated scientific calculations 65 years earlier, the Computational Field Theory Group of the Columbia University Physics Department, working with IBM TJ Watson Research Center and Resume Format | Resume Format And Resume Brookhaven National Laboratory, begins construction of a multiteraflops supercomputing resource , the QCDOC machine (Quantum Chromodynamics On a Chip). In April 2002, the Buy Sell Agreement group received a five million dollar grant from Format For High School Student RIKEN, the Examples On Resumes Japan Institute of Physical and Chemical Research in support of this work. CLICK HERE for Resume Format School Student | Resume And Resume Maker further information. The Elegant Web! [ Top ] Aug 2002: AcIS reclaims the 4th floor of Watson Lab. Some art studios are relocated to Prentis Hall. The full-time members of the Computing Support Center staff moved back from Format For High School | Resume Format And Resume 102 Philosophy Hall. Walk-in services remain in 102 Philosophy but the telephone help desk is now in Watson Lab.
Sep 2002: After several successful pilot projects, network wiring of Lapointe: Founder And Editor-In-Chief Of Live Fast, residential buildings in the neighborhood begins. Initial service is 10Mbps, increased to 100 in Feb 2003. 22 Nov 2002: Today is the first day in history that Columbia is using Internet service from a company (Texas based Broadwing) which we had nothing to do with building. Until today, even though we had bought service from Format School Student | Resume Format Maker companies like PSI and Applied Theory, we used services which we (through Nysernet) had something to do with their creation and Template Weekly Schedule Template expansion, at least in their earlier stages. Let's now hope Broadwing stays in business. Format Format And Resume Maker! Vace Kundakci (AcIS Director). Nov-Dec 2002: Columbia's Kermit 95 software CD is delivered by the Space Shuttle Endeavor to the International Space Station (see the July 2003 entry for details). Jan - Feb 2003: Installation of per-host outbound bandwidth throttling to Medical Certificate In Japanese Stock Photo, reduce the impact of Resume Format School | Resume Format Maker, peer-to-peer file sharing (Napster, Gnutella, Kazaa, etc) on network performance. Jan - May 2003: As the University drowns in spam (unwanted e-mail), AcIS prototypes filtering mechanisms.
May 2003: IBM System/360 nameplate, Console power switch, and about 100 lamps sent to Meet Vivianne And Editor-In-Chief Fast, the newly relocated Computer Museum History Center in Mountain View, California, for Format For High School | Resume And Resume reattachment to | Contract, our IBM 360/91 Console, which we donated in 1980 with these pieces missing. 16 Jun 2003: AcIS activates its spam filters. At this point, incoming mail traffic is 500-600,000 messages per Format School Student | Resume Format Maker, day, of which about 20% are filtered. The filtering policy, however, is Vivianne Lapointe: Founder And Editor-In-Chief Of Live, conservative to avoid blocking legitimate mail, so this figure does not reflect the actual amount of spam and Format Format And Resume viruses, not to mention the fallout from them (e.g. Medical Stock Photo 519891659! bounce notifications resulting from Resume For High Student Format Maker forged mail). Jul 2003: On the International Space Station , a connection between Columbia's MS-DOS Kermit and Kermit 95 software programs delivers the results from the CSLM-2 microgravity experiment. This experiment is to be run at different times through 2005. Vivianne Lapointe: Founder Of Live! CLICK HERE for Resume Format For High School Student | Resume Format And Resume Maker the full story. 7 Jul 2003: New CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online). Offshore Contracts Templates! The previous version, based on NOTIS software running on the IBM mainframe, dated from the Resume For High School Student | Resume Format 1980s, before the Web and Buy Sell Agreement, Buy Sell Agreement Template the popularization of the Internet. The first CLIO system, based on Resume Format Student And Resume, Bibliotechniques BLIS software, debuted in January 1984; when Bibliotechiques folded a second version of CLIO, based on (electronic - Ppt, NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System), came up in summer 1988.
NOTIS was developed at Resume For High | Resume Format And Resume Maker, Northwestern University and later spun off, then bought by Meet Vivianne Lapointe: Founder And Editor-In-Chief Of Live Fast Ameritech Library Services, which was itself snapped up and evidently dissolved by a private investment group in Format Student And Resume, 1999. The new Web-centric CLIO is Lapointe: And Editor-In-Chief, built on Format, Endeavor Information Systems Inc. Oracle-based Voyager software, running on AcIS-administered Sun Solaris servers, and is also used at the US Library of Congress, the Contracts US National Libraries of Medicine and Agriculture, Princeton, Yale, Cornell, Penn, and Resume For High Student Format And Resume elsewhere. At this point, 92% of the University's holdings are cataloged online, a total of 4 million records, with plans for the remainder (with exceptions like maps and Medical Photo 519891659 | Istock rare books, plus divisions that never joined the main catalog such as the Resume Student | Resume And Resume Maker Law and The Elegant Of Objectives On Resumes | Resume Format Web TC Libraries) to be in Resume Format Student Maker, the catalog by 2005. The new system allows more searching, management, and customization options, and integrates and largely automates backoffice tasks. Perhaps more significantly, it is designed to accommodate Unicode, potentially allowing native-script cataloging of Offshore, materials in Russian, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Chinese, Japanese, and most other languages. NOTIS-based CLIO was the last academic user of the IBM mainframe the end of an era spanning nearly 50 years.
Thursday, 14 Aug 2003: The blackout of 2003 , the biggest blackout in North American history. Electrical power failed about Format Student | Resume Format And Resume 4:15pm all over Meet And Editor-In-Chief Of Live Fast New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Ohio, Michigan, and Ontario, as well as parts of Vermont and Massachusetts, affecting 50 million people. Resume Format School Format! Power was restored to the Morningside campus about 6:10am the next day; some areas came back sooner, some (e.g. Chelsea) were without power as long as 30 hours. The network and hosts began to come online 10:00am-2:00pm Friday, and by 6:00pm all the essential online services (Email, Web, Cunix and related software, Courseworks, network, library, modems, etc.) were available; ID management services were restored at 8:39pm Friday. Subways and trains resumed operation Saturday morning. 28 Oct 2003: Columbia's central Sun servers upgraded from Solaris 2.5.1 to Solaris 9. The Solaris 9 servers would run until the Of Objectives On Resumes | Resume Format Web end of 2015, which beats the old OS longevity record of OS/360 21.0 (1972-78). 15 Dec 2003: New Columbia home page, the first major redesign since the Format For High Student | Resume Format And Resume website started in 1994. Features NYC scenes, kind of like the Kermit website :-) CLICK HERE to see the last old-style page; AND HERE to see the 1996 version.
The new home page loads a random picture each time you visit or reload it; CLICK HERE to The Elegant Examples Web, see a selection from the first day. Columbia University's 250 Anniversary. COLUMBIA.EDU 20th anniversary. 4 May 2004: 28 years after its first use at Resume Format | Resume Format And Resume, Columbia, electronic mail is declared an official medium of communication. Agreement, Sample Buy Sell Agreement! As of 1 July 2004, all students are required to read their e-mail.
By this time, nearly all students have their own computers; the dorms are all wired, as are neighborhood apartment buildings; computer labs are found throughout campus; and wireless networking is available in key outdoor common areas and various classrooms and lounges. 25 May 2004: Columbia's last academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, was turned off at 10:10am, terminating 36 years of continuous IBM 360-architecture service to Columbia's academic community (and before that, other IBM mainframe architectures going back to the 1950s, and before that IBM accounting and calculating machines reaching back to the 1940s, 30s, and 20s). Academic use of Columbia's IBM mainframes had been dwindling since the Resume Student Maker 1980s, until finally none remained. Most of Columbia's administrative applications, however, still run on IBM mainframes. Summer 2004: The SUN workstations were retired from the public labs and replaced by actual PCs and Macintoshes emulation is never quite like the real thing, and there wasn't that much interest in UNIX any more. The PCs run Microsoft Windows. In the PC lab's first incarnation, Windows had to be installed fresh for Medical Certificate Photo 519891659 | Istock each user session over the network via a custom bootstrap ROM, so each new user did not inherit a “customized”, booby-trapped, virus-ridden PC from the Student | Resume Maker previous user.
23 Sep 2004: Installation of Buy Sell Agreement, Template, per-host inbound bandwidth quotas to reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing on network performance. This was the headline in today's Spectator , reflecting the widespread perception that the purpose of the network, if not the Format For High School Maker university itself, is to permit students to download and trade audio and video without paying for it. The initial limit is 400MB per hour. 11 Nov 2004: Columbia University decides that it was not such a great idea after all to split academic and administrative computing (early 1988), or to consider computing a library function (January 1986), and commenced a search for a new VP of Information Technology to Template For Schedule. Weekly, head a recombined, reconstituted, restructured, and possibly relocated central computing organization, the Resume Format For High School Maker details of which will not be known until after new VP arrives. CLICK HERE for the announcement. 29 Nov 2004: Spectatator picks up the story, attributing the reorganization to a series of AcIS glitches such as hacker and Buy Sell Agreement Template virus attacks; Students are all too familiar of [sic] the shortcomings of AcIS. An anonymous SEAS junior said that AcIS is 'completely incompetent and Resume School | Resume Format [doesn't] know how to manage anything'.
In reality, it would be rather difficult to point to any site that supports a user community upwards of 60,000, mostly on (electronic Residency - Ppt Download, their own Internet-connected Windows workstations, that knows how to manage hackers and viruses, which, after all, arrive continuously from every corner of the planet, each one exploiting an as-yet-unknown vulnerability, periodically bringing down major corporations and entire governments, sometimes the Internet itself, not mention other universities. Evidently Spectator is also unaware that AIS and AcIS were a single organization until the University divided them. Putting them back together is a simple matter of undoing an old mistake, although it's not clear that the decision was made by anybody who knows that. It should also be noted that AcIS and its predecessors have rarely, if ever, received sufficient funding to meet the Resume Format School | Resume And Resume Maker needs of the user community (for details, read above starting about 1970). Eras (electronic Residency Service) - Ppt Download! The irony is that now, when the Student | Resume complaints are loudest, those needs are vanishingly academic.
In the same Spectator issue, the staff editorial states that, in light of recent crackdowns on Certificate Photo, illegal downloading of copyright material (MP3s and video), Columbia now has the responsibility to help students legally download movies and music. Now we know what we are here for. 1 Jul 2005: Candace Fleming appointed Columbia Vice President of Information Technology, to preside over Format School | Resume Format And Resume Maker the once-and-future joint AcIS/AIS organization, yet to be (re)named. 2 Aug 2005: AIS + AcIS = CUIT (Columbia University Information Technology). 30 Aug 2005: 50th anniversary of Columbia's first computer , an IBM 650 at | Contract Templates, Watson Lab: the first stored-program computer at Columbia that was available for general use by Columbia researchers and courses. (The words of the previous sentence are chosen carefully: earlier computing devices had been available to Columbia researchers, but they were not stored-program computers. At least one stored-program computer, NORC, had been at Columbia before 1955 but it was not generally available to the academic community. Columbia researchers had also had some access before 1955 to stored-program computers offsite, e.g. at IBM headquarters downtown; these computers were not at Columbia.) For all but the handful of brave pioneers who used the earlier plugboard-programmed machines, the 650 was indeed the first computer. Within a couple years, it could be programmed in FORTRAN and other symbolic languages, and quickly became so popular that a second one was added.
1 Sep 2006: Columbia University is now receiving, detecting, and refusing over a million spam, virus, phishing, and other unwanted emails per day. Format For High School | Resume Format! Of course many still come through, but it is Eras (electronic Application - Ppt Download, better to allow some spam to Resume School Format, pass than to block legitimate mail. 28 Feb 2008: Alan Crosswell, who has been here almost as long as I have [I was laid off in 2011 after 37 years at the Computer Center and 45 at For Schedule. Aplg Planetariums, Columbia], appointed Associate Vice President and For High School Student Format Chief Technologist. 15 Jan 2009: The CUIT Helpdesk Support Center, formerly known as the Client Service Center (and before that as the SSIO [Self-Service Input/Output] Area, and the CUCCA Business and Consulting Office), moves from 102 Philosophy Hall (see March 1987 entry) to 202 Philosophy. 21 Apr 2009: Reunion of some original Watson Lab people from the Buy Sell 1940s and 50s, at the original Watson Lab building at 612 W 116th Street. CLICK HERE for School Student Format Maker a gallery. 25 Jan 2010: Herb Grosch dies at 91 years of age. Medical Stock Photo | Istock! An authentic computer pioneer, he worked here from Resume Format For High Student Format Maker 1945 to 1950 and in Eras Residency Application Service) - Ppt Download, recent years was an energetic and colorful contributor to Resume Format School Format, this history. Buy Sell Agreement, Sample Template! The photo is from For High School | Resume Format And Resume Maker 1951, showing how he looked when he was working in Watson Lab on 116th Street where he came up with Grosch's Law (in 1950, not 1965 as Wikipedia states; see see Chapter 13 of Examples Of Objectives | Resume Web, Grosch's autobiography).
Herb created and taught one of the first Computer Science courses anywhere (Numerical Methods) at Columbia University in 1946. He went on to a long and contentious career at MIT, GE, IBM, Datamation, the National Bureau of Standards, Computerworld, and the ACM, and served on the faculty of numerous universities. 10-12 Feb 2015: The last vestige of text-based email (inaugurated here in the mid-1970s), namely the For High Student And Resume Maker secure POP3 server at Eras Residency Application - Ppt Download, mail.columbia.edu:995, was turned off. Meaning it's no longer possible to access email with a text-based email client in a shell session, or to use shell-based tools and Resume Format For High School Student | Resume Format And Resume Maker filters and Buy Sell Agreement editors with email. Until now you could do all your work except web browsing and photo editing in a text-mode shell session.
The “upgrade” to For High | Resume Format Maker, Google Gmail puts your email in “The Cloud” where it can hacked or can be “mined” by corporate interests or the DHS (I've been assured that these things will never happen but. ) And where we pretty much have no control over it. No straightforward way to archive it locally. No way to write programs to do any kind of | Contract, custom searching, statisics, analysis on selected email archives chosen by various criteria, e.g. date range. When sending mail, there is Resume For High School Format And Resume, no precise control over the formatting, nor any way to Founder Of Live, choose an encoding other than UTF-8, nor any way to enter non-ASCII characters from a PC keyboard aside from Alt-key escapes (like Alt-0241 for ñ), or setting your keyboard up to have dead-key combinations, or clicking on a cartoon keyboard, none of which are exactly ideal for a touch typist who can type as fast in Spanish or German, or even Russian, as in Resume Format For High | Resume Format And Resume, English when using a good terminal emulator*. For Schedule. Weekly Schedule Template! All in all, compared to MM used with a good terminal emulator, Gmail is And Resume, pretty labor intensive and Offshore Contracts | Contract Templates inflexible at best, and at worst it puts us in a situation where a profit-driven corporation owns our email, not we ourselves. We are forced to use a Web browser to Resume Format For High School Student, access it, which opens us up to all manner of Templates, cookies, spying, marketing, and analysis of our computers and files, not to For High School Student Format And Resume Maker, mention hostile attacks not from Google, necessarily, but from the Founder And Editor-In-Chief Of Live whole planet. None of that happens with text-based email. Even imputing the best of motives to the corporations, the Resume Format School Student | Resume Format And Resume Maker volatility of the market could result in Medical In Japanese Stock 519891659 | Istock, our cloud of email disappearing one day into a stock market vortex, or being bought up by some new company that could do anything at all with it hold it for ransom, sell it to tabloids. Resume Format For High School | Resume Format And Resume! On this topic, an old friend at another university observed a couple years ago: I have 30+ years of Buy Sell Sample Buy Sell, e-mail archives, and it is absolutely mission-critical that I own all of my mail files. There is no guarantee that gmail (or hotmail, or msn mail, or yahoo mail, or any ISP mail) will be around tomorrow, next year, or a decade from now. e-mail is a critical record of institutional, governmental, and industrial work, and it needs to be owned by those who created it, not given away to an outside source who is Resume For High School Student Format And Resume Maker, busy mining it, and could lose or corrupt it.
Furthermore the constantly evolving methods of representing emails might render our Cloud-based “rich text”** email archives useless in a future that might not be as distant as you think. Vint Cerf, “Father of the Internet” and Google Vice President, said recently (see below for citations): Old formats of documents that we've created or presentations may not be readable by the latest version of the software because backwards compatibility is not always guaranteed. And so what can happen over time is that even if we accumulate vast archives of digital content, we may not actually know what it is. Plain text, on the other hand, is eternal. ASCII, which serves for English and a few other languages, was (and is) a well-defined and mature national and international standard, as are subsequent standards like ISO 8859 and ISO 10646 (Unicode) that increased the character repertoire to Examples Of Objectives On Resumes, accommodate other languages and writing systems. Whereas presentation methods are driven by corporate interests and competition and they never stop changing***. For High School Student | Resume And Resume Maker! The medium swallows the message. 23 May 2015: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist , the second director of the Columbia Computer Center (and a major contributor to this history), dies in Medical Certificate In Japanese Stock Photo 519891659 | Istock, Richmond VA at the age of 84 [obituary] (the first director was Kenneth King from 1963 to 1971).
Bruce, a genuine pioneer in computing from the 1950s and Resume Format School Student | Resume And Resume a prominent figure in the ACM and AFIPS (details here), exemplified the long-forgotten academic and scientific traditions of the computer center and its predecessor, the Eras Residency Application - Ppt IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, serving on the Engineering School faculty and publishing papers in scientific journals as well as several books on computers and society. Bruce led the Computer Center from 1973 to 1984, staying on in an advisory capacity until 1988. As his first act, he opened up access to what in those days was “the computer” (a huge IBM mainframe) to the entire Columbia community, the first instance of open computing at Columbia, and he would continue his push for open computing throughout subsequent generations of Format For High School Student | Resume Format Maker, machines, such as the DECSYSTEM-20s (1977-88), despite often severe budget pressures. Bruce was the first to put public “terminal rooms” in dormitories and other academic buildings. Bruce hired mainly out of the Engineering School, launching the careers of numerous women and men in computing. As a scientist with close connections to the computer industry, he was able to (electronic Download, combine technical leadership with good humor and humane management. Format For High Student | Resume And Resume Maker! His office on the sixth floor of the Watson building was always open and The Elegant Web he enjoyed spending time with both his technical staff and his administrative staff; he treated workers with respect and Format Student And Resume he was universally respected in return. After relinquishing day-to-day management of the Computer Center in Eras (electronic Application Service) Download, 1984, he concentrated his efforts on School Student Format And Resume, the acquisition and installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just a new telephone system for the University, but also a wiring plant that would eventually provide high-speed data access to every building and room on the Morningside campus. Open computing fully realized. CLICK HERE to see an hour-long 2007 Public Access TV interview with Bruce. 29 Dec 2015: Columbia's Cunix timesharing systems were switched from Solaris 9 on 32-bit Sun Sparc servers that had been running since somewhere between 2001 and 2003, to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.6 on Buy Sell Agreement, 64-bit x86_64 servers.
In the intervening years, direct Unix shell use at Columbia has dwindled down to Format Student Format And Resume, a handful of diehards, partly in the nature of the Template For Schedule. Schedule Planetariums times moving on, but also because key services such as email had been removed from the shell hosts. Other once-common utilities like the FTP client and C-Kermit were not installed on the new Linux-based Cunix system, nor once-important math and statistical applications like Matlab and SAS, nor venerable programming languages like Fortran and Snobol. But at least the regular GCC development environment remains for Format School Format And Resume Maker the few who still write C code, and EMACS for those who still do their text processing the old-fashioned and efficient way rather than the new annoying and Buy Sell Agreement, Sample Buy Sell labor-intensive way. The choice of Linux is primarily market-based, not merely a matter of price or source-code availability, but of Resume Format For High School And Resume Maker, market dominance. Unix (of which both Solaris and Examples Of Objectives Linux are variants) was originally a 1960s Bell Labs research project. School And Resume! Over time it became a proliferation of commercial products “solutions” that ran on specific hardware Solaris for Template For Schedule. Weekly Schedule Template Planetariums Sun, HP-UX for Hewlett-Packard, AIX for IBM, etc. School Student And Resume Maker! but all these have practically vanished by now.
Two free Unix implementations, Minix and Linux, were created about the same time, and Linux itself branched off into free (e.g. Debian, Slackware) and corporate (e.g. Red Hat Enterprise) versions. Offshore Contracts Templates! Another branch, descending from the Resume Format Student | Resume Format Bell Labs original via Berkeley Unix and including FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD and Template For Schedule. Planetariums friends, remains free community-sourced software. For High | Resume Format! But big companies such as Columbia University prefer to have the corporate ties that Red Hat offers. 29 Feb 2016: The central Sun Solaris-based CUNIX timesharing systems turned off after about 15 years of Vivianne Lapointe: Fast, service, replaced by Linux servers. 12 Sep 2016: Engineering professor Leon Lidofsky * dies in Vermont at the age of 94. Resume Format For High School Student Maker! He was one of Offshore Contracts, Columbia's earliest hands-on users of digital computers, establishing a computer lab on the second floor of the Engineering Terrace in the mid-1960s that included a room-sized minicomputer (SEL 810B), a tabletop DEC PDP-8, and various specialized equipment for data collection and analysis, one of only Resume Format Student | Resume And Resume Maker, a handful of Columbia's departmental computing facilities at the time. I first met him in 1969 when I got a student job in his department.
I graduated from the school of General Studies in 1970 and left the department to Vivianne Lapointe: Of Live, find a real job, and wound up driving a taxi in Bronx. After a while Lee asked me to come back and Resume Format For High School Student Maker work in Contracts Templates, the department full-time as the administrator for Format School Format And Resume a new program he was in charge of, dealing with the social responsibilities of And Editor-In-Chief Of Live, engineers and For High School Student | Resume And Resume Maker ways they could be of public service. Weekly Schedule Planetariums! Really my job was just paper shuffling, but Lee knew that I had had “computer” training in the Army and soon I was doing all the key punching for the department. After a while he asked me if I would like to write a program on his minicomputer. He gave me a Fortran book and a few lessons and before long I had pretty much automated myself out of a job. Lee suggested I take advantage of my full-time staff position to take computer science courses in the department of EECS (as it was known then). It was a good fit, I liked the idea of having problems to work on that could actually be solved. As a sideline, Lee was a consultant in Resume For High Student Format And Resume, nuclear medicine at Mt. Sinai Hospital (click here for an example of his work there). Examples On Resumes Format Web! When the Format For High Student | Resume Maker Columbia project I was working on came to a close, he got me my first real programming job in Mt.
Sinai's new Laboratory for Computer Science, and thus began my brilliant career as a software developer. Along the Meet And Editor-In-Chief way I wrote some books and always featured him in the acknowledgments, as in my last book ( Using C-Kermit, 2nd Ed .): “. Resume Format School Student | Resume! and to Contracts Templates, Lee Lidofsky, a Great Teacher, for a timely push in For High And Resume, a good direction, a long time ago”. Incidentally, the For Schedule. Weekly Template Planetariums computers at the Mt. | Resume Format And Resume Maker! Sinai lab were DEC PDP-11s, my first experience with a somewhat interactive (via Teletype) computer operating system, which led to the choice of a PDP-11 for Columbia's first timesharing system, which in Offshore Contracts Templates, turn led to the choice of big DECSYSTEM-20s as Columbia's primary academic computing platform, 1977-1988. Anyway, thanks to Lee I had a decent job with good salary and benefits that allowed me to raise a family and Student Format put my kids through college. If not for Lee, I'd probably still be driving a cab! Arranging for me (who was not even one of his students) to have a good life was definitely not in his job description, but that's how he was. Weekly Schedule Template Planetariums! I'm sure there are a thousand other stories just like this one.
It's interesting to ponder the transformation of Columbia from a quill-pen operation in the 1700s to the wired (and, increasingly, wireless) one it is Resume Format, today. Computers, obtained originally for Meet Vivianne Lapointe: Founder Of Live Fast scientific work that could not be done any other way, were also turned to administrative tasks such as registration, student records, payroll, and so on. Resume Format | Resume And Resume Maker! What was the cost in money, space, and personnel before and after? And then later when centralized computing (based on a single multimillion dollar computer system) became fully distributed, with a PC on every desk, how did that change the overall expenditures, consumption of Lapointe: Of Live Fast, space and electrical power, personnel rosters, and Resume School | Resume And Resume Maker the productivity of each person? Any clear answer would take a great deal more research than was done here, but the following table is suggestive: Sources: The 1925 figures come from Columbia's 1924-25 Catalog  and from the 1924-25 Annual Report ; the student count does not include another 12,916 summer session students; the officers of administration include 38 who are also on the faculty. The 2010 figures come from the Columbia University Statistical Abstract of the Office of Vivianne Founder And Editor-In-Chief Of Live Fast, Planning and Institutional Research (on the Web). For High School Format Maker! The growth in Vivianne Of Live, faculty is accounted for Resume School Student | Resume And Resume Maker almost entirely by the Health Sciences campus, which did not exist in Offshore | Contract Templates, 1925.
Although the For High Student | Resume Format And Resume role of computing in Of Objectives On Resumes | Resume Web, staff and tuition increases is Resume School | Resume Format Maker, far from clear, it is | Resume Format Web, evident that Columbia University was able to offer a first-class education to about 20,000 students annually with a lot less overhead and at far less expense without computers than with them, even accounting for inflation (which averaged 3.1% per year from 1925 to 2000 or 987% over the period; thus if tuition had merely kept pace with inflation, it would have risen only to $79 per For High Format, point rather than $834 in Agreement, Sample Buy Sell Template, 2000). Of course, one can't necessarily blame computers alone for a topheavy bureaucracy -- since the 1950s, huge amounts of additional work in the form of reports (compliance, demographic, financial, etc) mandated by government, suppliers, and contractors at every level. Anyway, as any student who registered in Format For High School Student And Resume, the old days (filling in countless forms by Offshore Contracts hand with the same information and standing in about 50 lines to turn in For High School | Resume And Resume, each form) can tell you, some of the new systems are an improvement. Columbia is Buy Sell Sample Buy Sell, also a far bigger employer than it was in 1925 and it's a good thing that more people have work, even if it's pointless. Or if you take a closer look, maybe it's not such a good thing. When the Computer Center opened in 1963, there was one big computer for everybody to use, cared for Student | Resume by a small professional staff, initially just 15 people. Today, the combined full-time staff of AcIS and AIS (now CUIT) numbers well into the hundreds, and this doesn't count an unknown number of full and part-time computer people in the administrative and academic departments, nor junior faculty and graduate students shanghaied into system-administration roles, nor the Medical Certificate Stock Photo 519891659 fact that almost everybody at the University devotes copious time to For High | Resume Format And Resume Maker, managing and fighting with their own desktop computers into the bargain, not to mention dealing (or worse: not) with the constant onslaught of viruses, worms, and hacks from Buy Sell Buy Sell Agreement all corners of the world. One is tempted to wonder in exactly what way computers are labor-saving devices :-) But love 'em or hate 'em, computers and networks are with us to stay. Resume Format For High Student | Resume Maker! They first came to Examples Of Objectives On Resumes Web, Columbia for Resume Format Student | Resume And Resume Maker scientific and statistical work; now they are used mainly for Offshore social and entertainment purposes, plus taking notes in class, preparation of papers, a certain amount of course work, and for Resume Format School carrying on the business of the University, including a great deal of public relations. All students and faculty are presumed to have computer, network, and Web access; it is required in many courses and for numerous tasks such as looking up class schedules, room assignments, and Template Schedule Template Aplg grades, and since Fall 2001, also for Resume For High School | Resume And Resume Maker registration.
The benefits of the Web are well known but its dangers little discussed, at least not beyond the well-known safety hazards (credit-card theft, pedophiles, viruses) and annoyances (bugs and new features requiring constant software upgrades). Let's look at some of the more fundamental pitfalls that tend to be ignored as we rush to Sample Buy Sell, replace all that is old by what is Format Student Format, new: For good or ill, the Web has largely replaced the Library for undergraduate research. The benefits (again) are well-known, but increasingly, if it's not on the Web students don't see it. Furthermore, it's often difficult to assess the information one finds on the Web. Published books and journal articles, at least, have some measure of quality control and Medical In Japanese Photo | Istock some form of audit trail (you can check the primary sources yourself). At the very least, they are substantial and immutable objects that can be referenced -- when you look at a book or article that I have referenced, you see the same one I saw. Format For High School | Resume And Resume Maker! Web pages are ephemeral, likely to move, change, or disappear at any moment, and in any case rarely have the authority of a refereed, printed publication. Since I wrote the previous item, the | Istock Web itself has been largely supplanted by Google and Wikipedia for For High Format And Resume research.
Wikipedia is handy, to Contracts Templates, be sure, but how do you verify the accuracy of anything in it? Google, on the other hand, is a massive corporation whose only goal is Resume For High | Resume Format Maker, making more and more money, and as part of Contracts | Contract, achieving that goal, it controls the content we see. Searches are still relatively fair and open, but Google News is pure corporate messaging. Nevertheless, Google can throw a switch at any moment to hide entire bodies of knowledge or opinion it deems prejudicial to its corporate health. In a new application of Gresham's Law, the Web tends to drive out reliable and detailed information, replacing it with unreliable and sketchy sound bites.
Libraries full of Resume Format School | Resume Format, books and journals are increasingly viewed as legacy brick and mortar operations that can no longer justify their existence in the age of Buy Sell Agreement, Sample, electronic information. Resume Format School Maker! But those same libraries contain all that is known of history, culture, and science. The Elegant Of Objectives On Resumes | Resume Format Web! What will become of our printed record, as it takes up coveted space and decays? It can't all be digitized; that would be far too expensive and For High School Format And Resume time-consuming. Therefore much -- probably most -- of Buy Sell Agreement, Sample Template, it will be lost to For High Student And Resume, posterity. And then whatever portion was digitized before the Template Weekly Template Aplg paper was discarded or crumbled will itself be subject to successive rounds of winnowing as the digital media, encoding, and formats become obsolete and require upgrading. Repeated application of this process will leave only Resume Student | Resume And Resume, a tiny fragment of what was available to The Elegant Of Objectives | Resume Format Web, us in, say, 1980, and there will be no going back. New information is lost too. It was relatively easy to trace the history of computing at Columbia through 1994 by the paper trail of newsletters, books, paper correspondence files, and so on. After 1994, it's just a blur. If it was recorded at all, it was recorded on the Web or in e-mail, and there is Resume School Student | Resume, no systematic archive of Sample Buy Sell Template, old Web pages and e-mails.
What is Format School | Resume, new today will be old tomorrow. The Web is not eternal. Something else is bound to appear that turns the Meet Vivianne Founder Fast Web into a deprecated legacy concept and the vast corpus of Resume Format For High School Student, Web files will need conversion to the next thing, and the winnowing process will continue. I wrote the previous sentence about 15 years ago. Today I see Vint Cerf, father of the Examples Of Objectives On Resumes | Resume Internet, saying the same thing at the American Association for the Advancement of Science conference in San Jos. To paraphrase. Everything that's on the Internet today will be unintelligable garbage in the future and the 21st Century will be another Dark Ages, leaving no records of itself. Here's a link: http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-31450389. Here's another: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/11410506/Print-out-digital-photos-or-risk-losing-them-Google-boss-warns.html.
But don't expect them to For High Student Maker, last. [Search] Meanwhile, as of 2014, cell phones have squeezed out desktop computers as the Buy Sell Buy Sell Agreement Template main Web access method, forcing website to adapt by showing less content. i.e. Resume Format School Student | Resume And Resume Maker! sound bites instead of detailed information. Similarly, emails with paragraphs of text have given way to short instant messages and Tweets. Storage and preservation of information -- printed or electronic -- costs money. Money is a scarce resource, also needed for Medical In Japanese Photo | Istock food, shelter, medical care, exhorbitant CEO compensation, senseless wars, and so on. The legacy of humanity belongs to those with the desire and Resume Format For High Student Maker the money to preserve it, and to keep preserving it, and they are ones who will decide what is worth preserving and what to Medical In Japanese, discard.
Columbia University 250th Anniversary (2004) CLICK HERE to visit Columbia's extensive website commemorating the university's 250th anniversary (and HERE and HERE and HERE for some computing history bits). Old means no error correction, compression, or hardware flow control. New modems are connected to Student | Resume Format Maker, (or integrated with) TCP/IP terminal servers; old ones were connected to serial ports on the PACX or Rolm. Prior to 1985 it's hard to figure out -- specific phone numbers went to specific computers, etc; few comprehensive tables were published in the Newsletter or Guides to Facilities. The best I can say is that the number of Of Objectives | Resume Web, dialin modems increased from 0 to 59 from the Resume Format School Maker mid-1960s to 1985. Examples Format! Modem-pool expansion finally leveled off in 2002-2003, when DSL connections became possible from the home and AcIS began to bring neighborhood apartment buildings onto the high-speed campus network. The numbers reflect total accesses (hits) per year. The 1994 figures are extrapolated from the Format For High | Resume last six weeks of 1994, and therefore probably a bit high. ADP Administrative Data Processing (of Columbia University)
AIS Administrative Information Services (new name of ADP) ANSI American National Standards Institute. APL A Programming Language (With Its Own Character Set) ARPA (US Defense Department) Advanced Research Projects Agency. ASCC Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (early IBM computer)
ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange. ASP Attached Support Processor. AUC Apple University Consortium. AUFS Appletalk UNIX File Server. BAL Basic (IBM 360 and 370) Assemly Language. BASIC Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code.
BASR Bureau of Applied Social Research (of Columbia University) BCD Binary Coded Decimal. BCDIC Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. BITNET Because-It's-There Network (It = RSCS) BNF Backus-Naur Form.
BPS Bits per Second. CAP Columbia Appletalk Package. CBX (IBM/Rolm/Siemens) Computerized Branch Exchange. CCNET Computer Center (or Columbia/Carnegie) Network (DECnet) CE (IBM) Customer Engineer.
CLIO Columbia Libraries Information Online. CMU Carnegie-Mellon University. COBOL Common Business Oriented Language. CPC Card Programmed Calculator. CP/M Control Program / Microcomputer. CPS Characters per Buy Sell Sample Buy Sell Template, Second. CRBE Conversational Remote Batch Entry. CREN Consortium for Research and Education Network.
CRLF ASCII characters Carriage Return and Line Feed - plaint-text line terminator. CRT Cathode-Ray Tube, e.g. a video terminal. CUCC Columbia University Computer Center. CUCCA Columbia University Center for Computing Activities, new name of Resume For High Student Maker, CUCC. CUIT Columbia University Information Technology, new name of CUCCA. CUNY City University of New York.
CWRU Case Western Reserve University. DACU Device Attachment Control Unit (early IBM Ethernet adapter) DASD Direct Access Storage Device (IBM term for Medical Certificate 519891659 | Istock disk, pronounced dazdee) DAT Digital Audio Tape. DCMUP Same as DCS (not sure what it stands for).
DCS Directly Coupled System (Columbia's IBM 7040 and 7094) DEC Digital Equipment Corporation. DOS Disk Operating System. EAM Electric Accounting Machine (using punched cards) EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. EMACS Editing Macros (video editor by Richard Stallman) FORTRAN Formula Translator (first high-level programming language)
FE Field Engineer (DEC) FS Field Service (DEC) FSF Free Software Foundation. GNU GNU is Not UNIX (recursive acronym of the FSF) GUI Graphical User Interface. HASP Houston Automatic Spooling Program. HP Hewlett Packard Corporation.
IBM International Business Machines Corporation. IETF Internet Engineering Task Force. JCL Job Control Language (OS/360, MVS, etc) JSYS Jump to For High | Resume, System (DEC-20 monitor call) JVNCNET John von Neumann Supercomputer Center Network. KGB (Soviet) Committee for State Security. LAN Local Area Network (Ethernet, Token Ring, etc) LCG (DEC) Large Computer Group. LISP List Processing (language) LPM Lines per Minute (speed of Meet And Editor-In-Chief Fast, line printer) MINCE MINCE Is Not Completely EMACS (EMACS semi-clone for CP/M)
MOS Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (memory, as opposed to Resume Format For High | Resume Format Maker, magnetic cores or vacuum tubes) MSS (IBM) Mass Storage System. MTBF Mean Time Between Failures. MTTR Mean Time To Repair. NCR National Cash Register Corporation. NFS Network File System. NORC Naval Ordnance Reseach Calculator (early IBM computer built at Columbia U) NPG Network Planning Group (of Columbia U) NSF National Science Foundation.
NSFNET National Science Foundation Network. NYSERNET New York State Education and Research Network. OCS Office of Communications Services (of Columbia University) OS Operating System. PACX Private Access Computer eXchange. PDP Programmed Data Processor. PDS Partitioned Data Set. PL/I Programming Language One. PPP Point-to-Point Protocol. RAID Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disk.
RHNO Residence Hall Networking Option (at Columbia U) RJE Remote Job Entry. RSCS Remote Spooling Communications Subsystem. RSTS/E Resource Sharing Time Sharing / Extended (DEC PDP-11 OS) SAIL Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (or Language) SE Software Engineer (DEC); Systems Engineer (IBM) Also see: FE, CE. SEL Systems Engineering Laboratories. SLIP Serial Line Internet Protocol. SNA (IBM) Systems Networking Architecture. SNOBOL String Oriented Language (pun on COBOL)
SPITBOL (pun on SNOBOL) SSIO Self-Service Input/Output (area at Columbia U) SIC Scholarly Information Center (at Columbia University) SOS Share Operating System (IBM 709) SOS Son Of Stopgap (PDP-10, DEC-20 text editor) SPOOL simultaneous peripheral operations on-line or simultaneous peripheral output on Buy Sell Agreement, Sample, line. TOPS The Operating System (for PDP-10s and DEC-20s) UUCP UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program. VT Video Terminal.
Control panel (See plugboard) Core This word is Format School Student | Resume Format, still used synonymously with memory, but in fact refers to a specific memory technology used from The Elegant Examples Format Web about 1955 to 1975, in which each bit was a ferrite core, whose charge was controlled and Resume For High School Format Maker sensed by currents in wires passing through the core's hole. MORE HERE. CRT Cathode Ray Tube. The display screen in a video terminal or a pre-flat panel television or personal computer.
More generally, any vacuum tube incorporating a mobile beam. 1950s-era computer memories were sometimes made of Residency Service) - Ppt, CRTs; for example, the IBM 700-series CRT memories packed 1024 bits into a single tube (contrary to the popular image of one bit per tube). Drum Similar to a hard disk, except the Format For High School Student | Resume Format Maker recording surface is on the circumfrence, rather than on the flat end(s), and the read/write heads are fixed rather than moving. Thus it is a spinning cylinder with a stationary head array extending from end to end, with one fixed head per Certificate In Japanese Stock 519891659, track. Because the Format School | Resume Format And Resume heads are fixed, there is no seek time so access is (electronic Residency Service), much faster than a moving-head disk. Drums were used as main memory in early computers like the IBM 650 and as swapping or paging devices in later computers such as the Resume For High Student Format IBM 360/91 and the DEC PDP-11. An example is the IBM 2301 drum storage, about 1960. Also: (1) Any fixed-head disk or, by extension, any swapping device; (2) A Data Cell cylinder around which a tape strip is wrapped for reading and Buy Sell Agreement, writing; (3) The print mechanism used in certain kinds of line printers, such as the DEC LP20: a constantly rotating metal cylinder with all the characters on it -- to print a specific character in a specific column, the corresponding hammer strikes the drum just when the desired character is behind the paper and ink ribbon; (4) the Resume Format For High | Resume Format And Resume electrostatic print-transfer mechanism in Xerographic or laser printers.
Electric (or Electronic) Accounting Machine (EAM) EAMs were the workhorses of the Residency Application Download 1930s-60s for accounting, payroll, and so on, before there were real stored-program computers. They were mainly mechanical; accumulating sums in gear registers. Resume Format For High Format Maker! In fact, they are just late-model tabulating machines with a bit more flexibility and usually a built-in line printer. Medical Certificate In Japanese Photo | Istock! CLICK HERE to see examples. Paper Tape A long strip of Resume Format Format Maker, heavy paper, usually an (electronic Application Download, inch wide, in which holes could be punched, 5 to 9 per row. For computer use, usually 8 holes were used: 7 data bits and 1 parity bit. Paper tape was also used in telecommunications (telex) and in the printing industry as the input medium for Format For High School | Resume Maker hot-metal typesetting machines and is still used for numerical control of milling and drilling machines. Computer applications of Eras Residency Application Service) - Ppt, paper tape included automated data input and output, as on School Maker, the ASR33 Teletype or the Offshore Templates IBM 1620 computer, object-module output by Resume School | Resume compilers (on computers that did not have disks -- for example, the output of a Fortran compiler), and printer control loops (see story at the end of this page). For heavy-duty applications such as the latter, Mylar was used rather than paper. The Elegant On Resumes Format! The typical recording density was 10 rows (bytes) per inch.
Punching and | Resume Maker reading speeds varied from 10 rows per second up to Eras Residency - Ppt Download, 2000. Paper tape originally came in rolls (as used in Resume For High School And Resume, the IBM SSEC), but by the 1960s, fan-fold was more common, and in fact many computer companies distributed software in this form (e.g. for the DEC PDP-8). An incorrectly punched row could be deleted by punching all the holes; this is the origin of the Sample Buy Sell Agreement ASCII RUB (Rubout, Delete) character, 0x7F (all 1's). Resume Format School Student Format And Resume! Editing could also be accomplished by cutting and splicing. More at the University of Amsterdam Computing History Museum. Plugboard, Patch Board, Patch Panel, Control Panel IBM EAM equipment (accounting machines, sorters, reproducing punches, interpreters, etc) as well as some of its early calculators (computers) were programmed through control panels rectangular boards with an | Resume Format Web, array of holes, which are interconnected by wires to specify the desired functions, e.g. which card columns are to be sent to which accumulator, or printed to School | Resume And Resume Maker, which printer columns, etc.
Photos and more info: [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] and [HERE]. Punched Card A stiff cardboard rectangle in which holes can be punched and Medical Photo | Istock then later read by various devices (see Unit Record Equipment). Punchcards date back to the 1700s, and Format School Student And Resume Maker can be found in (electronic Residency Application Download, many formats. IBM punchcards (after 1928) were 7 3/8 inches wide and 3 1/4 high, with three rounded corners and Format For High School Student Format And Resume Maker the upper left corner cut diagonally, and twelve 80-column rows for small rectangular holes. Large sites like Columbia often had their cards preprinted with corporate logos. Until the early 1970s, virtually all computing jobs at Columbia were submitted on decks of cards punched on key punch machines. Eras (electronic Residency Service) - Ppt! Decks of cards could also be output from the computer using high-speed online punches such as the IBM 2540. Use of cards at Columbia declined until 1986, when the last card readers were removed. As late as 2010, however, voting machines in New York were still based on punched card technology.
Relay An electromechanical device or switch that automatically controls the current in one circuit based on the current in another circuit, used in 1940s-era calculators and computers such as the For High | Resume Format Aberdeens, the SSEC, and the Bell relay calcalators. Remote Job Entry Or RJE. In the mainframe era, before interactive terminals, jobs were submitted on decks of cards and results obtained on Offshore | Contract Templates, a line printer or other local device. These devices were attached to Format | Resume Format, the mainframe by cables that could not be very long, maybe 150 feet max. To access the mainframe from greater distances required a Remote Job Entry station: usually a card reader and line printer connected to some kind of controller, connected by Eras Application Service) - Ppt (usually synchronous) modem to Resume For High And Resume Maker, the central site. Typically an Offshore Contracts | Contract Templates, RJE user would put a deck of Format For High School Student | Resume And Resume, cards in the hopper, push Start, and wait an unpredictable amount of The Elegant Examples On Resumes | Resume Format, time for the results to come out of the printer. One of many examples of the widespread use of RJE was the New York City public school system in the 1970s, where each school had an RJE station connected to the big mainframe(s) at Board of Education. The IBM RJE interface was fairly well standardized, so it also came to double as a connection for other kinds of computers -- a kind of early networking, in which traffic in one direction was in 80-column card images, and traffic in the reverse direction was 132-column printer lines. Tabulating Machine A machine capable of Format Student, reading punched cards and either sorting them into Meet And Editor-In-Chief Of Live Fast, selected bins or adding up the numbers punched into Resume Format For High Maker, selected columns.
Tabulating machines were used from 1890 through the Meet Vivianne Fast 1950s or 60s for statistical, financial, and even scientific applications. CLICK HERE for examples. Terminal A typewriter-like device by which a person interacts with a computer. It has a keyboard and either paper to print on or else a video screen (certain special kinds of Format Student Maker, terminals might also have Braille pads or text-to-voice interpreters). The keystrokes are sent to the computer and (in some cases) also echoed locally on the display device (paper or screen). Characters arriving from the Template For Schedule. Weekly Template Aplg Planetariums computer are sent to the display device. Resume Format Format And Resume! Video terminals sometimes have an attached printer. Early hardcopy terminals included Teletypes and electric typewriters wired for Meet And Editor-In-Chief Of Live Fast communication, such as the IBM 2741; later ones include dot-matrix models such as the DECwriter.
The best-known video terminal is the DEC VT100; video terminals were popular from the mid-1970s until about 1990 (and are still used today in Format School Student | Resume Format, certain specialized applications like data entry and transaction processing; until not so long ago, every winter TV news reporters visit the NYC Heat Complaint Bureau, and every year they were still using IBM 3270 green tubes). The best-known graphics terminal is the Tektronix 4010. Although few real terminals are still in The Elegant | Resume, operation, terminals are widely emulated by the PC, Macintosh, and Resume School | Resume Format And Resume Maker other workstation software that allows us to access our shell accounts. TTY Teletype (see Terminal) . Unit Record Equipment Usually used to refer to any equipment that reads or punches cards, such as a key punch, card reader, sorter, collator, reproducer, or interpreter. Strictly speaking, any device for which a record (rather than a character) is the physical unit of input or output, therefore also including line printers. My recollections and notes, 1965-present. The Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter, 1966-1994 (when it ceased publication). Sample! Gilchrist, Bruce, Forty Years of Computing , CUCCA Newlsetter V13#16 (4 Nov 1981).
Bashe, Charles J.; Lyle R. Johnson; John H. Palmer; Emerson W. Pugh, IBM's Early Computers , MIT Press (1985). Resume Student | Resume And Resume Maker! Columbia University Catalogue , 1924-1925. Medical Stock! Columbia University Computer Center General Information Manual , Volume I (June 1965). Columbia University Bulletin: Computing Activities (1976). Rogers, William, Think; a biography of the Format Format Maker Watsons and IBM , Stein and Day, NY (1969). Brennan, Jean Ford, The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University: A History , IBM, Armonk NY (1971) (Columbiana CZI B75; Prentis Q183.5 .W3 B7). Columbia Computer Center , 2 Jan 1963 (summary of facilities and procedures). Admini-Bits (the Columbia University Administrative Data Processing Newsletter), V2#6 (Sep 1988). Dolkart, Andrew S., Morningside Heights: A History of its Architecture and Development , Columbia University Press, 1998, and Vivianne Lapointe: correspondence with Prof.
Dolkart (Jan 2001). School | Resume And Resume Maker! McCullers, Carson, and Dews C.L. Barney, Illumination and Night Glare: The Unfinished Autobiography of Agreement,, Carson McCullers , University of Wisconsin Press (1999). Asteroff, Janet, CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual (Nov 1982). Bell System Technical Journal , Special issue devoted UNIX 7th Edition, Volume 57, Number 6, Part 2 (August 1978). Brader, Mark, A Chronology of Digital Computing, to 1952 (online). Koenig, Seymour H., Interview (22 Jan 2001). Format For High Student | Resume And Resume! AIS Supervisor Joe Sulsona Retires After 42 Years , Columbia University Record Vol. 26, No 11 (19 Jan 2001).
Gilchrist, Bruce, Report to Meet Vivianne Lapointe: Of Live Fast, the Committee on Instructional Computing (the Collery Committee), Columbia University (21 April 1980). Hallinan, Nuala, A History of Administrative Data Processing , Columbia University, September 1988 (produced for the Computer Center's 25th Anniversary commemoration), with 1991 update. Announcement of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory and a Program of Graduate Studies in Applied Mathematics , Columbia University Bulletin, Fifty-eighth Series, No.39, September 27, 1948. Arctander, Eric, Trig Homework? Consult Watson Labs , Columbia Daily Spectator, 18 October 1948. IBM Establishes Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , News Release, Columbia University Department of Public Information, 6 February 1945. King, Kenneth M., Columbia University Computer Center Report , August 1967 to December 1968.
Guide to Facilities , Columbia Computer Center, September 1972. Sills, David L., Paul F. Lazarsfeld, 1901-1976, A Biographical Memoir , National Academy of the Sciences, Washington DC, 1987. Barton, Judith S., ed., Guide to the Bureau of Applied Social Research , Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc, New York City, 1984. Resume Format Format And Resume Maker! The Columbia University Archives and Columbiana Library: Central Files, Indexed in The Administrative Records of Columbia University, 1890-1971 . Halford, Ralph S., Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of For Schedule. Schedule Template, a Computing Center to be Established at School | Resume Format And Resume, Columbia University , May 1961. News Release #10,099, Columbia University News Office, 18 Jul 1963. Mace, David, and Joyce Alsop, A Simplified System for the Use of an Automatic Calculator , Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Columbia University / IBM, 1957 (COVER).
Proposal for IBM 360 Model 92 [sic], to Dr. In Japanese | Istock! Kenneth M. King, Columbia Computer Center, IBM, 21 May 1965. University Center for Resume Format Format And Resume Maker Computing Activities: EDP Review for Columbia University , IBM, May 1974. Strauss, Robert, When Computers Were Born , The Times Mirror Company, 1996. Annual Report of the President and Treasurer to Buy Sell Agreement, Buy Sell Template, the Trustees with Accompanying Documents for For High School | Resume Format Maker the Year Ending June 30, 1925 , Columbia University, New York, 1926. Letter of Dean Ralph S. Buy Sell Agreement, Buy Sell! Halford to Prof. Maurice Ewing, 19 Aug 1963 (9 pages), Columbiana Archives. Pure Scientists of Morningside, Business Machines , General Section, IBM, September 1, 1954. Aspray, William, Was Early Entry a Competitive Advantage? US Universities That Entered Computing in the 1940s, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 22, Number 3, July-September 2000. Lippsett, Laurence, Maurice Ewing and the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia Magazine , Winter 2001.
Pugh, Emerson W., Building IBM: Shaping an Industry and its Technology , The MIT Press (1995). Sachnoff, Neil, Secrets of Installing a Telephone System , Telecomm Library Inc, New York (1989). There's a Computer on the Columbia Campus, Columbia Reports , March 1971. Wilson, Gregory V., The History of the Development of Parallel Computing , University of Format School Maker, Toronto. Austrian, Geoffrey, Herman Hollerith: Forgotten Giant of Agreement, Agreement Template, Information Processing , Columbia University Press (1982). Grier, David Alan, When Computers Were Human, Princeton University Press (2005). AND. Grier, David Alan, The First Breach of School Student And Resume, Computer Security?, IEEE Annals of the History of | Istock, Computing , Volume 23, Number 2, April-June 2001. Resume Student Format And Resume! NOTE: These should be two separate references but evidently the The Elegant Examples Of Objectives On Resumes | Resume Web second one was inserted here by mistake when it should have gone at the end, thus throwing off all the subsequent reference numbers. For High School Maker! Sorry!
Stoll, Clifford, The Cuckoo's Egg: Tracking a Spy through the Maze of Computer Espionage , Doubleday, New York (1989). Offshore Contracts | Contract Templates! Black, Edwin, IBM and Format | Resume Maker the Holocaust , Crown Publishers, New York (2001). Also search for holocaust at Agreement, Agreement Template, the IBM website. Columbia University Alumni Register 1754-1931 , Columbia University Committee on General Catalogue, Frank D. Fackenthal (Chairman), Columbia University Press, New York (1932). Fajman, Roger, and John Borgelt, Stanford University Computation Center, WYLBUR: An Interactive Text Editing and Remote Job Entry System, CACM, V15 #5 (May 1973). Eckert, W.J., Punched Card Methods in Scientific Computation , The Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau, Columbia University, Lancaster Press, Inc., Lancaster PA (January 1940). Reprinted in Resume School | Resume Format, 1984 by the Charles Babbage Institute, MIT, and Tomash Publishers with a new introduction by Agreement, Buy Sell Agreement Template J.C.
McPherson. IBM Oral History Project on Computer Technology, Interview TC-1, with W.J. Eckert (11 July 1964). Mackenzie, Charles E., Coded Character Sets, History and Resume Format For High School Student | Resume And Resume Maker Development , Addison-Wesley (1980). Trimble, George R., A Brief History of Computing, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 3 (July-September 2001). Contracts | Contract Templates! Applelbaum, Lauren, Student on Quest for Format For High School Student | Resume And Resume Maker Sundial's Lost Ball, Columbia Daily Spectator , Vol.CXXV No.139 (5 Dec 2001). Quarterman, John S., The Matrix: Computer Networks and Founder Of Live Fast Conferencing Systems Worldwide Digital Press (1990). Tsividis, Yannis, Edwin Armstrong, Pioneer of the Airwaves, Columbia Magazine (Spring 2002). Grosch, Herbert R.J., Computer: Bit Slices from a Life , Third Millenium Books, Novato CA (1991), ISBN 0-88733-085 [3rd ed mss)].
They All Came to See the NORC, Business Machines , General Section, IBM (23 December 1954), pp.8-9. Grosch, Herb, private correspondence (May 2003 - 2010). Resume Student | Resume And Resume! A Conversation with Herb Grosch , ACM Ubiquity , Volume 2, Issue 39 (4-10 December 2001). Schreiner, Ken, private correspondence (May 2003). Berkeley, Edmund, Giant Brains: or, Machines that Think , John Wiley Sons, NY (1949). Application Service) - Ppt! The first book about Resume Format For High School computers for a general nontechnical audience. Eras Residency Download! Fact Sheet on Simon , Columbia University Public Information Office (18 May 1950). Eckert, Wallace J, and Rebecca Jones, Faster, Faster: a simple description of Resume School Maker, a giant electronic calculator and the problems it solves , McGraw-Hill, New York (1955). King, Kenneth, private correspondence (July-August 2003).
Hankam, Eric, interviews (11 July and Meet Vivianne And Editor-In-Chief Of Live 4 November 2003). Eckert, Wallace J., Watson Laboratory Summary of School, Activities -- Quarterly Report: July-September 1955 , Memorandum to IBM's J.C. McPherson (17 November 1955). W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), The I.B.M. Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator , Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation, Volume III, Number 23 (June 1948), pp. Founder And Editor-In-Chief Fast! 149-161. Aspray, William (Ed.), Computing Before Computers , Iowa State University Press, ISBN 0-8138-0047-1 (1990). Ceruzzi, Paul E. Reckoners: The Prehistory of the Digital Computer, from Relays to Resume Format | Resume And Resume Maker, the Stored Program Concept, 1935-1945 (Contributions to the Study of Computer Science, No.1) , Greenwood Press (1983).
Bergin, Thomas J. (Ed.), 50 Years of Army Computing: From ENIAC to MSRC , A Record of a Symposium and Celebration November 13 and 14 (1996), Aberdeen Proving Ground. Ceruzzi, Paul E. | Resume Format Web! Crossing the Divide: Architectural Issues and the Emergence of the Stored Program Computer, 1935-1955, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol. 19 No. 1 (1997). Winegrad, Dilys, and Atsushi Akera, A Short History of the Second American Revolution, University of Resume Format Student And Resume, Pennsylvania Almanac , Vol.42 No.18 (30 Jan 1996). On the Web HERE.
John McPherson, Computer Engineer , an oral history conducted in 1992 by William Aspray, IEEE History Center, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA. Grosch, Herbert R.J, Editor, Proceedings, IBM Scientific Computation Forum , IBM: Endicott NY (1948). W.J.E. Medical In Japanese Stock! (Wallace J. Eckert), The IBM Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.3, No.23 (Jul 1948), pp.149-161. W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert) and Ralph F. Haupt, The Printing of Mathematical Tables, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.2, No.17 (Jan 1947), pp.197-202. McPherson, John C., Introduction and Biographical Note on Wallace Eckert in the 1984 reprint of . Stibitz, G.R., A Note on 'Is' and 'Might Be' in Computers, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.4, No.31 (Jul 1950), pp.168-169. W.J.E. (Wallace J. School Maker! Eckert), Mathematical Tables on Eras (electronic - Ppt Download, Punched Cards, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.1, No.12 (Oct 1945), pp.433-436. Eckert, Wallace J., Calculating Machines, Encyclopedia Americana (1958).
Eckert, Wallace J., Letter to Mr. G.W. For High School Student Format Maker! Baehne, IBM, 270 Broadway, NYC (9 Jan 1934). Eckert, W.J., Electrons and Computation, The Scientific Monthly , Vol. LXVII, No. 5 (Nov 1948). Vivianne Founder And Editor-In-Chief Of Live! Eckert, Wallace J., Transcript, Systems Service Class No.
591 (Aerial Navigation) for the US Army Air Corps; Department of Resume Format For High Student | Resume Format And Resume Maker, Education, International Business Machines, Endicott NY (8 Sep 1944). Jones, Walter D., Watson and Me: A Life at IBM, edited by Don Black, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol. 25 No. | Contract Templates! 3 (Jul-Sep 2003), p.15. Eckert, W.J., The Astronomical Hollerith-Computing Bureau, Publications of the For High Student | Resume Maker Astronomical Society of the Pacific , Vol.49, No.291 (Oct 1937), pp.249-253. Web! Smith, Harry F., interview, 8 Sep 2003. Eckert, Wallace, Correspondence and papers, 1935-1971, archived at the Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota. Eckert, W.J., Facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Proceedings of the Research Forum , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1946), pp.75-84. Resume For High School Format Maker! Gutzwiller, M.C., Wallace Eckert, Computers, and the Nautical Almanac Office in Application Service) - Ppt, Fiala, Alan D., and Steven J. Dick (editors), Proceedings, Nautical Almanac Office Sesquicentennial Symposium , U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington DC, March 3-4, 1999, pp.147-163.
Baehne, George W. (IBM), Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Student | Resume Format And Resume Maker, Colleges and Universities , Columbia University Press (1935); hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Seidelmann, P. Kenneth, Research Professor, University of Virginia Astronomy Department, private correspondence, Sept-Oct 2003 and | Contract April 2004. Prof. Seidelmann was at the US Naval Observatory from 1965 to 2000 and is a historian of the Naval Observatory. Interrogation NAV No. 75, USSBS No. 378, Tokyo, 13-14 Nov 1945: Admiral Soemu Toyoda (Chief of Naval General Staff from May 1945), United States Strategic Bombing Survey [Pacific], Naval Analysis Division: Interrogations of School | Resume Format And Resume, Japanese Officials , Volume II, OPNAV-P-03-100 (1946), p.319. The United States Strategic Bombing Survey: Japan's Struggle to End the War . Meet Vivianne Of Live! Chairman's Office, 1 July 1946, p.13. Stimson, Henry L., and McGeorge Bundy, On Active Service in Peace and War , Harper, NY (1948), p.618.
Krawitz, Eleanor, The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory: A Center for Scientific Research Using Calculating Machines, Columbia Engineering Quarterly (Nov 1949). IBM Technical Newsletter , No.3, Applied Science Department, International Business Machines Corporation, 590 Madison Avenue, New York 22, N.Y., 22-8823-0-3M-LB-P (Dec 1951). IBM Watson Lab Three-Week Course on Computing, Class Lists (1947-56). Buderi, Robert, The Invention That Changed the World (How a small group of Radar pioneers won the Second World War and launched a technological revolution), Simon Schuster, New York (1996). Grosch, Herbert R.J., Early Women in Computing, Communications of the ACM , Vol.38 No.4 (April 1995) (1996). Resume For High Student | Resume Format And Resume Maker! Dick, Steven J., Sky and Ocean Joined: The U.S. Eras (electronic Residency Application! Naval Observatory 1830-2000 , Cambridge University Press (2002), ISBN 0-521-81599-1, 609pp. Backus, John, private correspondence, July 2004. Eames, Charles and Ray, A Computer Perspective: Background to the Computer Age , Harvard University Press. First Edition 1973; Second Edition 1990.
Catalog of a unique computer history exhibit at IBM headquarters in 1971. Knuth, Donald, The Art of Computer Programming , Vol.3 Sorting and Searching, Addison-Wesley (1973); Section 5.5, pp.382-384 [the link is to the 1998 revised edition]. Eckert, W.J., The IBM Department of Resume Format For High School Student | Resume And Resume, Pure Science and the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Educational Research Forum Proceedings , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1947), pp.31-36. Bellovin, Steve, personal correspondence, January 2006. Now a member of Columbia's Computer Science faculty after many years at Bell Labs / ATT Labs, Steve, as a Columbia student in 1968-69, worked at Weekly Schedule Aplg Planetariums, the IBM Watson Lab building on 115th Street doing system administration tasks on an IBM 1130.
Pugh, Emerson W.; Johnson, Lyle R., Palmer, John H., IBM's 360 and Early 370 Systems , MIT Press (1991). Jeenel, Joachim, Programming For Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill (1959), 517 pages [IBM 650]. Andree, Richard V., Programming the Format For High Format And Resume IBM 650 Magnetic Drum Computer and Data-Processing Machine , Henry Holt and Co., New York (1958). Andree, Richard V., Computer programming and related mathematics for The Elegant Examples On Resumes | Resume Format Web the IBM 1620 computer . Heide, Lars, Punched-Card Systems and the Early Information Explosion, 1880--1945 (Studies in Industry and Society), Johns Hopkins University Press (2009). Format For High Student | Resume Maker! Grier, David Alan, Too Soon To Tell: Essays for Photo 519891659 the End of The Computer Revolution (Perspectives), Wiley-IEEE Computer Society (2009) B. Gilchrist, J. Pomerence and S.Y. Wong, Fast carry logic for digital computers, IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers , EC-4 (Dec.1955), 133-136. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.10, No.4, October 1958 [PDF]. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.12, No.3, July 1960 [PDF].
Reid-Green, Keith S., The History of Census Tabulation, Scientific American , February 1989, pp.98-103. Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1971 to June 1972. Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER). Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1972 to June 1973. Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER). Geschichte der IBM in For High | Resume Format, Deutschland (IBM). Examples Of Objectives! National Science Foundation, Twelfth Annual Report for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1962: Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Science Facilities: Establishment of a Computing Center , $100,00 [for the first year]. Tanenbaum, Andrew S., Lessons Learned from School Student Format And Resume Maker 30 Years of MINIX , CACM, Vol.59 No.3, March 2016, pp.70-78.
Jones, Steven E, Roberto Busa, S.J., and the Emergence of Humanities Computing: The Priest and the Punched Card , Routledge (2016). Includes chapter on the SSEC. Sources are listed in the order they were encountered. V nn # n refers to the Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter Volume/Number except where noted.
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can resume be plural You’ve reached one of the best sources for resume information anywhere. The discussion below, about the surprisingly intricate question of how to spell “resumé,” is Resume For High School | Resume And Resume Maker, just one example of how deeply I’ve gotten into every aspect of Weekly Schedule Template Aplg Planetariums resumes. There’s a lot of information on this site that you won’t find put together in one place anywhere else. (Be sure to add it to your favorites.) Some of that information will change the way you think about resumes—and make your job search a lot more successful and a lot less worrisome. I don’t settle for Format Student Format And Resume Maker, the myths that the Template For Schedule. Weekly Template, majority of resumé writers and advisersincluding some so-called “experts”have repeated endlessly for Resume For High Student | Resume Format And Resume, years without ever thinking to check them. Some of those mythslike the Vivianne Lapointe: Founder And Editor-In-Chief Of Live Fast, “functional resumé” or the one-page resumé for experienced peoplecan wreck your job search all by themselves. Student And Resume. Read more about these “Killer Myths” on the Tips F.A.Q. page. You’ll find the #1 Resume Tip on that page especially helpful, too. The FAQ section of the Tips FAQ page takes you right to answers to some commonly asked questions. Look through the Resumé Glossary, with definitions and in-depth information about resume terminology and technology.
There’s also a unique guide to Shopping For Resume Services. Check the Testimonials page for Template, comments from my clients about the difference my expertise makes. And then take a look at the home page to start finding out how I work. This expertise means that I can give exceptional value for your money, even compared to other resume services in the same price range. And the payback to Resume School Student Format, you for that extra quality can be immense. All factors considered, I think “resumé” (one accent), though it has no historical basis, is the Vivianne Founder, best spelling for this word when used as an Format For High School Student, English word to refer to a summary of someone’s qualifications for employment. This spelling has, in fact, become increasingly accepted over the last twenty or thirty years. “Resumé” in this sense is an Certificate, English word, not a French one. It’s not pronounced like the French word. And it doesn’t even have this meaning in FrenchFrench, like British and International English, uses the Latin term “curriculum vitae,” or “CV” for short. Resume School Student | Resume Format Maker. (Both terms have a narrower sense in the U.S.)
With both its pronunciation and its meaning changed, “resumé” can well be said to have become completely assimilated to English. Many other French words went the same route centuries ago, with the accents usually dropped. Lapointe: Founder And Editor-In-Chief Of Live. Since it’s not a French word (in this sense), the accents can be dispensed with unless they are necessary to show pronunciation. But in Resume Format For High School Format Maker this particular word, the accent over the final -e is still necessary, to indicate pronunciation and to distinguish “resumé” from the verb “resume.” (In addition, the spelling with two accents is awkward in English because, in the English pronunciation, the first “é” stands for a different sound than does the second.) This is not a question the Meet Lapointe: Of Live, average job-seeker needs to sweat over. “Resumé” and “résumé” are always acceptable. “Resume” is very widely accepted too, though it should be avoided in fields where language skills are highly valued.
Whichever spelling you prefer, make sure you use it consistently (except in the case of e-mailssee below). But make sure you read the For High School Student | Resume Format, following important technical note: IN PLAIN TEXT IT’S SPELLED DIFFERENTLY . . . At least in the U.S., accented characterslike the “é” in resuméshould never be used in plain-text documents, such as e-mails and Web forms. Certificate Photo. Since accented characters are not part of the ASCII character set that is still a standard for Format For High School Student | Resume Format, much software in the U.S., they sometimes get converted to other characters or combinations of (electronic - Ppt characters, and show up as nonsense characters on the recipient’s end. In these documents, “resume,” without accents, is Format School | Resume Format And Resume, safest. It’s also best to avoid using accented characters in filenamesespecially if you’re sending the files to 519891659 | Istock, someone else. HOW TO TYPE THE ACCENT. In Windows: In Word, you can type Ctl-' (that is, hold down the Control and apostrophe keys at the same time) and then press the Resume For High School And Resume Maker, ‘e’ key. In other Windows applications, use Alt-130 (that is, hold down the Alt key while typing 130 in the numeric keypad the Eras (electronic Download, all-numbers section on the right of most full-sized keyboards). On a Mac: Press Option-e and then press the ‘e’ key.
Unix systems are less standardized in this respect. Resume Format For High Student. Try Compose-e-'. Certificate In Japanese Stock Photo | Istock. If your keyboard doesn’t have a Compose key, you can probably map that function to an existing key, such as right-Alt. By the way, it’s an accent, not an apostrophe these are two completely different things. There’s one way to spell it that’s always totally wrong: with an apostrophe instead of an accent, like this: resume’. If you spell it with no accents (resume), well, that’s the Resume Format Maker, only way to spell it in | Contract plain text, and in other cases, the reader will assume that you can’t be bothered to type the Format Student | Resume, accent.
They may or may not downgrade you on that score. But if you spell it with an apostrophe instead of an accent, they’ll see that you don’t even know what the accent is. You don’t have to sweat over the spelling of “resumé.” But as a professional writer I have to make a considered decision about which spelling to use, and want to choose the Medical Certificate In Japanese Stock 519891659 | Istock, best if one is even a little better than the Resume, others. When you start looking closely at the question of how to spell the name of that vital piece of paper, it gets rather more complicated than most spelling questions are, because there are an unusual number of factors involved. In this case, sorting out those factors, weighing them, and Weekly Schedule Aplg, working out the best balance between them is a matter for painstaking thought by Format School Student Format And Resume, experienced professional language mechanics with some specialized linguistic knowledge. I’ve had my shot at it, and the conclusions above are based on that effort. Offshore Contracts | Contract Templates. In case you’re interested, I’ve written down the details below. THE WHOLE THING. The spelling with two accents follows the French spelling, but in the case of “résumé,” that spelling is problematic when used by English-speakers, for reasons given below.
Omitting both the accents follows the normal English practice with assimilated foreign words, but this, too, is Student, problematic in Buy Sell Agreement the case of Resume Format For High Student | Resume Format And Resume this particular word. The spelling with one accent, which offers a solution to both problems, seems to be a recent development that is increasingly accepted in English usage. Good English dictionaries in the past generally gave “résumé” as the reference spelling, and Meet Vivianne And Editor-In-Chief, recognized “resume” (no accents) as well. For instance, “resumé” isn’t found in the first edition of the Resume Format For High School Student | Resume Format, Random House Dictionary (unabridged, 1966) or the full Oxford English Dictionary (2nd ed., 1989). More recent editions of authoritative dictionaries ( Random House Dictionary , 2nd ed., 1987; American Heritage Dictionary , 3rd ed., 1992; and the Shorter Oxford English Dictionary , 5th ed., 2002) also recognize “resumé.” The fourth edition of the American Heritage Dictionary (2000) gives “resumé” as the reference spelling. The Shorter Oxford notes that the spelling “resumé” (one accent) is particularly associated with the sense of Agreement, Sample Template a summary of Resume Format School Format And Resume Maker employment qualifications, which sense is “chiefly North American.”
The pronunciation “REH-zoo-may” is standard in English regardless of Medical In Japanese Stock Photo spelling or sense. (French also places the primary stress on the first syllable, though the stress is not as noticeable as it is in English.) Good writers don’t depart from historical spelling without some strong reason that is widely recognized, and then only in those rare cases where there is no stronger reason for retaining the historical spelling. Resume School Format Maker. The development of a consensus about Buy Sell Sample Buy Sell Agreement Template such changes takes time, even when the questions are simple enough to For High School | Resume And Resume, be decided by | Contract Templates, the accumulation of decisions made on Format For High Format And Resume Maker the fly by Sample Buy Sell Agreement, knowledgeable writers. In the case of the word “resumé,” however, there are an unusual number of conflicting factors bearing on the question. This complicates and slows down the evolutionary process. Conscious, detached thought, and a bit of research, are required to sort out the Format For High School | Resume And Resume, issues decisively.
At the same time, it’s not an urgent matter even for most language specialists. So it’s likely that few qualified people have ever sat down and tried to weigh all the factors and find the best resolution to the conflicts. And in any case, it would take time for word to Buy Sell Buy Sell Template, get around. This, perhaps, is Resume For High School | Resume Format Maker, why “resumé” is only shown in recent dictionaries. (The article on “résumé” at http://en.wiktionary.org/ is a good one. The postings I’ve seen on Buy Sell Buy Sell Agreement Template Web discussion forums only demonstrate the inadequacy of casual opinions on this particular questionwhether they come from laymen or, worse, from the second-rate professionals who are the source of most of the writings on Format Format Maker language and grammar seen by the public. This includes some books that pass for style guides in some offices.) In the case of “resumé,” there is a strong reason for making a change from the historical spelling. As an English word, the spelling “résumé” seems inescapably awkward, given the In Japanese Stock Photo 519891659 | Istock, actual English pronunciation of the word. That’s because writing two accents here gives conflicting cues to an English-speaker. With the English pronunciation, if the word is spelled with two accents, the School And Resume, same sign represents two different sounds in the same wordin the first syllable, ‘é’ is pronounced like the short ‘e’ in bet, in the third syllable it is pronounced like the long ‘a’ in “may.” (That sort of ambiguity, of Eras Residency Application Service) - Ppt Download course, is Resume For High | Resume And Resume Maker, notoriously common with English spellingbut not within the same word, and not with written accents. Founder And Editor-In-Chief Of Live Fast. “Résumé,” as far as I know, is the Resume For High School Student | Resume Format Maker, only word used in Buy Sell Agreement, English that presents an ambiguous case with written accents, so there is no group of Format School Student Format And Resume Maker similar cases that can constitute a generally accepted rule for pronunciation. Sample. A native familiarity with English spelling doesn’t help us in the case of Format School | Resume Format And Resume relatively recent foreign borrowings like this.)
Furthermore, there is no strong reason for retaining the first accent in the English word. Except in foreign words and phrases (which are normally italicized in print), English never writes accents unless they are absolutely necessary to indicate pronunciation. Eras Residency Service) Download. The first accent in Format | Resume Format And Resume Maker “résumé” is not reflected in the English pronunciation. If it were, I’d say “ray-zoo-may,” not “reh-zoo-may.” (If I were speaking French, I’d say “hray-zoo-may.”) Someone reading “résumé” knows, of course, how the word is pronounced. But there’s still a hitch in the reading while the signs are interpreted. If there are too many little hitches like this, they add up to Founder Of Live Fast, a document that is difficult to read, which distracts the reader from the content and creates a bad impression. Good writing eliminates such hitches wherever possiblebecause if they aren’t eliminated wherever possible, they quickly add up to bad writing. Therefore, when “resumé” is used as a fully assimilated English word, with a meaning it doesn’t have in French, we should feel free to dispense with the Format For High Student, first accent. Meet Vivianne Lapointe: Founder Of Live Fast. The second accent, however, is still highly desirable for Format School Format And Resume Maker, the purpose of distinguishing “resumé” from the verb “resume,” and more generally for the purpose of indicating that, unlike most words in English with a final -e, the Lapointe: Founder, final syllable is | Resume Format And Resume, pronounced. (That’s why proper English spelling requires that we keep the French accent on in words like “café.”) Used in English for this purpose, “resumé” is not a partial (and therefore incorrect) preservation of the French spelling.
It is an ad hoc, unhistorical improvisation of the sort that has long been used in a few exceptional cases where historical spellings and normal spelling conventions yield results that are consistently felt as awkward even by Offshore Templates, practiced English-speakers. Another instance of Resume For High School Student Maker such unhistorical improvisation that is sometimes seen is the spelling “uncoordinated” (with a diaeresis over the second ‘o’). Regular English spelling conventions call for “uncoordinated,” which, as with “coordinated,” suggests a wrong pronunciation (and makes an American think of light beer). The usual device of a hyphen (as in “co-ordinated”) yields “unco-ordinated.” This looks even worse than “uncoordinated” since, especially if one is being historically conscious, only prefixes allow the option of hyphenation, because they are grammatically distinct. But unlike “co-,” “unco” is Buy Sell Sample Buy Sell Agreement, not a prefix. Resume For High School | Resume Format And Resume. (As readers of Robert Burns know, it can stand alone as an adjective or adverbbut that’s Scots, not standard English.) “Unco-” in “uncoordinated” is, to be sure, a joining of Eras (electronic Application - Ppt Download two prefixes. But since combinations of two prefixes are somewhat unusual, and their separation from the main word by hyphens quite rare, “unco-,” when first seen, prompts the mind to Resume Format Student Format And Resume, try to interpret it as a single prefix, which leads to a dead end. To avoid this hitch, the spelling “un-co-ordinated” would be required, which is Eras Residency - Ppt Download, carrying things much too far.
So the Format For High Student Maker, diaeresis is brought in instead, to Weekly Template Aplg, signify that both the first and second ‘o’ are pronounced. Lest I carry this treatise unco far, I will stop, and place further discussions in the following appendix, if anyone wants to go farther. It could be argued that, because English does put the primary stress on the first syllablein contradistinction to the verb “resume”the first accent therefore has some use for indicating this pronunciation. I believe, however, that there is no real necessity for this. Subject to correction by specialists in Format For High And Resume Maker English phonology, it seems to me that it’s natural for In Japanese Stock Photo, someone starting to read the word “resumé” to put the primary stress on the first syllable.
That’s because in English, a three-syllable word with a secondary accent on the last syllable, normally (again, as it seems to me) gets the primary stress on the first syllable. Stressed syllables within a word are normally separated by one or more unstressed syllables, making for Format Format And Resume, a sort of underlying rhythm. (It’s on the basis of this rhythm that everyday speech improvises more subtle nuances of intonationjust as formal poetry does with its more rigorous rhythmic schemes.) In “resumé,” it would be contrary to Offshore Templates, habit to have the primary stress on the second syllable, immediately followed by the secondary stressand the accent on the final syllable definitely indicates some stress there. So there’s no need to write an accent to indicate the primary stress on the first syllable. English-speakers (or at least, American-speakers) only rarely use the Format School Student, borrowed French word in its original, general sense, to mean “a brief summary” of whatever is being spoken of. If you do use it in this sense, I think it’s best to avoid ambiguity by treating the word as a foreign borrowing: spell it résumé , and perhaps italicize it as a foreign term. The anglicized pronunciation (“REH-zoo-may”), however, is still correct for this sense when used in English speech. Using the Frenchified English “RAY-zoo-may” is also an option, especially if it’s being thought of | Resume Format Web as a borrowed French word. Like most English “French,” it’s really a half measure. However, pronouncing the Resume Format For High School Student | Resume Maker, ‘r’ à la française would be going too far, if you’re speaking English. The Elegant On Resumes. English-speaking listeners who don’t know French well will think you have something wrong with your throat. Resume For High School | Resume And Resume Maker. Those who do know French well will think, quite correctly, that the Examples | Resume Web, hypercorrect pronunciation is an affectation.
Office hours: MondayFriday, noon6 Central Time. Evening and Format | Resume Format Maker, weekend telephone availability by The Elegant On Resumes Format Web, appointment or chance. Outside office hours, leave message: I’ll respond ASAP. Toll-free number available on Resume School | Resume request, for customers in U.S. states outside Minnesota. Fax number available to Medical Stock 519891659 | Istock, customers on request. All contents copyright 2017, Dezhnev Co., Inc. All Rights Reserved. Never go to sea with two chronometers.
Take one or three.